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Several studies have shown antifibrotic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors as well as of angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1) antagonists, however, prospective trials with clinical end points comparing these effects do not exist. COL4A3-/- mice develop a non-hypertensive progressive renal fibrosis. We used this animal model to compare the potential of ACE inhibitor vs AT1 antagonist to prevent renal fibrosis irrespective of blood pressure-dependent involvement by the renin system.
During the study period, 16,037 patients (55% female) with at least one drug prescription were recorded, and a total of 185,704 prescriptions relating to 1,020 different drugs were analyzed. Ramipril was the most frequently prescribed drug followed by acetylsalicylic acid and atorvastatin. The final number of different types of severe potential DDIs was 119, which occurred 1,037 times in 758 patients (4.7% of the total number of patients). More than 80% of drugs involved in severe potential DDIs were cardiovascular drugs. Digoxin was the most frequently involved drug. Electrolyte disturbances, increase in serum digoxin levels, risk of hemorrhage, severe myopathy or rhabdomyolysis, and cardiac arrhythmias were the most commonly implicated potential risks. When considering patients using digoxin with loop or thiazide diuretics for more than 5 months, 72% had at least one test to monitor potential digoxin toxicity, whereas 28% had no tests. Sixty-four percent of patients using digoxin with amiodarone, verapamil, or propafenone had an ECG and/or digoxin monitoring, and 36% of them did not have any tests.
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Both hypertension and diabetes mellitus are multifaceted dynamic expressions of pathophysiological disequilibrium that are closely related with and even intermingled by a number of common factors. Hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance may be possible links between hypertension and diabetes mellitus. While working on the effect of different antihypertensive agents in several animal models of simultaneously occurring diabetes-mellitus and hypertension it was found that most antihypertensives prevented streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hypertension in rats. Hydralazine, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (CCB) and clonidine prevented STZ-induced cardiomyopathy, hyperlipidaemia and glucose tolerance. It was further demonstrated that atenolol produced many unfavourable effects like hyperlipidaemia and decreased cardiac functions. We also used other animal models of simultaneously occurring diabetes-mellitus and hypertension such as genetically hypertensive or spontaneously hypertensive (SH), Deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-hypertensive and neonatal streptozotocin-induced NIDDM rats. Results of our studies suggest that SH, neonatal STZ-induced NIDDM, and fructose hypertensive rat models may be considered as models for insulin resistance - the concept that has come into limelight in recent years. DOCA may have some influence on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity and some sort of counteraction to STZ-induced cardiovascular and metabolic changes occur with DOCA. Hence, it may not be considered as an ideal model to study the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of hypertension associated with diabetes-mellitus. Among ACE inhibitors, perindopril, spirapril, and among calcium channel blockers (CCB) used in our study amlodipine and nifedipine were found to produce an increase in insulin sensitivity. Enalapril, ramipril, lisinopril and nitrendipine failed to alter insulin sensitivity as far as the glycaemic control is concerned. Extension of the results of these experiments to the clinical practice substantiated many of the findings and a good correlation between results obtained from experimental studies and clinical data was found.
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ACEi therapy dominated placebo in both the ACE II/ID group (euro15 826, and 0.091 quality-adjusted life years gained per patient) and the ACE DD group (euro105 104 and 0.553 quality-adjusted life years gained). Sensitivity analyses showed 30.2% probability of ACEi being not cost-effective in the ACE II/ID group, against an almost 100% probability of cost-effectiveness in the ACE DD group. A selective screen-and-treat strategy should incorporate an alternative therapy for patients with the ACE II/ID genotype with an at least 9.1% increase in survival time compared with ACEi therapy to be cost-effective. Sensitivity analyses show that higher effectiveness and lower costs of the alternative therapy improve the cost-effectiveness of a screening strategy.
