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Artane (Trihexyphenidyl)
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Artane

Artane alters unusual nerve impulses and relaxes stiff muscles.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Sinemet, Levodopa, Carbidopa, Selegiline, Kemadrin, Benadryl, Cogentin, Banophen, Akineton, Allermax

 

Also known as:  Trihexyphenidyl.

Description

Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.

name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.

Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.

Brand name of Artane is Artane.

Dosage

Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.

If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Artane are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.

Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.

Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.

artane 4 mg

Administration of imipramine plus serotonin (5-HT) to rats has been proposed as an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We studied the skeletal muscle necrosis produced in male rats given 5-HT after pretreatment with imipramine, other tricyclic antidepressants, or antihistamines, which like the tricyclic antidepressants, can block neuronal reuptake of 5-HT. Following one of these agents plus 5-HT, 20 mg/kg subcutaneously (s.c.), necrosis was more severe in the soleus muscle than the quadriceps. There was no significant difference in the incidence of necrosis in the soleus and quadriceps muscles following one of these agents plus 5-HT, 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.). After one of these agents plus 5-HT i.p., but not 5-HT s.c., extensive necrosis was significantly more frequent and severe in the quadriceps muscle than after 5-HT s.c. Chlorpheniramine (CP) plus 5-HT, 2.5 mg/kg intravenously, produced less muscle necrosis than CP plus 5-HT s.c. or i.p. The necrosis produced by CP plus 5-HT s.c. was comparable ipsilateral and contralateral to the injection site. The necrosis following CP plus 5-HT i.p. was maximal at 24 hr and remained fairly constant until 5 days. Regeneration was prominent by 7 days. The muscle necrosis produced by CP plus 5-HT is blocked by some 5-HT blockers, e.g., methiotepin and methysergide. It is also partially blocked by denervation. The capacity of tricyclic antidepressants and antihistamines to block neuronal 5-HT reuptake tended to be negatively correlated with the capacity to potentiate the muscle necrosis they produced with 5-HT, which suggests that blockade of 5-HT uptake is not the mechanism of the pathology produced by the combined treatment. The tricyclic antidepressants and the antihistamines are "membrane stabilizers-labilizers". Other drugs which are "membrane stabilizers-labilizers" such as trihexyphenidyl and procaine also promoted skeletal muscle necrosis when given prior to 5-HT. It is proposed that the effects of imipramine plus 5-HT on skeletal muscle are not due to the blockade of neuronal uptake of 5-HT and subsequent vascular-induced ischemia, but reflect direct toxic effects of these agents on skeletal muscle.

artane and alcohol

An operant food-related conditioned reflex was developed in six cats by the "active choice" protocol: short-latency pedal presses were followed by presentation of low-quality reinforcement (bread-meat mix), while long-latency pedal presses were followed by presentation of high-quality reinforcement (meat). Animals differed in terms of their food-procuring strategies, displaying "self-control," "ambivalence," or "impulsivity." Multineuron activity was recorded from the frontal cortex and hippocampus (field CA3). Cross-correlation analysis of interneuronal interactions within (local networks) and between (distributed networks) study structures showed that the numbers of interneuronal interactions in both local and distributed networks were maximal in animals with "self-control." On the background of systemic administration of the muscarinic cholinoreceptor blockers scopolamine and trihexyphenidyl, the numbers of interneuronal interactions decreased, while "common source" influences increased. This correlated with impairment of the reproduction of the selected strategy, primarily affecting the animals' self-controlled behavior. These results show that the "self-control" strategy is determined by the organization of local and distributed networks in the frontal cortex and hippocampus.

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Atropine (AT) induces a dose-dependent increase in rate of rise of core temperature (heating rate) in sedentary heat-stressed rats, a muscarinic anticholinergic (MA) effect which is quantitatively similar to the increase in heating rate seen in heat-exposed men after equivalent atropine dose. In the heat-stressed rat, scopolamine (S) was found to have 16 x the MA effect of AT and, in the present study, aprophen (AP) and trihexyphenidyl (THP) manifested 0.067 x 0.061 x the MA effect of AT. In rats exercising on a treadmill (11 m/min, 6 degrees incline, 26 degrees C), physostigmine (PH) administration resulted in reduced endurance and increased heating rate, both of which were attenuated following AT administration-hypothesized to be a nicotinic anticholinergic (NA) effect. Optimum doses of anticholinergics to reverse the PH-induced decrements were: AT-200 micrograms/kg, S-8-16 micrograms/kg, AP-3000 micrograms/kg, and THP-800 micrograms/kg. These optimum NA doses for AT, S, and AP were the same as those predicted from their MA potency relative to AT in heat-stressed rats. However, it should be noted that 800 micrograms/kg of THP is only 1/4 of the expected 3200 micrograms/kg dose of THP based on MA equivalence to AT. Relative MA activities and optimum doses in PH-treated exercising rats appear to be due to differential MA and NA activities. Thus, a combination of both sedentary heat-stressed and exercising rat models may be useful in predicting relative cholinergic effects of new drugs with both MA and NA effects in man.

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After treatment, the frequency of average urination of 24 hours, frequency of incontinence of 24 hours and average urine volume at a time were obviously improved (all P < 0. 01), of which, the above items in group A were superior to those in group B (all P < 0. 05) the UPDRSIII score in group A was superior to that in group B (P < 0.05). The adverse reactions in group A were less than those in group B.

