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We describe the evolution of the tumor and the combined therapy carried out and review the treatments employed in previously reported cases, comparing them with ours.
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The aim of the article is to describe the communication development of a child with Fetal Retinoid syndrome (FRS) from six months to seven years of age. Little is known about this rare acquired syndrome and its long-term implications, especially on a child's communication development. A descriptive, ex post facto research design was used to study the participant's communication development from 1996 when the family enrolled in an early communication intervention programme. Annual serial assessments of the participant and her family were conducted and the data were stored in a research database after each assessment. The results are described according to a 4-level assessment framework and indicated consistent, but moderate to minor delays in the participant's communication development with a mild hearing loss in the right ear, associated with ear anomalies. Although prenatal exposure to isotretinoin may have serious effects on the unborn fetus and even cause death, the participant did not display all the symptoms of FRS described in the literature. The favorable family circumstances, early commencement of intervention, and supporting early educational environments were protecting factors that could have contributed positively to the participant's communication development. The importance of knowledge accumulation about rare syndromes such as FRS in Communication Pathology and Audiology is discussed and guidelines for early identification, assessment and treatment applicable to the case are proposed as an intervention option.
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The synergistic anti-tumor effect of 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cRA) and interferon-alpha/beta (IFN-alpha/beta) was investigated using a highly metastatic mouse renal cell carcinoma cell subline (RenCa/F). Although 13-cRA inhibited tumor growth in vivo as well as in vitro, IFN-alpha/beta did not. Combined administration of 13-cRA and IFN-alpha/beta significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect of 13-cRA. The retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-alpha and RAR-gamma were expressed in RenCa/F cells. Treatment with IFN-alpha/beta did not influence the expression level of these receptors at the mRNA level, which suggests that the synergism of 13-cRA and IFN-alpha/beta is not mediated through the RAR.
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Accumulating evidence suggests that synthetic retinoids may be capable of affecting the differentiation and growth of nervous tissue in vivo and in vitro. On the other hand, adverse reactions concomitant with brainstem involvement definitely or probably related to oral retinoid therapy have been reported in a small number of patients.
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The use of chemotherapy for cervical squamous cell carcinoma has shown some positive results. Total percentage of complete plus partial responses are near 30% with the use of single cytotoxic agents. Higher percentages are achievable with combined chemotherapy including platinum but the lack of evidence that current chemotherapy can increase survival, coupled with a devastating worldwide mortality, indicates the urgent need for more effective therapies.
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Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the pilosebaceous unit in the skin. Isotretinoin is a synthetic vitamin A derivative regarded as the most effective agent in the treatment of acne. There have recently been increasing reports of adverse effects of isotretinoin on the skeletal system. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the rheumatic side-effects triggered by this drug, and particularly the prevalence of sacroiliitis.
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Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) is an effective treatment for severe cystic or recalcitrant acne vulgaris; however, concerns have been raised regarding its potential association with depression and suicidal behavior. We sought to explore the proposed relationship between isotretinoin use and the risk of depression and attempted and completed suicide in patients with acne vulgaris by performing a systematic literature search for studies reporting primary data on depression and suicidal behavior in patients treated with isotretinoin for acne vulgaris. Nine studies met the qualifying criteria for our analysis. Rates of depression among isotretinoin users ranged from 1% to 11% across studies, with similar rates in oral antibiotic control groups. Overall, studies comparing depression before and after treatment did not show a statistically significant increase in depression diagnoses or depressive symptoms. Some, in fact, demonstrated a trend toward fewer or less severe depressive symptoms after isotretinoin therapy. This decrease was particularly evident in patients with pretreatment scores in the moderate or clinical depression range. No correlation between isotretinoin use and suicidal behavior was reported, although only one retrospective study presented data on this topic. Although the current literature does not support a causative association between isotretinoin use and depression, there are important limitations to many of the studies. The available data on suicidal behavior during isotretinoin treatment are insufficient to establish a meaningful causative association.