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Inhibition of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) produces protective effects on cardio-renal injury in type 2 diabetes. Vasopeptidase inhibitors (VPI) represent a new pharmacological tool, acting by simultaneous inhibition of the RAAS and neutral endopeptidase. We examined the effects of chronic VPI on renal function and morphology in experimental type 2 diabetes as compared to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACE-I). Zucker diabetic fatty rats aged 13 weeks were treated with either VPI (AVE7688, ZDF-VPI, n = 8) or ACE-I (Ramipril, ZDF-ACE-I, n = 7) or placebo (ZDF, n = 8). Heterozygous rats served as non-diabetic controls (Ctr, n = 8). Both treatments led to a similar decrease in blood pressure. After 10 weeks of treatment, ZDF developed marked albuminuria. The latter was significantly attenuated in ZDF-VPI as compared to ZDF and ZDF-ACE-I. Renal histology revealed a significant expansion in the glomerular tuft area in all ZDF groups. However, expression of glomerular desmin, which has been recognized as a sensitive marker of early podocyte damage, was significantly increased in ZDF as compared to Ctr. Desmin was reduced in ZDF-VPI but not in animals treated with ACE-I. There was a correlation between albumin excretion and desmin-positive glomerular area. In experimental type 2 diabetes, albuminuria correlates to podocyte damage. These hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy are attenuated by VPI to a greater extent than by ACE-I alone. These findings suggest that podocyte damage is an early critical step in the progression of diabetic nephropathy, and that VPI is a promising pharmacological tool in the treatment of diabetic renal disease.
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A total of 25,584 patients (9,603 diabetic), older than 55 years, at high CV risk were randomized to ramipril, telmisartan, or both and observed for 4.6 years. We pooled the treatment arms to examine the relationships between BP and the primary composite outcome (CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke, or hospitalized heart failure) and its components.
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The period of early morning blood pressure surge is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events than at other times of the day. Antihypertensive medication given once daily in the morning may not protect against this surge if its duration of action is too short. We compared telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker with a trough-to-peak ratio >90%, with ramipril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor with a trough-to-peak ratio of around 50%.
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This report and another implicating fluoxetine in a case of hypoglycemia suggest that healthcare professionals should consider these medications among the possible causes of hypoglycemia occurring in patients receiving selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors.
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The Polycap was found to be effective and safe in the previously published TIPS trial. The present study in healthy volunteers establishes that Polycap is safe (no serious adverse events) and well tolerated, and that there is no indication of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions for any of the ingredients, with their bioavailabilities being well preserved.
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Ramipril is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of essential hypertension.
The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) study, an international randomized trial, was designed to evaluate the effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ramipril and vitamin E in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events. The study did not detect any cardiovascular benefit or harm using vitamin E. Results for the vitamin E arm are not discussed here. Of 9541 patients, 3577 with diabetes received either ramipril (10 mg) or placebo. Among these patients, ramipril use was associated with a significant 25% reduction in risk for the composite endpoint of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or cardiovascular death after a median follow-up period of 4.5 years. This benefit was independent of any blood pressure-lowering effect. The Microalbuminuria, Cardiovascular, and Renal Outcomes in HOPE (MICRO-HOPE) substudy in this patient population showed that ramipril treatment was associated with a decreased risk of development of overt nephropathy. Use of a composite measure of microvascular complications also suggested a protective effect of ramipril treatment. An interesting finding in the HOPE study is that ramipril treatment was associated with a significant 34% reduction in new diagnoses of diabetes. The possibility that ACE inhibitor treatment with ramipril may prevent new diabetes in non-diabetic patients at high risk of the disease is to be examined prospectively in the Diabetes Reduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone (DREAM) trial.
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The addition of aliskiren to optimal conventional therapy provided a higher reduction of blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion when compared with the addition of losartan or ramipril.
Mechanisms underlying biological effects of statin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapies differ. Therefore, we compared vascular and metabolic responses to these therapies either alone or in combination in patients with type 2 diabetes. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial with 3 treatment arms (each 2 months) and 2 washout periods (each 2 months). Fifty patients with type 2 diabetes were given simvastatin 20 mg and placebo, simvastatin 20 mg and ramipril 10 mg, or ramipril 10 mg and placebo daily during each 2-month treatment period. Ramipril alone or combined therapy significantly reduced blood pressure when compared with simvastatin alone. When compared with ramipril alone, simvastatin alone or combined therapy significantly improved the lipoprotein profile. All 3 treatment arms significantly improved flow-mediated dilator response to hyperemia and reduced plasma levels of malondialdehyde relative to baseline measurements. However, these parameters were changed to a greater extent with combined therapy when compared with simvastatin or ramipril alone (P<0.001 by ANOVA). When compared with simvastatin or ramipril alone, combined therapy significantly reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P=0.004 by ANOVA). Interestingly, combined therapy or ramipril alone significantly increased plasma adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity relative to baseline measurements. These changes were significantly greater than in the group treated with simvastatin alone (P<0.015 by ANOVA). Ramipril combined with simvastatin had beneficial vascular and metabolic effects when compared with monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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A sequential injection analysis/amperometric biosensor system is proposed for the enantioselective analysis of the S-enantiomer of enalapril, ramipril and pentopril. The amperometric biosensor used as detector in the sequential injection analysis was designed by immobilization of l-amino acid oxidase in carbon paste. The proposed SIA system can be utilized reliably for the enantioanalysis of the S-enantiomer from the raw materials as well as from their pharmaceutical formulations, with a rate of 75 samples per hour and R.S.D. values better than 0.1% (n = 10).
