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Candidates for rituximab therapy were selected from a cohort of 118 patients with EGPA. The main indication for B-cells depletion was moderately severe or severe relapsing disease that was refractory to conventional immunosuppression. A primary end-point was a complete or partial remission within 3 to 6 months after rituximab administration.
Due to biochemical characteristics of toxic action of fluoroacetate on energetics and metabolism of cells, including tumor cells, it was interesting to testify sodium fluoroacetate (SFA) for its antitumor activity in vivo. We have estimated that SFA significantly inhibits growth of Ehrlich tumor carcinoma. In experiments with autochthonous induced by benzo[a]pyrene subcutaneous tumors, SFA was not active in monotherapy regime, though potentiated antitumor effect of cyclophosphamide, significantly increasing the relative number of mice with stabilized or decreased tumor volume as well as the duration of this effect. The data obtained render basis for additional studies of mechanism of antitumor effect of SFA.
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92 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of SCLC between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed.
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To determine survival time for dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma treated with splenectomy alone, identify potential prognostic factors, and evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy.
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Drug-induced nausea and vomiting, both post-operatively and following chemotherapy, is often distressing for the patients. Our clinical impression is that certain patients are not prone to but instead protected against both post-operative and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). If support for this hypothesis could be generated, it might be easier to identify such patients as low-risk patients and judge all other patients as high-risk patients by default.
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It is well established that mutations in the BRCA1 gene are a major risk factor for breast cancer. Induction of cancer cell death and inhibition of survival are the main principles of cancer therapy. In this context, autophagy may have dual roles in cancer, acting on the one hand as a tumor suppressor and on the other as a mechanism of cell survival that can promote the growth of established tumors. Therefore, understanding the role of autophagy in cancer treatment is critical. Moreover, defects in apoptosis, programmed cell death, may lead to increased resistance to chemotherapy.
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In this series, patients who received NAC/N-CRT for cT3 and/or cN+ PUC appeared to demonstrate improved survival compared with those who underwent upfront surgery with or without ACH.
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Our findings suggest that BCS after NCT in clinical stage III patients is oncologically safe in terms of LR if breast tumor size is ≤4 cm after NCT and Ki-67 is a predictor of LR after NCT.
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a high morbidity and mortality. Although cyclophosphamide is effective for severe and refractory cases, there is demand for new treatments. The biological treatment with B-cell depletion with rituximab (RTX) has demonstrated efficacy for this demand in open-label studies.
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KL-6 can be used as a lung fibrosis severity marker, but its role as a marker for disease activity is questionable. Furthermore, following cyclophosphamide treatment serum KL-6 levels may decrease independently of the lung function parameters.
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Glomerulonephritis (GN) accounts for 10%-20% of the total incident cases of end stage renal disease (ESRD), and is the third most common cause of ESRD after diabetes and hypertension in western countries. The pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis is prevalently immune mediated: humoral and cell-mediated immunity are involved, although the rationale for an etiological treatment is still lacking. In the last forty years, empirical treatment based upon the use of corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs have obtained excellent results in improving survival of both the patient and the kidney. Almost 95% of children affected by minimal change disease (MCD) achieve remission of proteinuria within 4 to 8weeks of prednisone administration. In adults with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), prednisone induces complete or partial remission in the majority of patients, but a longer period of steroid treatment or the combination of calcineurin inhibitors or cytotoxic drugs can be needed. A percentage of 65%-70% of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN) reach complete or partial remission with a 6-month course of therapy alternating glucocorticoids with alkylating agents. Glucocorticoids plus cyclophosphamide, and, on occasion, plasmapheresis are effective in 70%-90% of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Fifty percent of responders relapse within the 3-5years and currently, the mortality of AAV at 1year exceeds 15%. This article is aimed to analyze the risk-to-benefit balance of steroids and conventional immunosuppressive regimens, focusing, for a sake of brevity, on idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) and ANCA associated vasculitis.
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On baseline PET, all cases showed (18)F-FDG-avidity, and ALK expression was related to higher (18)F-FDG uptake. ALK-positive patients tend to have better PFS than ALK-negative patients. Negative-interim PET was a good indicator of CR, and interim or post-therapy PET was helpful for predicting the prognosis only in the ALK-negative group.
Age, sex, stage and the mean duration of follow-up were similar in both groups (p>0.05 ). Two- and five-year OS levels were 68.2% in the carboplatin group and 78.0% and 40.0%, respectively, in the actinomycin-D group. There was no statistical difference in the number of febrile episodes (p=0.86 ) and no other hematological and non-hematological adverse effects were recorded in both groups.
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To report the safety and efficacy of combined cyclophosphamide and rituximab treatment in Saudi children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Medical records of all children with SLE treated with cyclophosphamide and rituximab between June 2007 and June 2012 at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, were reviewed for demographic characteristics, age at diagnosis, concomitant treatments, indication of using rituximab and adverse events during the treatment period. Clinical and serologic response parameters included SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), complement, anti-ds DNA antibody and ANA levels, and mean daily corticosteroid dose assessed 3 months before combined cyclophosphamide and rituximab infusion course and at 6-month interval afterward. Sixteen patients (13 girls) with refractory SLE treated with cyclophosphamide and rituximab were included. The mean age at onset of SLE was 7.8 + 3.3 years, while the mean age at diagnosis was 8.1 + 3.4 years; the mean disease duration was 4.7 + 3.2 years. All patients were treated with corticosteroid and immunosuppressive drugs. Nephritis (8 patients) was the most frequent indication; other indications included refractory arthritis, thrombocytopenia, severe mucocutaneous lesions and central nervous system involvement. All patients received 2 doses, but 4 required 4-8 extra doses. All patients showed improvement in response parameters. There was significant reduction in SLEDAI (P < 0.0002) and corticosteroid dose (P < 0.005). A total of 4 adverse events were notified; 2 developed infusion-related reactions. One patient had severe soft tissue fungal infection, and other patient had pancreatitis. Our data showed beneficial therapeutic and steroid-sparing effects of rituximab as adjunctive treatment for children with refractory SLE including both renal and extrarenal manifestations. Although rituximab was well tolerated by the majority of patients, it may associated with various adverse events.
