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Fusidic acid is active against S. aureus in broth as well as intracellularly, with no cross-resistance to other antibiotics.
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We consider completing the indicated postoperative antibiotic prescription with antibiotic or antiseptic prophylaxis. Chlorhexidin prophylaxis could have the same positive effect. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(1), 13-19.
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Azithromycin gel has medical impact at least similar to Clindamycin Gel in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris, and it may be consider as suitable drug for resistant acne to conventional topical therapy.
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Studies involving the use of low-dose doxycycline, combinations of locally plus systemic antibiotics, or where the control group included a systemically administered antibiotic were excluded.
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Bacterial vaginosis is a clinical condition caused by replacement of the normal hydrogen peroxide producing Lactobacillus sp. in the vagina with high concentrations of characteristic sets of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Bacterial vaginosis is the most prevalent cause of vaginal discharge or malodor, although 50 percent of women who meet the criteria for this condition are asymptomatic. Bacterial vaginosis is reported in 10 to 41 percent of women, and new evidence has shown association with maternal and fetal morbidity. Studies have shown that spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, premature birth, preterm premature rupture of the membranes, amniotic fluid infection, postpartum endometritis, and postcesarean wound infections are increased because of infection with bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy. Clinical trials demonstrated important reductions in many of these adverse events with appropriate screening and antimicrobial treatment protocols. New low-cost, diagnostic, point-of-care screening tools are available for rapid screening of patients, affording the physician the opportunity to potentially make a dramatic clinical and cost impact in preventing preterm birth and the costly sequelae of prematurity. Practicing physicians need to be aware of current guidelines for screening and treating pregnant patients for bacterial vaginosis. The authors recommend that all pregnant women be screened and treated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-P) recommended oral regimens early in pregnancy. Each treated women should be evaluated for "test of cure" 1 month after treatment. Mothers likely to benefit from "screen and treat" approaches include 1) those with the highest concentrations of genital anaerobes and mycoplasmas, 2) women with prior preterm birth or who have low body mass (BMI < 19.8 kg/m2), 3) those with evidence of endometritis before pregnancy, and 4) those who are treated with oral agents effective for both presumed intrauterine mycoplasmas and other bacterial vaginosis flora (i.e., oral clindamycin or erythromycin and metronidazole).
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A two-part prospective study involving in vitro antimicro-bial studies using Porphyromonas spp obtained from naturally occurring feline infections and in vivo antimicrobial response studies using client-owned cats with naturally occurring periodontal disease.
No significant differences were observed in the resistance rates of S. pneumoniae in HIV-infected children compared to HIV-negative children. Multidrug-resistant pneumococci were highly prevalent in this Romanian orphanage in both HIV-negative and older HIV-infected children. The observed high prevalence of multidrug-resistant pneumococci (coupled with high penicillin resistance) with a limited number of circulating serotypes emphasizes the need to further evaluate the conjugate vaccines in children at risk for invasive pneumococcal infection.
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The accuracy of combining latex agglutination with selective media for the identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was determined. Test strains were identified by latex agglutination on blood agar, the heat-stable thermonuclease test and broth microdilution MICs of oxacillin and included 97 MRSA, 56 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, 52 methicillin resistant, and 49 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus species. Isolates were grown on trypticase-soy agar with 5% sheep red blood cells (TSAB), Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA), mannitol-salt agar (MSA), and four media designed for the selective growth of MRSA:TSAB with clindamycin and gentamicin, MHA with oxacillin, MSA with oxacillin, and lipovitellin-salt-mannitol agar (LVSM) with 1 microgram oxacillin disks applied. The mean sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for the combination of latex agglutination with selective media for the identification of MRSA was 96%, 99% and 98% respectively.
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1. Following single oral dosing of ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, erythromycin estolate, clindamycin and rifampicin to six normal volunteers, antibacterial activity was measured at 1, 3 and 6 h in serum, gingival fluid and minor gland saliva from all subjects and in parotid and submandiabular saliva from three. 2. pH values of all gingival fluid and saliva specimens were noted. 3. Partition coefficients between n-octanol and water were measured for erythromycin, clindamycin and rifampicin. Published data were used for ampicillin, cephalexin and tetracycline. 4. All antibiotics, but particularly rifampicin, were detected in gingival fluid. Only rifampicin and to a lesser degree, clindamycin were present in the other salivary constituents. 5. In studies of secretion of drugs in saliva, both the physico-chemical characteristics of the drugs and the physiological differences between individual salivary components should be considered. 6. Parotid saliva samples are likely to be of greatest value.
