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We report a patient who developed symptomatic severe transmural duodenitis and periduodenal mesenteric streaking, consistent with a complicated ulcer, probably associated with very short-term exposure to tiaprofenic acid.
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The primary objective was to compare the pharmacokinetics (PK) of rabeprazole granules versus rabeprazole tablets, and assess the effect of food on the PK of rabeprazole granules. Data from three phase 1, open-label, single-dose, randomized, crossover studies in healthy adult participants are presented separately and as a cross-study comparison; study 1: PK of phase 1 rabeprazole granules versus rabeprazole tablets under fasting conditions; study 2: PK of phase 3 rabeprazole granules versus phase 1 rabeprazole granules; study 3: bioequivalence of to-be-marketed rabeprazole granules (sprinkle capsules) versus phase 3 rabeprazole granules; and assessment of the food effect for the to-be-marketed rabeprazole granules. Overall, 123 of 130 participants enrolled completed the studies. The overall plasma exposure as measured by area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was comparable between rabeprazole granules and tablets; mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) was lower for the granules compared with tablets. The plasma elimination half-life was short and independent of formulation. Food intake prior to administration of the to-be-marketed granules delayed the absorption and reduced the estimated parameters for bioavailability by 55% (Cmax ) and 28% (AUCinf ). Rabeprazole was well-tolerated.
To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of fixed dose combination of Rabeprazole (enteric-coated, EC) 20 mg + Domperidone (sustained release, SR) 30 mg for treatment of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD).
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Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) symptoms have a significant impact on patients' well-being. Onset of symptom relief is therefore an important consideration in GORD treatment. The primary objective was to compare the efficacy of rabeprazole (20 mg) and omeprazole (20 mg) regarding onset of heartburn control during the first 7 days of treatment in patients with erosive oesophagitis. Secondary objectives included maintenance of sustained heartburn control, control of other GORD symptoms (e.g. acid regurgitation, epigastric pain, dysphagia), effect on quality of life, patient satisfaction with treatment, and adverse events.
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Fifty-three studies were identified, of which 38 involved acute therapy (12 excluded) and 15 maintenance therapy. None of the studies of pantoprazole met the inclusion criteria for maintenance therapy. The 8-week overall healing rate ratios in the comparison of newer PPIs with omeprazole 20 mg/d were as follows: lansoprazole 30 mg/d, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.98-1.06): rabeprazole 20 mg/d, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.87-1.00); and pantoprazole 40 mg/d, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.90-1.07). In the comparison of any PPI with ranitidine 300 mg/d, the ratios were as follows: lansoprazole, 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46-1.76); rabeprazole, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.20-1.54); pantoprazole, 1.60 (95% CI, 1.33-1.96); and omeprazole, 1.58 (95% CI, 1.41-1.78). Relapse rates over 1 year of treatment were similar between lansoprazole and rabeprazole. Compared with ranitidine, there were statistically significant differences in the rates of resolution of heartburn symptoms (P < 0.002), ulcer healing (P < 0.05), and relapse (P < 0.01). Similar results were seen in the comparison of PPIs with placebo in terms of rates of resolution of heartburn symptoms (P < 0.01), ulcer healing (P < 0.001), and relapse (P < 0.006).
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A total of 38 subjects (mean age 39.3 years) were enrolled in a single-centre, double-blind, randomized, crossover study. All subjects were confirmed positive for H. pylori by 14C urea breath test and ELISA serologies. Subjects were divided into two groups of 19 to receive two doses of rabeprazole, either 5 and 20 mg or 10 and 40 mg, and placebo, given in random order daily in the morning for 7 days. Peptone-stimulated acid, pH, and gastrin measurements were made for 24 h after the 1st dose and for 48 h after the 7th dose.
The eradication rates were 75.5% (40/53) and 83.3% (40/48) with moxifloxacin-based triple therapy, and 62.5% (35/56) and 71.4% (35/49) with bismuth-based quadruple therapy by intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses (both P > 0.05) respectively.
