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A common problem for the clinician in an outpatient clinic is to distinguish a drug eruption from a viral exanthem in a child. The aim of this study was to describe the common drug eruptions seen in children with ENT infections, suggesting an approach to this problem.
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We enrolled 447 patients who were diagnosed with H. pylori infection from January 2011 to July 2014 and examined the antimicrobial resistance. In total, 260 patients without a history of H. pylori eradication therapy were treated with CAM- or metronidazole (MNZ)-based eradication therapy on the basis of the treatment period and CAM sensitivity of H. pylori. Between January 2011 and June 2013, patients were treated with CAM-based empirical therapy. Between July 2013 and July 2014, patients with CAM-sensitive strains were treated with CAM-based eradication therapy, and those with CAM-resistant strains were treated with MNZ-based therapy.
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The eradication of H. pylori in patients receiving long-term treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs did not prevent ulcer development. However, because the rate of ulcer development was low, a study with a larger sample size is required to confirm this finding.
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To determine whether H. pylori eradication can reverse AH resistance in CU.
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Treatment with antiviral neuraminidase inhibitors suppresses influenza viral replication and antigen production, resulting in marked attenuation of mucosal immunity and mild suppression of systemic immunity in mice. This study investigated the effects of immunomodulator clarithromycin (CAM) supplementation on mucosal and systemic immunity in pediatric patients with influenza treated with neuraminidase inhibitors.
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Preoperative H pylori eradication therapy for gastric cancer patients scheduled for gastrectomy is not necessary, regardless of the planned reconstruction procedure.
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Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in children in developing countries needs further investigations upon which to base treatment recommendations. The aim of the study was to compare two 2-week triple therapies in a randomized double-blind trial.
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First-line therapy, consisting of 7-day treatment with a proton pump inhibitor or ranitidine bismuth citrate, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, with second-line therapy, consisting of a proton pump inhibitor, bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline, in the case of failure, is chosen as the most cost-effective method of H. pylori eradication.
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A novel rifabutin-based therapy is able to cure Helicobacter pylori infection in most patients who have failed eradication after standard proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy. We compared this regimen with the quadruple therapy.
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With use of multiple- and single-colony expansion procedures, the results of susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori isolates from patients with duodenal ulcer were assessed by Etest. The H. pylori genotype was assessed by repetitive extragenic palindrome-based polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR). There was a high degree of genotypic heterogeneity between different patients, but a single REP-PCR pattern was found for 92% of patients. In contrast, a high degree of phenotypic heterogeneity was shown among the isolated colonies. Antibiogram susceptibility patterns differed only with respect to metronidazole but not with respect to clarithromycin or amoxicillin. The 42% rate of resistance to metronidazole determined with use of the conventional multiple-strains expansion method was increased to 92% when the single-colony expansion method was used. Similarly, dual clarithromycin/metronidazole resistance was increased from 8% to 42% with single-colony expansion. Despite evidence of a single genotype in most patients, single-colony expansion shows that routine susceptibility testing may greatly underestimate the frequency of metronidazole resistance.
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The aim of the study was to develop an efficient combination antibiotic formulation containing tobramycin and clarithromycin as a dry powder for inhalation. A carrier-free formulation of the two drugs was produced by spray-drying and characterised for its aerodynamic behaviour by impaction tests with an NGI and release profiles. The particle size distribution, morphological evaluation and crystallinity state were determined by laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. Drug deposition profiles were similar for the two antibiotics, which has a synergistic effect, allowing them to reach the target simultaneously at the expected dose. The release profiles show that tobramycin and clarithromycin should probably dissolve without any difficulties in vivo in the lung as 95% of tobramycin and 57% of clarithromycin mass dissolved in 10min for the spray-dried formulation. The FPF increased from 35% and 31% for the physical blend for tobramycin and clarithromycin, respectively, to 65% and 63% for the spray-dried formulation. The spray-dried formulation shows particularly high deposition results, even at sub-optimal inspiratory flow rates, and therefore, represents an attractive alternative in the local treatment of lung infection such as in cystic fibrosis.
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During the 1990s newer antibiotics of the erythromycin group have been introduced. One of these, clarithromycin, may offer advantages over erythromycin in the treatment of difficult respiratory tract infections.
Rigorously designed studies indicate that 10 days of twice-daily triple therapy with omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin achieves per-protocol eradication rates of approximately 80% to 90% in the U.S.
Eradication therapy with proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin and amoxicillin is extensively used, although it fails in a considerable number of cases. A 'rescue' therapy with a quadruple combination of omeprazole, bismuth, tetracycline and metronidazole (or ranitidine bismuth citrate with these same antibiotics) has been recommended, but it still fails in approximately 20% of cases. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a rifabutin-based regimen in patients with two consecutive H. pylori eradication failures.
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The availability of clarithromycin in gastric mucus is significantly influenced by its clinical formulation, which affects its solubility as well as the viscous properties of mucus. Pulverized Biaxin tablets provide better local distribution of clarithromycin in mucus than Biaxin granules. Pre-treatment of mucus with anti-ulcer medications does not increase the penetration of clarithromycin through mucus.