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This study compared the clinical and bacteriologic efficacy and tolerability of oral clindamycin with those of oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the outpatient treatment of acute recurrent GABHS pharyngotonsillitis.
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Patients ranged in age from 14 to 76 years. Thirteen patients were immunosuppressed, including nine organ transplant recipients; three were receiving steroids, and two had an underlying malignancy. The remainder were immunocompetent. Thirteen patients had prior surgery at or near the site of infection. M. hominis was isolated from normally sterile sites such as blood or cerebrospinal, pleural, abdominal and joint fluids, and bone. Non-sterile sites of isolation included surgical wounds and pulmonary secretions. The organism was detected in anaerobic cultures of clinical specimens sent to the laboratory for routine bacteriologic culture. Gram stains of fluids or wound drainage revealed neutrophils but no bacteria. Anti-mycoplasmal therapy was effective in eradicating the organism in 13 of 15 patients who were treated. Of those in whom treatment failed, one patient had an antibiotic-resistant isolate and the other had M. hominis isolated from the lung at postmortem after just 2 days of therapy.
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Susceptibility patterns of 15 antimicrobial agents were assessed for 3,400 isolates of beta-hemolytic (betahS) and viridans group (VgS) streptococci in the four regions of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program: Asia-Pacific (APAC), Europe (EU), Latin America (LA) and North America (NA). In 1997 through 2000, SENTRY Program monitors tested strains by reference broth microdilution methods and results were interpreted using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards criteria. Among the betahS processed, 81.9% of strains were either Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 650) or S. agalactiae (n = 1,190). The VgS were generally classified as unspeciated alpha-hemolytic streptococci (n = 512; 44%) or S. mitis (n = 254; 22%). Seven quinolones, two beta-lactams, erythromycin (ER), clindamycin (CM), quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D), vancomycin (VA), teicoplanin (TP) and linezolid (LZ) were tested. Rank order of susceptibility for betahS isolates was: ceftriaxone (CTX) = Q/D = VA = TP = LZ (100.0%) > gatifloxacin (GATI) = trovafloxacin (TROV, 99.8%) > levofloxacin (LEVO; 99.7%) > penicillin (PEN; 99.3%) > grepafloxacin (GREPA; 97.4%) > CM (94.4%) > ER (85.5%). ER versus betahS had the highest MIC(90) values (2 microg/ml) and the lowest susceptibility rates across all regions (range, 81.4% in NA to 97.3% in LA). Among the VgS, susceptibility rank order was: VA = TP = LZ (100.0%) > Q/D (99.1%) > GATI = LEVO = TROVA (98.0%) > GREPA (96.5%) > CTX (92.8%) > CM (90.3%) > PEN (68.6%) > ER (64.5%). Macrolide resistance in both streptococcal species groups of the M-phenotype was highest in the Americas, with erm-patterns predominating in EU and APAC regions. BMS284756 among the monitored new agents showed a four- to eight-fold greater potency versus these streptococcal isolates when compared to the other six tested quinolones. Like Streptococcus pneumoniae, these other streptococci appear to have acquired numerous resistances and require continued surveillance to direct adequate therapies.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections cause an important number of soft tissue and bone infections, although exact rates vary across different countries and institutions. The length of antibiotic treatment required depends upon the severity of infection and pre-existing co-morbidities. Monitoring response to treatment is important to ensure cure of infection whilst preventing excessive antibiotic use. Debridement and drainage, in addition to prosthesis removal, may be necessary. Numerous antibiotics are effective at treating soft tissue and bone infected with MRSA. Oral antibiotics, such as clindamycin, doxycycline and linezolid, generally offer good bioavailability and tissue penetration. They are separated largely by side effect profile and drug interactions, which should be considered carefully prior to use. There are also several agents only available in the intravenous (IV) form, for example glycopeptides, daptomycin and tigecycline. These are normally reserved for the treatment of severe infections. Whilst tissue penetration is variable within this group, it is the adverse events linked with each antibiotic that are most effective in determining the preferred agent.