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Cardiovascular risk reduction in diabetic patients is a multidimensional task. Long-term decrease of glycaemia by the use of insulin or sulfonylureas had disappointing effects on cardiovascular events, whereas metformin effects are ambiguous. On the contrary, controlling risk factors like hypertension or hypercholesterolaemia decrease the incidence of cardiovascular events in diabetic as in non-diabetic patients. Similarly, clinical trials have shown the efficacy of treatments that decrease cardiovascular risk whatever the cause, such as antiplatelet drugs in secondary prevention and high-dose ramipril in secondary prevention or in hypertensive patients. The absolute benefit conferred by efficient therapies is higher in diabetic patients because they are at an increased risk of events compared with their non-diabetic counterparts.
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The study is comprised of two protocols run in series. In protocol 1, zofenopril (Z), a converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI), prevented the increase in left ventricular mass (LVM) and end-diastolic volume (LVV) observed in the control group (C) at 16 weeks (Z: LVM, 69.8 +/- 3.4 to 65.4 +/- 2.6 g, P = NS; LVV, 45.4 +/- 2.7 to 51.6 +/- 2.7 mL, P = NS; C: LVM, 68.4 +/- 3.2 to 91.4 +/- 2.9 g, P = .0001; LVV, 56.6 +/- 3.0 to 71.9 +/- 2.4 mL, P = .0003). Terazosin, an alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, failed to prevent remodeling at 16 weeks despite continued receptor blockade. In protocol 2, the antiremodeling effect of full-dose CEI therapy with ramipril was confirmed. Low-dose ramipril that exerted no hemodynamic effect failed to prevent remodeling (LVM, 89.7 +/- 4.6 to 105.7 +/- 3.4 g, P = .01; LVV, 61.8 +/- 3.8 to 76.8 +/- 3.3 mL, P = .002). An angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor blocker also failed to prevent the increase in LVM or LVV (LVM, 89.0 +/- 4.6 to 109.7 +/- 5.3 g, P = .0001; LVV, 66.0 +/- 1.9 to 78.4 +/- 3.6 mL, P = .007).
There is a significant increase in the apoptosis of SHR cardiac tissues with increasing age, and ramipril can significantly prevent the increase of apoptosis and in blood pressure, which demonstrates that apoptosis may be involved in the pathogenesis of genetic hypertension. The inhibition of apoptosis as well as hypertension by ACE inhibitors may open a new avenue for developing therapeutic approach for hypertension.
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Previous randomized controlled trials demonstrated a protective effect of renin angiotensin system blocking agents for the development of type-2 diabetes in patients with pre-diabetes. However, there are no real-world data available to illustrate the relevance for clinical practice.
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The average weighted reductions in SBP over 8-12 weeks were most marked with diuretics, and in particular indapamide SR 1.5 mg/day (mean change from baseline -22.2mm Hg), which reduced SBP to a greater extent than any of the other drugs evaluated (at any dosage considered). Average weighted reductions in DBP were generally similar with all classes of antihypertensives and ranged from -11.4mm Hg with the beta-adrenoceptor blocker atenolol and calcium channel antagonists to -10.3mm Hg with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists.
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This trial was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, variable-dose study comparing ramipril with atenolol, and incorporating a 4-week run-in period on placebo. A total of 92 patients suffering from mild to moderate hypertension were randomized to the trial. Following a 4-week run-in period on placebo, newly diagnosed patients were only continued if their blood pressure remained within the defined range throughout the placebo run-in period. Known hypertensive patients who were safely switched to the trial therapy were only continued if their blood pressure was within the defined range at the end of this placebo washout period. An analysis of the data at baseline showed no statistical differences between treatment groups. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly reduced from baseline in each group, but there were no differences between treatments. The study showed that ramipril and atenolol were both successful at reducing and controlling mild-to-moderate hypertension, but it showed no difference between treatments.
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Our experiments suggest differences between ACE inhibitors in terms of inhibition of endothelial apoptosis in vivo.
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The case of a 66-year-old male with heart failure and cardiorenal syndrome is presented. The patient had normal renal function before intensive treatment with diuretics and ACE inhibitor. Shortly after the ACE inhibitor was stopped and diuretics were either stopped or reduced in dosage, his renal function normalized. Suggestions are presented for follow-up after initiation of ACE inhibitor treatment.