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In an inbred line of Syrian hamsters, attacks of sustained dystonic postures of the limbs and trunk can be initiated by handling or mild environmental stimuli (e.g. new cage). The severity of the dystonic syndrome in these mutant hamsters (gene symbol dtSZ) is age-dependent, with a peak at about 30-40 days of age. A scoring system for grading the type and severity of the dystonic attacks can be used to study the activity of drugs against dystonic movements with individual pre- and post-drug vehicle trials as control. The effects of drugs which alter dopaminergic or cholinergic functions in the brain were studied in selectively bred dystonic hamsters and age-matched non-dystonic controls. The dopamine precursor levodopa (injected together with carbidopa) and the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine increased the severity of dystonia in hamsters when administered prior to the age of maximum severity of dystonia. A very similar effect was observed with the cholinomimetic pilocarpine. In contrast, the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol caused a marked overall reduction in dystonic movements. Anticholinergic drugs, i.e. trihexyphenidyl and biperiden, increased the latency to onset of the dystonic attack, but did not reduce its severity. No differences were observed between dystonic and non-dystonic hamsters with respect to extent and duration of stereotypies induced by dopaminergic and cholinergic drugs or hypolocomotion and catalepsy produced by haloperidol. The data suggest that dopaminergic hyperactivity might be involved in the pathophysiology of dystonia in dtSZ mutant hamsters.

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Status dystonicus (SD) is a medical emergency weighed by a relevant morbidity and mortality. It mainly affects patients with primary or secondary dystonia and is often triggered by events such as fever, infections, exposure medications or their abrupt cessation. We report on three patients presenting with SD. Two of them were affected by a static encephalopathy and the other one by a neurodegenerative disorder such as megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC). To our knowledge this is the first patient affected by MLC presenting with SD. All our patients underwent continuous infusion of midazolam, in association with pimozide and trihexyphenidyl, which led to complete resolution of muscular spasms in two patients. In the other one a complete cessation of dystonic spasms was obtained after intrathecal baclofen. From a therapeutic point of view there are no evidence-based management guidelines in SD. The approach is empiric and based on very limited anecdotal reports. On the basis of our observations and an extensive review of the literature we delineated a possible therapeutic strategy of SD in children.

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The effects of timiperone, its metabolites and related compounds on specific 3H-spiroperidol binding to dopamine receptors in the rat corpus striatum were studied to clarify the affinity of timiperone, a new butyrophenone, for the receptors and whether timiperone itself was active in vivo. Timiperone had an approx. 0.6, 5 and 30 times greater affinity for the receptors than did spiroperidol, haloperidol and chlorpromazine, respectively. This affinity was observed specifically for antipsychotic drugs but not for diazepam and trihexyphenidyl. Timiperone metabolites had little or no affinity for the receptors. Radioreceptor assay values agreed well with the radiochemical assay for timiperone in the plasma and brain of rats after i.v. injection of the 14C-labeled drug. Thus, it is conceivable that timiperone itself exerts its potent antipsychotic activity by blockade of cerebral dopamine receptors.

artane medication

A 64-year-old woman with blepharospasm, sustained clenching of the jaw, antecollis, and a strained, high-pitched phonation continued chronic trihexyphenidyl therapy despite the lack of any obvious benefit. Abrupt, accidental withdrawal of trihexyphenidyl triggered severe exacerbation of the cranial dystonia associated with inspiratory stridor and acute respiratory difficulties, prompting emergency admission. On indirect laryngoscopy, hyperadduction of the vocal folds was not the cause of the upper airway obstruction. A more likely cause of the inspiratory obstruction appeared to be forward bending of the neck combined with mouth-clenching spasms. Reinstitution of intravenous anticholinergic medication provided relatively prompt relief. We caution against abrupt interruption of anticholinergics in patients with severe segmental cranial dystonia, even in those cases in which no benefit is apparent to observers.

artane 5 mg

To study the effects of Qing-Xuan tablets (QXT) on behavior pattern and striatal TNF-alpha in mice model of Parkinson's disease (PD).

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Relief of blepharospasm was achieved with clonazepan (CNZ, 1 mg i.v.) and benzhexol (BH, 5 mg i.m.) by acute parenteral administration in 5 cases of Meige's syndrome. Improvement was greater with CNZ, mean value on a quantitative scale 100%, than for BH (84.1%). Both drugs were less effective on the associated oromandibular dystonia (OMD) observed in 3 of the cases, relief again being greater when using CNZ (87.3%) compared to BH (58.3%). Intravenous administration of CNZ predicted the response to prolonged oral medication (6 mg/day) in 3 of the cases. Though both blepharospasm and OMD are thought to represent focal dystonia at different body sites, the extent of improvement achieved with these drugs at the dosage employed differed markedly.