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Clinical success rates (cure and improvement) occurred in 50 of 65 patients who received clindamycin (77 percent) and 17 of 69 patients who received placebo (25 percent) by the first posttreatment visit (p < 0.001). Microbiologic cures or improvement were observed in 59 of the 65 patients treated with clindamycin (91 percent) compared with 20 of 69 placebo-treated patients (29 percent) (p < 0.001). At the end of the study, clinical and microbiologic cures or improvement were evident in 45 of 57 (79 percent) and 37 of 57 clindamycin-treated patients (65 percent), respectively, and 18 of 51 (35 percent) and 14 of 51 (28 percent) of the placebo-treated patients, respectively. The success rates with clindamycin 2% cream were statistically higher than those with placebo. The adverse-effect profiles in the two groups were similar and no serious adverse effects were reported. Patients who received clindamycin had a statistically higher incidence of nonbacterial vaginitis/cervicitis (18.5 vs. 7.5 percent, p = 0.003).
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A. actinomycetemcomitans (125 strains), P. gingivalis (152 strains) and P. intermedia/P. nigrescens (326 strains) isolated during the years 1991-2005 were tested for their susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, clindamycin, metronidazole, phenoxymethylpenicillin and tetracycline using the Etest.
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To estimate the probability of positive intrapartum group B streptococcus cultures among women previously identified as carriers of this organism, and to estimate the susceptibility of group B streptococci to six commonly used antibiotics.
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MICs ranged for all the drugs, except telithromycin, from < or = 0.06 to > or = 256 mg/L, with 15% to 30% resistant S. pyogenes for all drugs tested except clindamycin (8%) and telithromycin (5.4%) and 10% to 40% resistant S. pneumoniae for all drugs tested except telithromycin (0.3%). In both S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae, erythromycin resistance related to a mef gene meant that telithromycin MICs were definitely higher than in erythromycin-susceptible isolates, although telithromycin susceptibility was preserved in all cases. In S. pyogenes, the activity of both 16-membered macrolides and telithromycin against the iMLS(B) strains proved to be dependent on the erm gene involved, being greater against isolates with erm(A).
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The mean cumulative irritancy index of adapalene combinations was significantly lower relative to tretinoin and tazarotene regimens (all P<.01). Test areas exposed to tretinoin or tazarotene were also more likely to be discontinued for severe irritation than those exposed to adapalene. There were no serious adverse events. No significant difference in the irritancy potentials of tazarotene and tretinoin combination regimens was observed.
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Staphylococci often form biofilms, sessile communities of microcolonies encased in an extracellular matrix that adhere to biomedical implants or damaged tissue. Infections associated with biofilms are difficult to treat, and it is estimated that sessile bacteria in biofilms are 1,000 to 1,500 times more resistant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts. This antibiotic resistance of biofilms often leads to the failure of conventional antibiotic therapy and necessitates the removal of infected devices. Lysostaphin is a glycylglycine endopeptidase which specifically cleaves the pentaglycine cross bridges found in the staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Lysostaphin kills Staphylococcus aureus within minutes (MIC at which 90% of the strains are inhibited [MIC(90)], 0.001 to 0.064 microg/ml) and is also effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis at higher concentrations (MIC(90), 12.5 to 64 microg/ml). The activity of lysostaphin against staphylococci present in biofilms compared to those of other antibiotics was, however, never explored. Surprisingly, lysostaphin not only killed S. aureus in biofilms but also disrupted the extracellular matrix of S. aureus biofilms in vitro on plastic and glass surfaces at concentrations as low as 1 microg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that lysostaphin eradicated both the sessile cells and the extracellular matrix of the biofilm. This disruption of S. aureus biofilms was specific for lysostaphin-sensitive S. aureus, as biofilms of lysostaphin-resistant S. aureus were not affected. High concentrations of oxacillin (400 microg/ml), vancomycin (800 microg/ml), and clindamycin (800 microg/ml) had no effect on the established S. aureus biofilms in this system, even after 24 h. Higher concentrations of lysostaphin also disrupted S. epidermidis biofilms.
The macrolide resistance gene erm(T) was identified for the first time in a porcine Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolate from swine in China. The novel 3,749-bp small plasmid pER29, which carries erm(T), had a G+C content of 31% and four distinct open reading frames. The presence of pER29 increased by at least 128-fold the MICs of clindamycin and erythromycin for E. rhusiopathiae. The fitness cost of pER29 could be responsible for the low frequency of erm(T) in E. rhusiopathiae.
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Nasal, throat, and palmar swabs were collected from 119 nursing students and 100 pharmacy students. S. aureus was identified and antibiogram obtained by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Inducible clindamycin resistance was detected by the D-test.