Dose adequacy could not be included due to the nature of the data used.
The objectives of this study are to survey the antibiotic-resistant pattern of Helicobacter pylori infection in different geographical locations in Thailand and to determine factors associated with antibiotic resistance. Dyspeptic patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from the Northern, Northeastern, Central, and Southern regions of Thailand between January 2004 and December 2012 were enrolled in this study. Two antral gastric biopsies were obtained for culture; susceptibility tests were performed using E-test. A total of 3964 were enrolled, and 1350 patients (34.1%) were infected with H. pylori as identified by rapid urease test. Cultures were positive in 619 isolates. E-test for amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and tetracycline were successful in 400 isolates and for levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in 208 isolates. Antibiotic resistance was present in 50.3% including amoxicillin 5.2%, tetracycline 1.7%, clarithromycin 3.7%, metronidazole 36%, ciprofloxacin 7.7%, levofloxacin 7.2%, and multi-drugs in 4.2%. Clarithromycin resistance was significantly more common in those older than 40 years (i.e., 100% versus 0%; P = 0.04). The prevalence of metronidazole resistant in Southern Thailand was significantly higher than in the Northeastern region (66.7% versus 33.3% P = 0.04). Metronidazole resistance remains the most common antibiotic resistant type of H. pylori in Thailand. The pattern of H. pylori antibiotic resistance over 9 years demonstrated a fall in clarithromycin resistance such that currently age >40 years is a predictor for clarithromycin resistance in Thailand. Quinolone resistance is a growing problem.
We present a patient with a very large pericardial effusion due to disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection with associated bacteraemia and gastroenteritis. He was HIV antibody-positive with a CD4+ lymphocyte count of 10 x 10(6)/l. He complained of fevers, diarrhoea and dyspnoea and an echocardiogram showed a pericardial effusion. Chest X-ray showed progressive enlargement of the cardiac silhouette over a 3-month period. The effusion was drained surgically and antimycobacterial therapy (clarithromycin, clofazamine, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, amikacin) was initiated. The patient had complete resolution of his pericardial effusion both clinically and radiologically. Three other AIDS patients with pericardial effusions caused by MAC are described in the medical literature, two died of cardiac dysfunction shortly after diagnosis. There is a case described of MAC-related pericardial effusion in a HIV-negative immunocompetent patient which resolved antimycobacterial therapy. MAC should be included in the differential diagnosis of pericardial effusions in AIDS patients. A combination of medical therapy and surgical intervention may give rise to considerable clinical benefit especially if initiated early.
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To determine whether eradication of H. pylori might be of benefit in non-ulcer dyspepsia patients.
H. pylori eradication rate was 95% in PCM versus 60% in PC therapy groups (perprotocol population, p < 0.001), and 82% in PCM versus 50% in PC therapy in the intention-to-treat patient population (p < 0.001). The DU healing rate was 98% in the PCM and 95% in the PC therapy groups (per-protocol population). Both regimens were similarly well tolerated. Adverse events in both regimens included taste disturbance, diarrhea, and increased serum concentration of liver enzymes, at an incidence of < 10%.
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Drug-drug interactions are a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, yet their consequences in the community are not well characterized.
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Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the agar dilution method for clarithromycin, amoxicillin and metronidazole. Isolates were considered resistant when the MIC value was > 8 mg/l for metronidazole, > 1 mg/l for clarithromycin and < 0.5 mg/l for amoxicillin.
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To evaluate the pattern of Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) susceptibility to different antimicrobial agents, we prospectively studied 45 H. pylori isolates by disc diffusion method. These isolates were obtained from patients aged between 16-75 years, of both sexes who had no prior history of metronidazole ingestion. A total of 45 patients were included, of which 36 were males with a mean age of 42.9 years and nine females with a mean age of 36.4 years, 62% of patients were Saudis. Almost all the H. pylori isolates were susceptible to clarithromycin, penicillin, erythromycin, ampicillin, tetracycline, clindamycin and cephradine. However, 64.4% of the isolates were resistant to metronidazole. No significant difference was found either in susceptibility of isolates from Saudi, non-Saudi or male and female patients.