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Various hallucinations are unpleasant for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Hallucinations are often related to anti-parkinsonian drugs. Tactile hallucinations rarely occur in patients with PD. In contrast to other types of hallucinations, tactile hallucinations often make physicians wonder if a physical abnormality is the underlying cause. However, the relation of tactile hallucinations to anti-parkinsonian drugs remains uncertain because studies are scant. We describe three patients with PD who had tactile hallucinations that were triggered by dopamine agonists. In our patients, tactile hallucinations occurred in a clear sensorium and persisted for a prolonged time. Two patients had clear visual hallucinations such as of insects, which were associated with tactile hallucinations such as of insects tied to the body. Clear tactile sensoria were unpleasant. Dopamine agonists were initiated or the doses were increased during several periods immediately before the onset of tactile hallucinations. Although the other anti-parkinsonian drugs used, such as amantadine, zonisamide, or trihexyphenidyl, were likely to be partly responsible for the tactile hallucinations, our observations suggest that an increase in the dose of dopamine agonists can trigger tactile hallucinations.

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Although trihexyphenidyl is used clinically to treat both primary and secondary dystonia in children, limited evidence exists to support its effectiveness, particularly in dystonia secondary to disorders such as cerebral palsy. A prospective, open-label, multicenter pilot trial of high-dose trihexyphenidyl was conducted in 23 children aged 4 to 15 years with cerebral palsy judged to have secondary dystonia impairing function in the dominant upper extremity. All children were given trihexyphenidyl at increasing doses over a 9-week period up to a maximum of 0.75 mg/kg/d. Trihexyphenidyl was subsequently tapered off over the next 5 weeks. Objective motor assessments were performed at baseline, 9 weeks, and 15 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function, tested in the dominant arm. Tolerability and safety were monitored closely throughout the trial. Of the 31 children who agreed to participate in the study, 5 failed to meet entry criteria and 3 withdrew due to nonserious adverse events (chorea, drug rash, and hyperactivity). Three children required a dosage reduction because of nonserious adverse events but continued to participate. The 23 children who completed the study showed a significant improvement in arm function at 15 weeks (P = .045) but not at 9 weeks (P = .985). Post hoc analysis showed that a subgroup (n = 10) with hyperkinetic dystonia (excess involuntary movements) worsened at 9 weeks (P = .04) but subsequently returned to baseline following taper of the medicine. The authors conclude that scientific evidence for the clinical use of trihexyphenidyl in cerebral palsy remains equivocal. Trihexyphenidyl may be a safe and effective for treatment for arm dystonia in some children with cerebral palsy if given sufficient time to respond to the medication. Post hoc analyses based on the type of movement disorder suggested that children with hyperkinetic forms of dystonia may worsen. A larger, randomized prospective trial stratified by the presence or absence of hyperkinetic movements is needed to confirm these results.

artane y alcohol

For the treatment of 42 patients with different forms of atherosclerotic and postencephalitic parkinsonism the author used levopa drugs, medantane, cyclodol and parkopan in combination and separately. The most stable improvement was obtained from a combination of levopa with cyclodol in patient with rigid-akynetic-trembling manifestations of parkinsonism. The treatment by medantane increased the therapeutical effect in the patients with postencephalitic parkinsonism. Methyl-dopa and pyridoxine served as a corrector of levopa. The studies on the blood content of acetylcholine and cholinesterase showed a growth of cholinolytic and cholinesterase activity in the blood.

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Effects of antiparkinsonian medication on the rabbit syndrome (RS) and accompanying parkinsonian symptoms were studied in 5 schizophrenic inpatients receiving long-term antipsychotic medication. All patients showed early improvement of RS following additional treatment with trihexyphenidyl or biperiden, with a significant reduction in the RS score also observed. The improvement of RS paralleled improvement of the parkinsonian symptoms, with the score of the Simpson-Angus rating scale significantly reduced. Our data provide further evidence that the underlying mechanism of RS is similar to that of acute forms of drug-induced parkinsonism.

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Fifty patients attending a neurological outpatient clinic for Parkinson's disease were assessed by standardized methods for both physical and psychiatric symptoms. The patients then received treatment with L-dopa with carbidopa or anticholinergic drugs and/or amantadine. During the following six-month period the subjects were assessed at intervals, both physically and psychiatrically. Forty patients were followed up for the full six-month period. The severity of physical signs and affective symptoms was shown to be significantly related at several stages of the investigation. Initially, the patients showed a high psychiatric morbidity. During treatment, 22 patients developed a depressive disorder, 12 or which had a history of previous depressive episodes. By contrast, of the 11 patients who showed very few affective symptoms during follow-up, none had a history of depression. Of the 22 patients with a depressive disorder, only two were in the anticholinergic/amantadine group, compared with nine and 11 in the other groups. L-dopa was not an effective antidepressant agent. The probable relevance of the findings of the study to the management of patients with Parkinson's disease is outlined.

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To assess the effect and adverse reaction of Qufeng Zhidong Recipe (QZR) in treating children's tic disorder (TD).

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We present a case of long-term trihexyphenidyl (THP) abuse in which memory and cognitive impairments were observed 23 years after the commencement of medication. This case showed a dramatic improvement after withdrawal of THP. Clinical course during admission was followed with psychometric testing and laboratory examinations. The fact that the patient showed no evidence of lowered alertness during the clinical course raises the possibility that THP can primarily induce impairment of memory and cognitive functions. This is supported by the findings on the resting EEG of the patient. This case emphasizes the need to exercise caution in prescribing high doses of anticholinergic agents for long periods, particularly in elderly patients with underlying brain pathology.