Standard drug regimens for prophylaxis of infection in a variety of surgical procedures were considered, including a first-generation cephalosporin; an aminoglycoside in combination with metronidazole, clindamycin or erythromycin; a second-generation cephalosporin; and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
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Human babesiosis due to Babesia microti is an emerging malaria-like infection that is endemic in parts of the northeastern and northcentral United States. The clinical manifestations of babesiosis range from subclinical illness to fulminant disease resulting in death. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is difficult because the signs and symptoms are non-specific. A CBC is a useful screening test since anemia and thrombocytopenia are commonly observed and parasites may be visualized on blood smear. Conclusive diagnosis of this disease generally depends upon microscopic examination of thin blood smears. Babesia frequently are overlooked, however, because parasitemia tends to be sparse, often infecting fewer than 1% of erythrocytes early in the course of the illness. Identification of amplifiable babesial DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has comparable sensitivity and specificity to microscopic analysis of thin blood smear for detection of babesia in blood. Serologic testing provides useful supplementary evidence of infection because a robust antibody response characterizes human babesial infection, even at the time that parasitemia first becomes detectable. The currently recommended therapy for babesiosis is a 7-10-day course of clindamycin (600 mg every 6 h) and quinine (650 mg every 8 h). Recently, azithromycin (500-600 mg on day 1, and 250-600 mg on subsequent days) and atovaquone (750 mg every 12 h) was found to be equally effective in treating adults experiencing babesiosis. This combination also was associated with fewer adverse reactions than clindamycin and quinine. Exchange transfusion is a potentially life-saving therapy for patients suffering from severe disease with high parasitemia (>5%), significant hemolysis, or renal or pulmonary compromise. Babesiosis may be prevented by avoiding areas such as tall grass and brush where ticks, deer, and mice are known to thrive.
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A randomized study of patients with diagnosis of colorectal neoplasms and undergoing elective surgery was performed at our institutions between January and September 2011. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups: Those undergoing an intra-abdominal lavage with normal saline (Group 1) and those undergoing an intra-abdominal lavage with a gentamicin-clindamycin solution (Group 2). Recurrence, global survival, and disease-free survival were investigated.
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We present the case of a 53-y-old patient who complained of fever, pain and oedema of the right knee and the right calf. Colour ultrasonography showed thrombosis of the tibial and peroneal veins, while paracentesis of the knee joint showed characteristics of an inflammatory exudate. Culture of the arthritic fluid revealed Streptococcus pyogenes. Thus, a diagnosis of a septic arthritis of the right knee in association with deep venous thrombosis of the right lower leg was established. From a review of the literature we found no other cases of septic arthritis in association with thrombosis of the adjacent vein. In conclusion, in cases of septic arthritis of a joint one has to consider ruling out thrombosis of the adjacent venous vessels, especially when oedema is not confined to the joint. Missing the diagnosis of such a complication will lead to increased morbidity and mortality.
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This review is an attempt to summarize our knowledge about taurine bromamine (TauBr) properties, its role in innate immunity and its therapeutic potential.TauBr and taurine chloramine (TauCl) are major haloamines generated by eosinophils and neutrophils at a site of inflammation. Both haloamines share anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. TauBr, similarly to TauCl, decreases the production of proinflammatory mediators. Their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities are enhanced by their ability to induce the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). TauCl is more stable than TauBr. On the other hand, only TauBr was found to be highly membrane-permeable showing stronger microbicidal activity than TauCl.In the light of the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties of TauBr we discuss its therapeutic potential in local treatment of inflammation, especially acne vulgaris, the most common inflammatory skin disorder. TauBr, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, is able to kill Propionibacterium acnes, the skin bacteria involved in pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.As topical antibiotics used in the therapy of acne are associated with the emergence of resistant bacteria, topical TauBr seems to be a good candidate for an alternative therapy.Recently, in a double blind trial, the efficacy of TauBr was compared with the efficacy of clindamycin, one of the most common topical antibiotics used in acne therapy. Comparable reduction of acne lesions was observed in the TauBr and clindamycin groups of patients with mild and moderate inflammatory facial acne vulgaris. We conclude that this pilot study supports our concept that TauBr can be used as a topical agent in the treatment of acne vulgaris, especially in patients who have already developed antibiotic resistance. Further studies are necessary to substantiate the more extended use of TauBr as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent in human medicine.