McArdle's disease causes limitation in exercise capacity as well as disability, the severity of which has been associated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion (I)/deletion (D) haplotype-patients with the genotype associated with higher ACE activity show the most severe phenotype. Modulation of ACE activity through the use of inhibitors may thus positively affect disease expression. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we assessed the efficacy of an ACE inhibitor (2.5 mg ramipril) in 8 patients with McArdle's disease. End-points were changes in parameters of exercise physiology (cycloergometer and muscle 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy), quality of life (QoL) according to the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and disability according to the World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II). Patients had lower QoL and higher disability than controls. Measures of exercise physiology were not changed by ramipril in the whole group, but treatment induced higher peak VO2 (P = 0.017) in ACE D/D patients, yet not in I/D patients. Treatment significantly improved disability (P < 0.05). McArdle's disease is a disabling condition affecting patients' QoL. Treatment with ramipril improves disability and modifies exercise physiology only in D/D patients, raising the possibility of a differential haplotype-linked sensitivity to the treatment.
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Changes in podocyte number and morphology have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proteinuria and the progression of human and experimental kidney disease. This study sought to examine podocyte foot process and slit pore architecture in experimental diabetic nephropathy and to determine whether such changes were modified with renoprotective intervention by blockade of the renin-angiotensin system.
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The objective of the trial was to examine whether ramipril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), improves walking distance and health-related quality of life in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) associated with claudication.
About two thirds of patients on renal replacement therapy irreversibly lose their kidney function because of progressive nephropathies, such as diabetic nephropathy and nondiabetic chronic renal disease. Halting the progression of these patients to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is instrumental to substantially decrease the need and cost for renal replacement therapy. A large number of experimental studies have demonstrated that chronic nephropathies share common pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to renal disease progression, even independently of the original etiology. Actually, a variety of insults may result in a common pathway of systemic hypertension, increased glomerular pressure and protein ultrafiltration, glomerular and tubular protein overload, chronic inflammation and, ultimately, scarring. Experimental and clinical data converge to indicate that in chronic renal disease increased protein traffic is nephrotoxic, proteinuria predicts disease progression, and proteinuria reduction is renoprotective. Initial clinical trials, mostly in patients with no or mild proteinuria, failed to demonstrate that ACE inhibition therapy is renoprotective in nondiabetic chronic nephropathies. Consistently, meta-analyses based on data generated by these trials failed to detect a specific, blood pressure-independent, renoprotective effect of ACE inhibition therapy. The Ramipril Efficacy In Nephropathy (REIN) study found that ACE inhibitors, by reducing urinary proteins, may contribute to improve the outcome of nondiabetic renal disease, and reduce the risk of progression to ESRD by about 50%. Cumulative meta-analyses, including the REIN study results, confirmed and extended these findings. Thus, well-designed trials in properly selected and carefully monitored study populations continue to be the best approach to test the efficacy of novel treatments. The meta-analyses may help confirming the consistency of these findings and their generalizability to larger cohorts of patients.
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A 65-year-old man was submitted to coronary angioplasty and stent implantation for stable angina. The treatment included a 30-day therapy with ticlopidine (in addition to aspirin, metoprolol, ramipril, amlodipine and nitrates). One month after ticlopidine withdrawal a progressive cholestatic jaundice took place. Viral, immunogenic as well as nutritional causes were ruled out. The abdominal echography disclosed a normal biliary tree and the liver biopsy showed a centrolobular cholestasis pattern. Drug-induced cholestatic reaction was diagnosed and attributed to ticlopidine. There was a progressive improvement in clinical and laboratory findings 4 months after steroid treatment. The clinical picture was normalized after 6 months. When considering the option ticlopidine, even for a short time after coronary angioplasty, the possibility of drug-induced hepatotoxicity should be kept in mind. Consequently, markers of liver toxicity should be monitored carefully.
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The AT1a mRNA:AT1b mRNA ratio in the hearts of untreated rats was 10:1. Unilateral renal artery clipping led to a 30% decrease in AT1a mRNA, whereas treatment with frusemide, losartan or ramipril had no effect on the AT1a or AT1b mRNA levels. Rats fed a low-sodium diet showed a 37% increase in AT1a gene expression. Dexamethasone increased AT1a mRNA by 100% and AT1b mRNA by 300%, whereas deoxycorticosterone acetate treatment decreased AT1a mRNA levels to 30% of the control values.