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This preliminary study done by abstracting relevant data from different testing material and using multiple rating scales, describes the sociodemographic variables, psychopathological correlates, and features of trihexyphenidyl (artane) abuse in a sample of 14 Saudi psychiatric patients and, as a result of this research, various relevant issues have been discussed.

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Trihexyphenidyl (Tri) inhibited the contraction of rabbit basilar artery due to high K+ (45.6 mmol/L). IC50 was 2.9 +/- 0.7 mumol/L. The contractions of basilar and mesenteric arteries due to calcium and those of basilar artery and saphenous vein due to serotonin were noncompetitively. Tri inhibited myogenic activities of the portal vein strips of rats and increased the normal cerebral blood flow of rats to 19 +/- 7 ml/(min.100 g).

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A retrospective study of 13 patients (4 males/9 females) with acquired hemidystonia in childhood is reported. The mean age of onset of hemidystonia was 6.4 years (range 1-13.4 years); the mean duration of dystonia at the time of last follow-up was 11.4 years (range 3.6-23 years). Hemidystonia was caused by ischemic infarction in 9 patients and was attributed to perinatal trauma in 1; in 4 of the 9 patients with stroke and in the remaining 3 patients laboratory investigations were suggestive of primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Eleven of the 13 patients had delayed onset of dystonia: between 1 month and 8.9 years (mean 3.4 years). Ten patients had neuroradiological evidence of contralateral basal ganglia damage. A history of hemiparesis and evidence of striatal damage on CT or MRI were important risk factors for the development of dystonia. Response to medical treatment (trihexyphenidyl dose as high as 40 mg daily) in 5 patients was disappointing; 4 of the 5 patients who underwent functional stereotaxic operations were improved, but dystonia was still present at the end of the follow-up. Our study provides additional evidence that lesions of the striatum may induce dystonia, supporting the theory of striatopallido-thalamic disconnection. Furthermore, our results indicate that the occurrence of delayed dystonia must be considered in the diagnostic approach to childhood-onset dystonia.

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artane pill sizes 2016-04-26

Nearly all patients (98.0%) reported deficits in motor tasks other than musical playing. Half of the patients were taking medications (Botulinum toxin (53%), Trihexyphenidyl (51%)). Subjects reported participating in multiple therapies: retraining (87%), hand therapy (42%), relaxation techniques (38%), physiotherapy (30%), psychotherapy (23%), acupuncture (21%) and body techniques (21%). Self-reported improvements in motor performance were reported by 81.5% of the subjects with 5.6% reporting a complete recovery. Objective gains in task-specific motor performance were documented in 42.9% of the subjects (with deterioration in 4.8%). Retraining therapy, relaxation techniques and buy artane change in teacher explained 52% of the variance in subjective outcomes.

artane 10 mg 2016-12-01

At referral 82/278 (29.4%) children were taking no anti-dystonic medication. In the remainder the median number of anti-dystonic medications was 2 (range 1-5). Medications use increased with worsening GMFCS level. The commonest drugs used were baclofen (118/278: 42.4%), trihexyphenidyl (98/278: 35.2%), l-Dopa (57/278: 20.5%) and diazepam (53/278: 19%). Choice of medication appeared to be influenced by dystonia aetiology. ADR had been experienced by 171/278 (61.5%) of children. The commonest drugs responsible for ADR were trihexyphenidyl (90/171: 52.3%), baclofen (43/171: 25.1%) and l-Dopa (26/171: 15.2%). Binary buy artane logistic regression demonstrated no clinical risk factors for ADR.

artane drug classification 2016-08-12

Two studies (28 participants but only five were people buy artane with stroke) met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Both studies investigated pharmacological interventions for disorders of eye movement in patients with stroke. It was not appropriate to pool data and we were not able to draw conclusions from these studies. We found no other randomised studies which investigated interventions for disorders of eye movement in patients with stroke.

artane y alcohol 2016-05-26

The purpose of our studies was to determine the effects of muscarinic receptor agonists on conditioned avoidance responding in the rat. Rats were trained to avoid or escape an electric shock delivered to the feet in a discrete trial procedure. The muscarinic receptor agonists pilocarpine and [2-ethyl-8-methyl-2,8-diazaspiro(4. 5)decane-1,3-dione] hydrochloride (RS86) and the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine all decreased the percentage of avoidance responses at doses that produced less than approximately 30% response failures. Similar results were obtained with the antipsychotic drugs haloperidol, trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine, and clozapine. However, the benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam did not decrease avoidance responding up to doses that produced ataxia. On the other hand, oxotremorine and arecoline decreased avoidance responding only by producing response failures, whereas aceclidine produced intermediate changes. The muscarinic receptor antagonists scopolamine, trihexyphenidyl, and benztropine were without effect when administered alone but antagonized the decreases in avoidance responding produced by pilocarpine and RS86. Scopolamine had little effect on the decreases in avoidance responding produced by haloperidol. The buy artane newer muscarinic receptor partial agonists or agonist/antagonists [R-(Z)-(+)-alpha-(methoxyimino)-1-azabicyclo[2.2. 2]octane-3-acetonitrile] hydrochloride, talsaclidine, milameline, and xanomeline also produced dose-related decreases in avoidance responding. Our results demonstrate that muscarinic receptor agonists can decrease avoidance responding in a manner similar to dopamine-receptor antipsychotic drugs, suggesting that muscarinic receptor agonists may provide an alternative approach to the treatment of psychosis.