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Oral isotretinoin, available in the United States for four decades, has been used for the treatment of recalcitrant nodular and deep inflammatory acne vulgaris. This drug revolutionized the management of patients affected by severe inflammatory disease due to its ability to markedly induce acne clearance coupled with prolonged durations of remission after completion of a course of therapy, usually over approximately five months. Over time, it has become recognized that prolonged remission correlates with achieving a threshold cumulative exposure range of approximately 120 to 150 mg/kg of oral isotretinoin. Lesser exposures have demonstrated a higher risk of earlier recurrence of acne vulgaris and a greater likelihood that the patient will require retreatment. As the oral bioavailability of oral isotretinoin is variable, and highly dependent on administration with food, it is very conceivable that earlier relapse may occur if patients have often ingested oral isotretinoin on an empty stomach, thus leading to lesser actual cumulative drug exposure despite the daily dose administered. This article provides an overview on the dosing of oral isotretinoin, reported data on factors that influence relapse after oral isotretinoin therapy, and the potential impact of coadministration with food.
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Malignant metastatic eccrine poroma is a very rare cutaneous neoplasm, and consequently the references in the literature regarding the treatment of this tumor, known also as porocarcinoma, are very poor.
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An aromatic retinoid (Ro 10-9359) in 13-cis retinoic acid (Ro 4-3780) were fed by gastric tube to 170 male adult Syrian hamsters daily for 30 days. A low dose of 1 or 2 mg/kg and a high dose of 20 mg/kg body weight were selected. The effects of both retinoids on the sebaceous glands were assessed planimetrically (15 glands in each animal) using the sebaceous follicle on the ventral side of the earlobes or, in some experiments, the flank organ. Depending on time, the high dose of 20 mg/kg of both retinoids led to a significant diminution of sebaceous follicles from 0.0295 to 0.0125 mm2 (P less than or equal to 0.0005). Clinically, the fur of the animals became very rough and dry. The lower dose of 1 or 2 mg/kg of neither the aromatic retinoid nor the 13-cis retinoic acid led to a significant reduction of sebaceous acini. The fur remained clinically shiny and greasy. The different effects of both compounds in this animal model compared to the human is discussed.
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Isotretinoin is a systemic retinoid used to treat acne and it binds receptors which are the member of steroid-thyroid hormone superfamily. Certain types of retinoids may cause abnormalities in serum thyroid function tests (sTFTs) by suppressing thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). However, it is uncertain whether systemic isotretinoin has any effect on sTFTs.
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Breast cancers expressing hormone receptors for estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) represent ~70% of all cases and are treated with both ER-targeted and chemotherapies, with near 40% becoming resistant. We have previously described that in some ER(+) tumors, the resistant cells express cytokeratin 5 (CK5), a putative marker of breast stem and progenitor cells. CK5(+) cells have lost expression of ER and PR, express the tumor-initiating cell surface marker CD44, and are relatively quiescent. In addition, progestins, which increase breast cancer incidence, expand the CK5(+) subpopulation in ER(+)PR(+) breast cancer cell lines. We have developed models to induce and quantitate CK5(+)ER(-)PR(-) cells, using CK5 promoter-driven luciferase (Fluc) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporters stably transduced into T47D breast cancer cells (CK5Pro-GFP or CK5Pro-Luc). We validated the CK5Pro-GFP-T47D model for high-content screening in 96-well microplates and performed a pilot screen using a focused library of 280 compounds from the National Institutes of Health clinical collection. Four hits were obtained that significantly abrogated the progestin-induced CK5(+) cell population, three of which were members of the retinoid family. Hence, this approach will be useful in discovering small molecules that could potentially be developed as combination therapies, preventing the acquisition of a drug-resistant subpopulation.
Adult patients with newly diagnosed GBM were randomly assigned to receive standard radiotherapy with concurrent daily temozolomide followed by six adjuvant cycles of either dose-dense (150 mg/m(2) days 1 to 7 and 15 to 21) or metronomic (50 mg/m(2) continuous daily) temozolomide. Maintenance doses of 13-cis-retinoic acid were then administered until tumor progression. The primary end point was overall survival (OS) at 1 year. Tumor tissue was assayed to determine O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status.
These in vitro data indicate that the combined treatment with retinoids, IFN-alpha, and ionizing radiation could be beneficial for patients presenting with SCC.