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Although controversial, antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) appears beneficial in patients with a history of repeated infections, those who have comorbid illnesses, and those with marked airway obstruction. In a community-based, open, randomized trial, the efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin (CIP) 750 mg and clarithromycin (CLA) 500 mg, each given twice daily for 10 days, were compared in 2180 patients with AECB (1083 CIP, 1097 CLA). Patients were >40 years of age and had complicated/severe AECB episodes defined as at least three episodes within the past year, at least three comorbid conditions, previous failed antibiotic treatment for AECB within the previous 2 to 4 weeks, or community susceptibility data indicating a high number of resistant pathogens. Significant bacterial isolates (>10(5) colony-forming units per milliliter) from homogenized sputa were identified. Susceptibility to a range of antimicrobials was determined by the microbroth dilution technique. The majority of patients were white (83%) and were current or previous smokers (81%). Mean patient age was 62 years. A history of at least three AECB episodes in the previous year was reported by 54% of CIP-treated patients and 53% of CLA-treated patients. Of 777 primary isolates positively identified and cultured from 673 patients, the bacterial pathogens isolated and their incidence included Haemophilus species, 28%; Moraxella catarrhalis, 18%; Enterobacteriaceae, 18%; Staphylococcus aureus, 17%; Streptococcus pneumoniae, 7%; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4%. Beta-lactamase production was found in 38% of Haemophilus influenzae, 10% of Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and 85% of M catarrhalis isolates. Thirty-four percent of S pneumoniae isolates were resistant to penicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration > or =0.12 mg/L). Among the 673 patients who were valid for clinical assessment and had a pretherapy pathogen isolated, clinical success and overall bacteriologic eradication rates at the end of therapy were 93% and 98% for CIP versus 90% and 96% for CLA. The differences between CIP and CLA did not reach statistical significance. Superinfections were reported significantly more frequently in CLA-treated (3%) versus CIP-treated patients (1%). Eradication rates for specific organisms for CIP and CLA, respectively, were Haemophilus species, 99% and 93%; M catarrhalis, 99% and 100%; S pneumoniae, 91% and 92%; and Enterobacteriaceae, 100% and 95%. Drug-related adverse events occurred in 12% of CIP-treated patients and 10% of CLA-treated patients. CIP 750 mg b.i.d. had a higher (but not statistically significant) clinical and bacteriologic cure rate than CLA 500 mg b.i.d. in the treatment of patients with bacteriologically proven complicated/severe AECB. The causative bacterial pathogens of AECB appear to be evolving, with a predominance of gram-negative and other resistant organisms observed. Thus antibiotic therapy for at-risk patients with AECB should include agents that have activity against gram-negative pathogens.
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We review the management of 31 cases of atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis presenting to a tertiary referral pediatric otolaryngology department between February 2002 and February 2007.
Patients with endoscopy documented peptic ulcer and H. pylori infection confirmed by histology and rapid urease test.
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Toxic epidermal necrolysis almost always occurs after taking a medication. Despite spectacular clinical signs, it is mainly diagnosed with pathologic techniques. The identification of a drug as the cause for the immune related cytotoxic reaction can be difficult if the molecule is not generally known to be a classical cause of this reaction. The present study describes a female patient who rapidly developed a severe bullous skin disease after taking clarithromycin for tonsillitis. The case illustrates the process involved in attributing causality to a molecule using an established imputability assessment framework.
The aim of the present studies, performed in two different groups of volunteers, was to compare the bioavailability of clarithromycin (CAS 81103-11-9) tablets (Klaromin, test tablets) containing 250 mg (study 1) or 500 mg (study 2) of the drug with reference tablets of the same strength. Each study was conducted according to an open, randomized, single-dose, two-period crossover design in healthy volunteers with a wash-out period from 7 to 14 days. Blood samples were taken up to 24 h in both studies, and concentrations of clarithromycin and its principal active 14-hydroxy metabolite were determined by HPLC method. In the first study, the 90% confidence interval for intra-individual ratios of AUC0-t and Cmax of clarithromycin were between 0.93 and 1.05 (AUC0-t) as well as between 0.90 and 1.18 (Cmax). In the second study, i.e. after administration of clarithromycin 500 mg tablets, the 90% confidence interval for intra-individual ratios of AUC0-t and Cmax of clarithromycin were between 0.90 and 1.08 (AUC0-t) as well as between 0.85 and 1.22 (Cmax). All these values were within the acceptance ranges for bioequivalence studies. In both studies, the 90% confidence interval for intra-individual ratios of AUC0-t and Cmax of 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin were also within the acceptance ranges, although the confidence intervals for these parameters were not planned to be compared with the acceptance ranges. In the light of the results of the studies reported here it can be concluded that the clarithromycin 250 mg and 500 mg test tablets are bioequivalent to the respective reference formulations.
Traditionally, patients presenting with uncomplicated dyspepsia have been managed using empiric antisecretory therapy, followed by endoscopy in the event of persistent symptoms or complication. Since Helicobacter pylori is now accepted as an important and potentially reversible cause of ulcer disease, it is important to reevaluate the management of dyspepsia. The goal of this study is to evaluate seven outpatient strategies for the management of dyspeptic patients using a cost-utility analysis.
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The nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), especially Mycobacterium avium complex, are being recognized with increasing frequency as clinical pathogens, not only as a cause of disseminated disease in patients with AIDS but also as a cause of chronic lung disease in patients without AIDS. These infections have traditionally been difficult and frustrating to treat; however, the introduction of new agents, such as clarithromycin, azithromycin, and rifabutin, has significantly improved outcome for patients with some NTM infections. The new therapeutic regimens can be associated with severe toxicities and drug interactions that dictate the need for careful monitoring of patients undergoing treatment for M. avium complex disease. Clinicians will be called on with increasing frequency to determine the significance of NTM isolated from their patients. This determination will require knowledge about the pathogenicity and the appropriate therapy of a variety of NTM species.