artane medication 2017-04-04

The case of a patient with apraxia of eyelid opening and blepharospasm occurring during the course of idiopathic buy artane torsion dystonia and previously treated with stereotaxic subthalamotomy is presented. The anatomic basis of this lid movement disorder is suggested to be located in the rostral brain stem. There was a considerable amelioration after treatment with trihexyphenidyl.

artane drug information 2017-12-09

An 18-year-old schizophrenic female was recently treated after overdosing on trihexyphenidyl, thioridazine and an unknown antidepressant. On presentation to a local hospital, she was cyanotic with dilatated pupils and in acute respiratory failure. She was intubated prior to transfer. While in our Emergency Department, she exhibited occasional premature ventricular contractions which later became intermittent torsade de pointes. As this was an anticholinergic overdose we infused sodium bicarbonate in an attempt to increase protein binding, hoping to decrease the concentration of toxic metabolites. We also tried to suppress the dysrhythmia by infusing magnesium. The potassium buy artane level was borderline low so a supplemental infusion was initiated. Defibrillation was attempted. To try to shorten the action potential duration by activating the K+ channel, an isuprel infusion was also attempted. All methods failed. The patient fluctuated between an irregular sinus rhythm with prolonged QT interval and pulseless torsade de pointes for almost 24 hours. At all times, she responded appropriately to pain. Finally we attempted blockade of the calcium channel using verapamil with dramatic results. Each single bolus (0.1 mg/kg) successfully converted the patient back to sinus rhythm for some 15-20 minutes before the torsade recurred. After the initiation of a continuous verapamil infusion (0.005 mg/kg/hr), the patient remained in stable sinus rhythm. Verapamil proved highly effective in this patient with an anticholinergic overdose induced dysrhythmia.

artane pills 2015-10-30

We present an interim report of an ongoing, single-blind study of the effectiveness and safety of bromocriptine mesylate (Parlodel) in 15 patients, 14 of whom had severe idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Stages 4 and 5 on the Hoehn and Yahr Scale). The patients had never received levodopa, amantadine, or bromocriptine. Gradually increasing doses of bromocriptine were assessed: Initial daily dosage was 1.25 mg, with weekly increments of 1.25 mg/day until either the clinical response was satisfactory or a maximum of 15 mg/day was reached. The patients were on no other antiparkinsonian agents, except trihexyphenidyl HCl (Artane). Response to treatment was scored on the Columbia Scale. The patients discussed in this report had been in the study for varying times, ranging from 1 month to 3 years. Only one patient who entered this study dropped out because his response to bromocriptine was unsatisfactory; he had taken the drug for 2 weeks buy artane . No serious adverse reactions were noted with the gradually increasing dosage regimen. Response on the whole was very satisfactory; patients improved by at least two stages on the Hoehn and Yahr Scale. Improvement began within 48 h of onset of treatment with 1.25 mg daily. The preliminary results of this study indicate that low-dose bromocriptine as a first-line drug in severe Parkinson's disease is definitely warranted.

artane medication uses 2016-10-27

Randomised trials in adults after stroke where the intervention was specifically targeted at improving the eye movement disorder or improving the ability of the participant to cope with the eye movement disorder. The primary outcome was functional ability in activities of daily living. Secondary outcomes included functional ability in extended activities of daily living, eye movement measures, balance, falls, depression or anxiety, discharge destination or residence after stroke, quality of life and social isolation, adverse buy artane events, and death.

parkinson drug artane 2015-04-10

The investigation of the metabolism of the antiparkinson drugs trihexyphenidyl (1), pridinol (2) and biperiden (3) revealed a graduate tendency for hydroxylation in the different structural elements: If alicyclic, saturated heterocyclic and aromatic ring systems are present in one compound like in 1, the alicyclic ring system is attacked predominately. The buy artane amount of metabolites with hydroxy-groups in the saturated heterocyclic ring is much lower, and no hydroxylation takes place in the aromatic ring. In drugs without alicyclic ring systems like 2 the saturated heterocyclus is attacked preferentially, but also some phenolic metabolites are formed. Consequently the following arrangement of falling hydroxylation-tendency can be established: Formula: see text. Probably this arrangement is of common validity and therefore a prediction on the hydroxylation-tendency of other compounds seems to be possible.

artane brand name 2017-09-08

Haloperidol, an antipsychotic drug, leads to the development of a behavioural state called catalepsy, in which the animal is not able to correct an externally imposed posture. In the present study we have attempted to evaluate the anticataleptic effect of Tribulus terrestris on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in albino mice. Mice were allocated to four groups, each group containing six animals. Both, the test drug, Tribulus terrestris and the standard drug trihexyphenidyl were uniformly suspended in 1% gum acacia solution. Catalepsy was induced in mice with haloperidol (1.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). The first group received the vehicle (10 ml/ buy artane kg, orally), the second group received trihexyphenidyl (10 mg/kg, orally) and the remaining two groups received Tribulus terrestris (100, 200 mg/kg, orally). The animals were assessed after single and repeated dose administration for ten days, 30 min prior to haloperidol, using standard bar test. The result of the present study demonstrates Tribulus terrestris has a protective effect against haloperidol-induced catalepsy, which is comparable to the standard drug used for the same purpose. Our study indicates Tribulus terrestris can be used to prevent haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal side effects.