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To evaluate whether an acceptable eradication rate could also be obtained by halving the clarithromycin dose in dyspeptic patients and to assess the role of possible factors affecting the outcome of therapy.
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Evaluate the efficacy and safety of rabeprazole in children, 1 to 11 years old, with endoscopically/histologically proven gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
To compare the acid-inhibitory effects of esomeprazole 40 mg and rabeprazole 20 mg in relation to CYP2C19 genotype and pharmacokinetics.
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Area under the vismodegib concentration-time curve from zero to 24 h (AUC0-24h) at steady state was lower with concomitant rabeprazole administration relative to vismodegib alone [geometric mean ratio (GMR), 86.2 (associated 90 % confidence interval [CI], 76.1, 97.7)]. There was no effect of itraconazole on steady-state exposure of vismodegib [GMR, 96.4 (90 % CI 84.9, 109.6)]. Co-administration with fluconazole increased vismodegib steady-state AUC0-24h [GMR, 130.9 (90 % CI 115.2, 148.7)]. Co-administration of rabeprazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole had similar effects on the exposure of unbound vismodegib and total vismodegib.
The selection of agents to treat patients with acid-related gastrointestinal diseases requires knowledge of their efficacy, tolerability, and ease of dosing among individuals with differing disease severities and other baseline characteristics. The efficacy and favourable benefit-risk profile of rabeprazole, a new proton pump inhibitor, has been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), duodenal ulcers, and gastric ulcers. In comparative trials, rabeprazole is at least as effective as omeprazole for the treatment of GERD, duodenal ulcers, and gastric ulcers, and it is superior to histamine2-receptor antagonists for the treatment of GERD and duodenal ulcers. Its once-daily dosing regimen and low potential for interaction with drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system make it a particularly attractive option for the treatment of acid-related diseases among older individuals. Rabeprazole is likely to be a valuable new addition to its class in treating patients with acid-related gastrointestinal diseases given its efficacy in acid suppression, high healing rates, rapid symptom relief, and convenient dosing.
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No randomized controlled trial (RCT) has compared all European-licensed standard- and double-dose PPIs for the healing of severe erosive oesophagitis.
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The objectives of present work was to design and characterize the rabeprazole sodium loaded microcapsules prepared by solvent evaporation technique using ethyl cellulose (EC) based various mucoadhesive polymer, followed by a triple coating with Eudragit L100. The Box-behnken design (BBD) was applied for optimization of formulations containing EC, HPMCK100M and Eudragit L100 as factors for selected responses like entrapment efficiency, mucoadhesive property and drug release in 24 h. The prepared microcapsules were characterized for particle size, drug content, swelling index, mucoadhesive strength, and in vivo antiulcer activity. FT-IR studies revealed that there was no drug-polymer interaction. SEM studies revealed that microcapsules were non-aggregated, spherical shape and smooth appearance. In vitro drug release data from microcapsules was fitted to different kinetic models to explain release profiles. The correlation coefficient value (r(2)) indicated that the drug release followed Higuchi model. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference in the release of drug from all formulations at p < 0.05 level. Accelerated stability study of optimized formulation (F4) upto 6 months showed there was no change in drug content and release characteristics during storage. In vivo antiulcer activity showed that the optimized microcapsules were able to protect rat stomach against ulcer formation vis-à-vis aqueous solution of the drug showed only negligible and minimum effect.
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In quadruple therapy, rabeprazole-based regimens had better efficacy than esomeprazole-based regimens. CYP2C19 polymorphism also played an important role in quadruple therapy. It seems advisable to change PPI to rabeprazole in second-line quadruple therapy.