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Interventional, prospective study involving seven patients taking oral isotretinoin to treat acne and with atrophic acne scars on the face. Manual dermabrasion was performed on all patients in an area of approximately 1 cm(2), and a 6-month reepithelization follow-up by clinical evaluation was conducted.
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Current epidemiologic and carcinogenesis data are lending credence to the hypothesis that individual cancers have specific causes. Because of this, most cancers are at least potentially preventable. Primary prevention, with removal of specific etiological agents, is the best means of prevention, such as elimination of tobacco smoke. Short of knowing the specific etiology, new chemo-prevention techniques are now being studied evaluating hormonal agents, anti-inflammatory drugs, and the structural analogs of vitamin A.
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Twelve patients (9 women, 3 men) with 6 papillary, 4 follicular and 2 mixed-cell type tumors (including 4 Hurthle cell carcinomas) were treated orally with RA (dose: 1.18 +/- 0.37 mg/kg body weight) for at least 2 mo before RI therapy. None of the patients could be treated with any other modality (RI, surgery, external radiation) when RA administration was started. Initially, clinically important tumor sites did not take up significant amounts of RI. Changes of RI uptake and thyroglobulin (Tg) serum values were determined. Glucose metabolism was followed with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging in 10 patients before and in 5 patients after RA treatment.
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The aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcome of redifferentiation therapy using retinoic acid (RA) in combination with 131I therapy, and to identify biological parameters that predict therapeutic response in Korean patients with radioiodine-refractory papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
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A 19-year-old Caucasian male, who had used oral isotretinoin for severe acne disease for the previous six months, was referred to our clinic. He had a three-week history of diplopia and variable bilateral ptosis. Physical examination showed moderate periorbital edema and limitations of up- and down-gaze in the left eye. Laboratory findings and thyroid ultrasound were consistent with autoimmune thyroiditis. Antithyroid therapy did not relieve the clinical symptoms. Concomitant OMG was suspected. Variable ptosis and a positive response to oral prednisolone of 40 mg/day and pyridostigmine of 360 mg/day supported the diagnosis of concomitant autoimmune thyroiditis and OMG.
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Our patient shows a pattern of anomalies resembling that observed in isotretinoin- and etretinate-exposed children. After ingestion, acitretin is partially converted into etretinate, and etretinate is partially metabolized into acitretin. A similar phenotype would therefore be expected after prenatal exposure to either drug. Moreover, in the present case, teratogenic effects were observed even though the dose was lower than in the previously reported acitretin embryopathy cases. Therefore, we propose that different retinoids, acitretin included, produce only one malformation pattern with variable phenotypic expression.
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Malignant acanthosis nigricans (MAN) with oral florid papillomatosis is a rare paraneoplastic condition affecting the skin and mucocutaneous tissues associated with an underlying malignancy. It is characterized by proliferation of keratinocytes resulting in papillomatous change and hyperpigmentation of the skin and multiple confluent warty or verrucous lesions of the oral mucous membranes. The oral involvement can interfere with the patient's ability to eat and drink. There is no specific therapy for this complication. Treatment of the underlying malignancy can lead to improvement of symptoms, but the degree of improvement varies. Here, the authors present a case of MAN with oral florid papillomatosis associated with gastric adenocarcinoma that was treated with oral retinoids resulting in significant clinical improvement of the hyperkeratosis and hyperpigmentation as well as improved patient functionality.
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An 8 year old female presented with bilateral moderate conductive hearing loss, bilateral microtia, left EAC stenosis, and right EAC atresia, secondary to prenatal isotretinoin exposure. Comorbidities included developmental delay, ventricular septal defect, hypotonia, and retinal maldevelopment. The left EAC was sharply upsloping with a 2mm-diameter meatus. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the temporal bone demonstrated normal middle and inner ears bilaterally; serial CT scans over 6 years demonstrated progressive development of left canal cholesteatoma. Implantation of a right BAHA system was performed, followed by left canalplasty and excision of cholesteatoma with facial nerve monitoring. An endaural incision was utilized to avoid compromising future microtia repair. Postoperative left-sided hearing improved to mild low-frequency conductive hearing loss rising to normal at 2000 Hz and above.