artane max dose 2015-04-27

AIMS To assess the prescribing pattern and to measure some specific aspects of the behaviour of the prescribers (psychiatrists) before and after educational interventions using core drug use indicators. METHODS In the present randomized retrospective controlled pre-post intervention prescription survey of schizophrenia and depression, 100 prescriptions each for schizophrenia and depression were obtained before and after each intervention. The prescriptions were analyzed for the following prescriber-specific indicators: number of drugs prescribed, prescribing by generic names, prescriptions for essential drugs, antiparkinsonian and benzodiazepines, nature of drugs and number of combinations prescribed. Based on the results of pre-intervention data, two interactional workshops were conducted 1 and 6 months buy artane after pre-intervention data collection. The first workshop focused on the results of the prescription audit feedback and reasons thereof. The second workshop focused, in addition, on appropriate management of schizophrenia and depression using consensus treatment guidelines with the aim of evolving a consensus on the treatment in a given hospital setting. RESULTS Before intervention, the essential drugs accounted for 80.95 and 96.91% of the total number of drugs prescribed in depression and schizophrenia, respectively. Prescription for essential drugs improved further significantly in the post intervention period to 95.26% (P<0.04) for depression; whereas, in schizophrenia, prescriptions for essential drugs declined to 80.95%. The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter marginally declined in both schizophrenia (2.46±0.94 to 2.34±0.65) and depression (2.09±0.79 to 2.00±0.65) after the second intervention. The patients receiving two or more drugs from the same group together declined from 12 to 9% in schizophrenia, but increased from 5 to 10% in depression after intervention. Trihexyphenidyl, an antiparkinsonian drug, was co-prescribed (90%) with antipsychotic agents (98%) in schizophrenia; however, use of benzodiazepines declined significantly after intervention to 28% compared to 48% in the pre-intervention period. Also, benzodiazepine use was high (68%) and remained so (70%) after interventions in depression cases. CONCLUSION The present study demonstrates excessive use of antiparkinsonian agents in schizophrenia and benzodiazepines in depression. Monitoring for the use of antiparkinsonian and benzodiazepines can form an important component for measuring specific aspects of prescriber's behaviour, which can be used as an indicator for comparisons at different time intervals and between health facilities.

artane pediatric dosage 2016-05-23

In order to analyse the subtype of muscarinic receptors involved in the methacholine-induced contraction of the rabbit iris sphincter we have determined equilibrium dissociation constants (KB) of various antagonists in the sphincter muscle. The values were compared with those observed at M1 (rabbit vas deferens), M2 (heteroreceptors in rat iris) and M3 receptors (guinea-pig ileum), or at the muscarinic receptors in the guinea-pig uterus. The methacholine-induced contraction of the uterus from immature guinea-pigs was competitively antagonized by pirenzepine (6.64, -log KB), 4-DAMP (8.39), hexahydrodifenidol (HHD; 7.00 for the (R)- and 5.40 for the (S)-enantiomer), p-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol (p-F-HHSiD; 6.25) and valethamate bromide (8.04). The affinity of the antagonists is consistent with the presence of an M2 receptor. The -log KB values of the antagonists in the rabbit iris sphincter (6.43, p-F-HHSiD buy artane ; 6.22, AQ-RA 741; 7.23 and 5.34, (R)- and (S)-trihexyphenidyl) were lower than, or within the lowest range of, estimates in the other experimental models, irrespective of the subtype selectivity of the antagonist. This excludes the presence of an M1, M2, M3 or M4 receptor in this smooth muscle. The affinity of UH-AH 37 in the iris was intermediate between that for M1 or M3, and M2 receptors. The low affinity of AQ-RA 741 and the low enantiomeric ratio of trihexyphenidyl (THP) in the iris (77.6) would be compatible with a presumed M5 receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

artane drug class 2015-10-02

Introduccion. La sialorrea es la incapacidad para retener la saliva dentro de la boca y su progresion al tracto digestivo, y es un problema frecuente en pacientes pediatricos con patologia neurologica, por lo que se estan utilizando diferentes buy artane medidas para su tratamiento. Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia y seguridad del trihexifenidilo, la escopolamina y la infiltracion de toxina botulinica en el tratamiento del babeo en niños con patologia neurologica. Pacientes y metodos. Es un estudio de tipo abierto y prospectivo. Incluye pacientes atendidos en el servicio de neurologia que presentaban babeo excesivo, con repercusion en su calidad de vida, entre 2009 y 2013. Resultados. En 46 pacientes se indico tratamiento con trihexifenidilo oral, y se obtuvo buena respuesta en 15 (32,6%), tres con efecto transitorio y el resto mantenido. Presentaron efectos secundarios tres pacientes (6,5%). De los 11 pacientes a los que se indicaron parches de escopolamina, se hallo efecto beneficioso en cuatro (36,36%), uno fue retirado por falta de eficacia y seis por efectos secundarios. Veinticinco pacientes fueron infiltrados con toxina botulinica, con disminucion significativa del babeo en 16 (64%) tras la primera infiltracion. No observamos cambios significativos en nueve casos. Solo uno presento efectos secundarios (disfagia leve). Conclusiones. Por no haber una opcion terapeutica totalmente eficaz para los pacientes con sialorrea, recomendamos iniciar el tratamiento con trihexifenidilo; como segunda opcion, los parches de escopolamina, y como tercera opcion, la toxina botulinica. La infiltracion de toxina botulinica en glandulas salivales se muestra como una alternativa eficaz y segura segun nuestra serie.