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Recent studies have shown that coadministration of certain protease inhibitors (PIs) with gastric acid-reducing agents results in decreased plasma concentrations of the PI. To assess the effect of acid-reducing agents on lopinavir/ritonavir, data from two clinical trials (n = 38 and 190) were pooled. Both trials randomized antiretroviral-naïve, HIV-infected patients to receive lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice-daily or 800/200 mg once-daily in combination with stavudine and lamivudine, or tenofovir and emtricitabine. Concurrent administration of gastric acid-reducing agents including antacids of various brand names, proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole), and H(2)-receptor antagonists (ranitidine, famotidine, cimetidine, and nizatidine) was reported in both trials. Lopinavir and ritonavir pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated. Thirty subjects were considered users of acid-reducing agents at the times of pharmacokinetic evaluation. HIV-infected patients who received gastric acid-reducing agents during administration of lopinavir/ritonavir-based treatment regimens did not appear to have a reduction in lopinavir or ritonavir exposures.
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The 460 patients enrolled in this study had H. pylori-associated gastritis or a gastric or duodenal ulcer. After screening, H. pylori-infected patients were randomly assigned to receive either conventional triple therapy for 7, 10 or 14 d, or a new 10-d sequential therapy. Each of the 4 treatment groups included 115 patients. The outcomes of eradication therapy were assessed 4 wk after treatment by the urea breath test and histology.
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Rabeprazole-thioether was incubated with human liver microsomes and several recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4). High-performance liquid chromatography was used for identification and quantification of each rabeprazole enantiomer.
Sixteen rats were grouped as control and treatment groups. After obtaining LES tissues followed by a 60 min equilibration period for stabilization, contractile response to carbachol was obtained by application of single dose of carbachol to have a final concentration of 10(-6) M in the organ bath. After the contractions reached a plateau, concentration-response relationships for rabeprazole were obtained in a cumulative manner in the treatment group.
Eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori have declined to unacceptable levels in recent years. New and effective treatment options are warranted both as a first and second line treatment.
Total oesophageal acid exposure was normalized in 10/14 (71.4%) patients with RB p.m. and in 6/15 (42.8%) with RB a.m. RB p.m. significantly decreased the nocturnal supine oesophageal acid exposure vs. RB a.m., 0.2% vs. 3.4%. The mean NGAB duration was significantly shortened with RB a.m. and p.m. vs. the baseline recording, 4.1+/-1.8 and 3.4+/-1.5 hours vs. 7.8+/-1.7 hours.
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Clopidogrel is a widely used antiplatelet agent for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease, acute coronary syndromes and ischemic stroke. Even though clopidogrel is safer than aspirin in terms of risk for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, the elderly, and patients with a history of prior GI bleeding, with Helicobacter pylori infection or those who are also treated with aspirin, anticoagulants, corticosteroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are at high risk for GI complications when treated with clopidogrel. Accordingly, proton pump inhibitors are frequently administered in combination with clopidogrel to reduce the risk for GI bleeding. Nevertheless, pharmacodynamic studies suggest that omeprazole might attenuate the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel. However, in observational studies, this interaction does not appear to translate into increased cardiovascular risk in patients treated with this combination. Moreover, in the only randomized, double-blind study that assessed the cardiovascular implications of combining clopidogrel and omeprazole, patients treated with clopidogrel/omeprazole combination had reduced risk for GI events and similar risk for cardiovascular events than patients treated with clopidogrel and placebo. However, the premature interruption of the study and the lack of power analysis in terms of the cardiovascular endpoint do not allow definite conclusions regarding the cardiovascular safety of clopidogrel/omeprazole combination. Other proton pump inhibitors do not appear to interact with clopidogrel. Nevertheless, given the limitations of existing observational and interventional studies, the decision to administer proton pump inhibitors to patients treated with clopidogrel should be individualized based on the patient's bleeding and cardiovascular risk.