artane reviews 2015-05-26

We studied four patients with distal, action-induced involuntary postures of the hand that could be considered focal dystonia. All buy artane four patients had electrophysiologic findings consistent with peripheral nervous system lesions (pronator teres syndrome, radial nerve palsy, lower brachial plexus lesion, or median nerve lesion). With varying success, patients were treated with carbamazepine, trihexyphenidyl, methocarbamol, and wrist splinting. We wish to emphasize that peripheral entrapment and brachial plexopathy should be added to the causes of secondary dystonias.

artane windows reviews 2016-06-24

Seven psychotic inpatients (two women and five men) aged between 18 and 74 years, treated with neuroleptic and antiparkinson drugs, participated in a double-blind study with 1 Zovirax Tab /3 DDD (Defined Daily Dose) of procyclidine, orphenadrine, or trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride against placebo. Euphoric effects were scored on a self-rating scale and extrapyramidal side-effects on the Simpson-Angus rating scale at drug administration and 1, 3 and 6 h thereafter. With regard to euphoric effect, there was a significant (P less than 0.02) difference between start and end point (0 and 6 h) for placebo but not for the active antiparkinson drugs. There was no significant difference in extrapyramidal side-effects. No preference of drug was found, and it was not possible to recognize the patient's own drug among the tested drugs. Side-effects from the antiparkinson drugs were also measured prior to the administration. Five patients did not return to their earlier antiparkinson drugs after the study.

artane 4 mg 2017-01-06

Trihexyphenidyl (THP) and other antiparkinsonian drugs are known to be substances of abuse. This is true both in abusers of other substances and in chronic schizophrenics, the latter being infrequent abusers of other drugs. Most reports on the abuse of antiparkinsonian drugs among schizophrenic patients warn against the possible harm of this self-medication. The present article describes the different effects of THP on both schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic abusers. The subjective experience in most chronic schizophrenic patients who abuse THP is positive: they claim that THP makes them feel and function better. In the light of these findings, the author suggests that research on the possible benefits of THP in contrast to the Paxil Starting Dose potential harm in chronic, residual schizophrenic patients is warranted.

artane tab 2015-01-17

The present study examined the role of muscarinic receptors in the discriminative stimulus properties of clozapine. One group of rats was trained to discriminate the atypical antipsychotic clozapine (CLZ, 5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) from vehicle in a two-lever drug discrimination procedure, and a second group of rats was trained to discriminate the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist scopolamine (SCP, 0.125 mg/kg, i.p.) from saline. Complete cross-generalization was Propecia 5mg Pills obtained for SCP in the CLZ-trained rats and for CLZ in the SCP-trained rats. The M1 muscarinic antagonist trihexyphenidyl substituted completely for both CLZ and SCP; however, the M2 antagonist BIBN 99 failed to substitute for either CLZ or SCP. In other substitution tests, the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline, the antihistamine promethazine, and cyproheptadine (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]2A/5-HT2C, histamine, and muscarinic antagonist) substituted completely for CLZ and SCP. The tetracyclic antidepressant mianserin substituted completely in the CLZ-trained rats, but did not substitute for SCP. Compounds that produced partial substitution included the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, the anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide, and the antipsychotic thioridazine. Other compounds tested only in the CLZ-trained rats that failed to produce reliable CLZ-appropriate responding included N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA, selective agonist for glutamate receptors), metergoline (5-HT2A/5-HT2C antagonist), propranolol (beta noradrenergic antagonist), and phentolamine (alpha noradrenergic antagonist). All of the compounds that produced CLZ-appropriate responding (except for mianserin) display high binding affinities for muscarinic cholinergic receptors. The results of the present study demonstrated that muscarinic receptors (especially M1) play an important role in the mediation of the discriminative stimulus properties of CLZ in rats, and provide additional support for the importance of CLZ's anticholinergic properties as part of it's unique profile as an atypical antipsychotic.

artane medication class 2015-10-15

Acetylcholine (ACh) was collected from the alvear surface of the dorsal hippocampus and cerebral cortex in chloralose-urethane anaesthetized or unanaesthetized rabbits. With anaesthesia, the resting release of ACh from the hippocampus was greater than that from the cortex. Wthout anaesthesia, the resting release from both areas was much higher and very similar. The addition of atropine sulphate ( Sinequan Drug 1 microgram/ml) to the collecting fluid or the administration of Artane (2 mg/kg i.v.) increased resting ACh release from both the hippocampus and cortex to similar output levels. Atropine also increased ACh release due to stimulation of the medial septum (MS) or mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF). Removal of the septum abolished the effect of atropine on resting ACh release and on release evoked by MRF stimulation from both the hippocampus and cortex. The data indicate that the septum is an essential pathway for cholinergic fibres ascending to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. They also demonstrate that the septal cholinergic fibres must be intact and active for atropine to increase ACh release from their terminals.

artane tablets 2015-06-04

To develop a method to Imodium 8 Tablet measure trihexyphenidyl, chlorpromazine and clozapine in human blood with GC-MS.

artane generic name 2016-07-19

A paucity of information exists regarding medications to treat dystonia in children with cerebral palsy. This study sought to review the benefits and tolerability of trihexyphenidyl in children with cerebral palsy, treated for dystonia or sialorrhea or both in a pediatric tertiary care hospital, through a retrospective chart review. In total, 101 patients (61 boys and 40 girls) were evaluated. The mean age at drug initiation was 7 years and 10 months (range, 1-18 years). The mean initial dose was 0.095 mg/kg/day. The dose was increased by 10-20% no sooner than every 2 weeks. The mean maximum dose reached was 0.55 mg/kg/day. Ninety-three patients (91%) tolerated the medication well, with a mean duration of treatment of 3 years and 7 months. Side effects occurred in 69% of subjects, the majority in patients aged ≥7 years, and soon after treatment initiation. Sixty-four percent continued the treatment at study Cipro Drug Class end. Ninety-seven patients reported benefits, including reduction of dystonia in upper (59.4%) and lower (37.6%) extremities, sialorrhea (60.4%), and speech issues (24.7%). The majority of patients tolerated trihexyphenidyl well on a schedule of gradual dose increases, and almost all demonstrated improvements in dystonia or sialorrhea or both.

artane drug 2015-12-09

We present a case of symptomatic hemidystonia of delayed onset. The primary disease was a perinatal, presumed cerebrovascular infarction brought about by febrile illness with convulsions 12 weeks after partus Lexapro Reviews . After many years without neurological symptoms, the hemidystonia started in adolescence, and became stationary after 4 years of mild progression. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed atrophy of the right striatum including the caudate nucleus and putamen. The symptoms responded moderately to treatment with benzhexol.

artane overdose symptoms 2017-02-04

Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare neurodegenerative disease with various neurological symptoms. A 73-year-old woman presented with slowly progressive tremor in both hands. The resting tremor was enhanced by cognitive activity and walking. However, there were no other signs of parkinsonism. Levodopa and trihexyphenidyl were ineffective against the tremor. A diagnosis of NIID was made based on skin biopsy findings. The tremor in this case was very similar to that seen in Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous reports and the present case indicate that NIID patients can develop tremor that is similar in character to that seen in PD. NIID should be considered in the differential diagnosis of resting tremor similar to PD.

artane drug wikipedia 2015-02-14

Involvement of respiratory muscles is unusual in dystonia, but its occurrence may be underestimated either because it is not conspicuous or because it is improperly imputed to another cause. Three patients who had adult-onset dystonia and who were exhibiting respiratory problems were examined clinically and electrophysiologically. In the three patients the onset was focal-cervical in two and blepharospasm in one. The respiratory problems appeared later. The first patient had involuntary deep and loud inspirations combined with spasms of axial dystonia, the second complained of breathing arrests, and the third had deep inspirations mainly on speaking or reading aloud, thus causing broken speech. Electromyographic findings, including of the diaphragm, were quite consistent with a respiratory involvement in these three cases of dystonia. Assuming that respiratory troubles could be in the first sign of a focal dystonia, electrophysiological studies of respiratory muscles could be used to confirm this.

artane maximum dose 2015-12-26

The author calls attention to mood-elevation as a side effect of Biperiden HCL and Trihexyphenidyl HCL, two anticholinergic antiparkinsonian agents. This is of significance because of the despondency and anergy often seen in schizophrenics taking antipsychotic medication and because of the difficulty discerning the origin of affective changes in the face of polypharmacy.

artane medication dystonia 2017-02-09

The protective effect of trihexyphenidyl (THY) on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage was investigated in the rat pheochromocytoma line PC12 cells. Following the exposure of PC12 cells to H(2)O(2), there was a reduction in cell survival, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), in contrast, the increased levels in Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, malondialdehyde (MDA) production and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as intracellular [Ca(2+)]i level were observed. However, preincubation of cells with THY prior to H(2)O(2) exposure attenuated all the changes mentioned above, THY exhibited protective effect against H(2)O(2)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells, indicating that the compound may be a potential therapeutic agent for the diseases influenced by oxidative damage.

artane 6 mg 2016-11-24

Patients with cervical dystonia may suffer from a disturbance of inhibition in the sensory cortex. This disturbance is reflected by decreased HFO amplitude, representing decreased activities of inhibitory interneurons in area 3b.

artane cost 2016-12-16

In a developing country like Nigeria where prohibitive cost and availability limits the use of atypical antipsychotics, a large number of patients on antipsychotics are expected to be on conventional antipsychotics. Studies have shown that more than half of patients on conventional antipsychotics are also prescribed anti-cholinergic drugs. There are reports that psychiatric patients may not know important aspects of their treatments. Such audits of psychiatric services are uncommon in Nigeria.

artane generic 2015-08-19

Off-label drug prescribing is very common in Psychiatry. US-Food and Drug Administration has defined off-label drug as "use of drugs for the indication, dosage form, regimen, patient or other use constraint not mentioned in the approved labeling."