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have become some of the most frequently prescribed medications for treatment of adults and children. Their effectiveness for treatment of peptic conditions in the pediatric population, including gastric ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and Helicobacter pylori infections has been established for children older than 1 year. Studies of the preverbal population of neonates and infants have identified doses that inhibit acid production, but the effectiveness of PPIs in the treatment of GERD has not been established except for the recent approval of esomeprazole treatment of erosive esophagitis in infants. Reasons that have been proposed for this are complex, ranging from GERD not occurring in this population to a lack of histologic identification of esophagitis related to GERD to questions about the validity of symptom scoring systems to identify esophagitis when it occurs in infants. The effectiveness of PPIs relates to their structures, which must undergo acidic activation within the parietal cell to allow the PPI to be ionized and form covalent disulfide bonds with cysteines of the H(+)-K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-K(+)-ATPase). Once the PPI binds to the proton pump, the pump is inactivated. Some PPIs, such as omeprazole and rabeprazole bind to cysteines that are exposed, and their binding can be reversed. After irreversible chemical inhibition of the proton pump, such as occurs with pantoprazole, the recovery of the protein of the pump has a half-life of around 50 h. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 and to a lesser degree CYP3A4 clear the PPIs metabolically. These enzymes are immature at birth and reach adult levels of activity by 5-6 months after birth. This parallels studies of the maturation of CYP2C19 to adult levels by roughly the same age after birth. Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP2C19 reduce clearance proportionally and increase exposure and prolong proton pump inhibition. Prolonged treatment of pediatric patients with PPIs has not caused cancer or significant abnormalities.
To examine symptom relief during week 1 of rabeprazole therapy, in addition to GORD healing, in a clinical practice setting.
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15 healthy Japanese volunteers were dosed for 7 days in a four-way random crossover trial with 100 mg entero-coated type aspirin only once daily, 100 mg aspirin + 20 mg famotidine twice daily, 15 mg lansoprazole once daily, or 10 mg rabeprazole once daily. All subjects underwent endoscopy and intragastric pH monitoring on day 7.
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This study was performed to investigate the effects of the co-administration of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) on the efficacy of bisphosphonate (BP) treatment for osteoporosis. A total of 180 women with low bone mineral density were randomly divided into four groups, one in which sodium risedronate was administered with sodium rabeprazole and one in which only risedronate was administered (BP + PPI and BP groups, respectively). The biomarkers were measured at the baseline and every 3 months, inlcuding: N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen corrected for creatinine, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), parathyroid hormone, bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and physical parameters evaluated according to the SF-36v2™ Health Survey. Statistical comparisons of these parameters were performed after 9 months. Data were available for a total of 137 patients (62 in the BP group and 75 in the BP + PPI group). The Δ % value of increase in BMD and improvement of physical functioning in the BP + PPI group were significantly larger, and its decrease in BAP in the BP + PPI group was significantly smaller than that in the BP group. It is expected that risedronate administration in combination with a PPI may be more effective not only for treating osteoporosis but also improving physical fitness than treatment with risedronate alone.
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32 cases of the NERD were subdivided into three groups--14 cases with abnormal acid reflux, 11 with acid hypersensitive oesophagus and the remaining 7 with functional heartburn. All the cases were treated with rabeprazole 10 mg bid for 2 weeks.
In a double-blind, double-dummy, two-way crossover study, 38 Helicobacter pylori-negative volunteers were randomized to oral rabeprazole 20 mg or intravenous pantoprazole 40 mg daily for 3 days followed, after a 14-day washout period by the comparator treatment. Intragastric pH was recorded continuously for 24 h at baseline and on days 1 and 3 of each treatment period.
All-patients-treated-based eradication rates in patients treated with RAC10, RAC20 and RAC40 were 83%, 77% and 90%, respectively, and per protocol-based eradication rates were 83%, 80% and 90%, respectively. The eradication rates in the three groups were not significantly different. There was also no significant difference between the all-patients-treated-based eradication rate in CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers and that in poor metabolizers (86% vs. 77%). Adverse events were 12% in extensive metabolizers and 23% in poor metabolizers, and the difference in these incidence rates was also not statistically significant.