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Central nervous system (CNS) relapse continues to be a frequent and usually fatal complication in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Multiple factors identify the possibility of relapse and justify neurological prophylaxis; however, most of these have not been confirmed. Thus, the use of prophylaxis has not been defined. From 1988 to 2008, 3,258 patients with DLBCL with higher clinical risks and multiple extranodal involvement that have been treated with standard anthracycline-based chemotherapy: CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) or CHOP-R (CHOP plus rituximab) and that achieve complete response were retrospectively analyzed to assess the efficacy of CNS prophylaxis. One thousand five patients received different schedules for CNS prophylaxis, and 2,253 patients did not receive CNS prophylaxis. CNS relapse was similar in patients who receive prophylaxis (6 %) compared to patients who did not receive prophylaxis (5.9 %). Overall survival of patients who either receive or did not receive prophylaxis was not statistically significant: 49 % versus 53 % (p = 0.802). Thus, it seems that CNS prophylaxis did not improve outcome in this special setting of patients, and no prognostic factors to predict the presence of CNS relapse were identified. It is evident that multicentric studies are necessary to define the role of prophylaxis in order to prevent CNS relapse and that the therapeutic procedure will be carefully revised.
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A 46-year-old man developed a fever and cough, and computed tomography showed multiple, nodular infiltrative shadows in lungs. He was diagnosed as having intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, T2W1) showed an abnormal signal area in the pons, which was IVLBCL involvement. R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) therapy and intrathecal (I.T.) injection of methotrexate, cytarabine and prednisolone were selected. Complete remission (CR) was achieved and pontine involvement disappeared. A total of 8 courses of R-CHOP therapy and 4 courses of I.T. were performed. CR has been maintained for 1 year and 2 months.
Pleural effusion or ascites complicating plasmacytoma is rare and has a poor prognosis. A 70-year-old man was diagnosed as plasma cell leukemia and one course of ranimustine-vindesine, melphalan, and prednisolone followed by melphalan and prednisone (MP) maintained a very good partial response. After MP he was diagnosed to have pleural effusion and ascites as a complication of the plasmacytoma. Low-dose bortezomib caused disappearance of the malignant effusion. The malignant effusions recurred after the end of the second course of bortezomib. High-dose dexamethasone vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone yielded no benefit, the patient died of Aspergillus pneumonia.
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Amyloid light-chain amyloidosis (ALA) is a rare disease with poor prognosis and is often associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, multiple myeloma, or Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Only high-dose melphalan with auto-peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) has shown high long-term hematological response rates, but combinations with novel agents, including bortezomib or lenalidomide, have recently shown high hematological response rates for AL amyloidosis patients. In the present study, we treated eight Japanese patients with AL amyloidosis using bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (CyBorD). Overall response rate was 100 %; four patients (50 %) had complete remissions (CR), two (25 %) had very good partial responses, and two (25 %) had partial responses. Five of six patients (83 %) had organ responses in the heart and/or kidney. A relapsed patient repeatedly achieved CR with the CyBorD treatment. One patient died of sudden cardiac arrest a month after normalization of his serum free light chain level, which may be attributable to his spending the previous 6 months undergoing PBSCT collection and high-dose melphalan with auto-PBSCT. Altogether, the CyBorD regimen achieved high levels of hematological responses relatively quickly (within 2-3 months). The CyBorD regimen, rather than high-dose melphalan treatment, could serve as a first-line therapy for Japanese patients with ALA.
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To compare the transplant-related toxicity and the efficacy of busulfan/fludarabine (Bu/Flu) and busulfan/cyclophosphamide (Bu/Cy) as conditioning regimen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia(AML) in the first complete remission (CR1).
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Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a synthetic antineoplastic drug with severe and life-threatening side effects. Studies in search of protective agents, preferably natural products, that can alleviate these side effects are valuable because they can contribute to improve current chemotherapeutic treatment strategies. Curculigo orchioides Gaertn (family Hypoxidaceae) is well known for its medicinal use in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine, and various studies have been reported that proved its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the tumor reduction capacity of CTX in combination with C orchioides methanolic extract was studied using Dalton's lymphoma ascites-induced solid tumor models. Effect of C orchioides on the reversal of the damage induced by CTX administration (intraperitoneally) was also determined in this study. For this, solid tumor volume, serum cytokine levels, hematolological parameters, intestinal histopathology, and serum and tissue biochemical parameters (Glutathione [GSH], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], glutamate pyruvate transaminase [GPT], lipid peroxidation [LPO]) were analyzed. Immune suppression and increased serum proinflammatory cytokine levels caused by CTX administration (25 mg/kg body weight) were reversed by C orchioides (20 mg/kg body weight). The alcoholic extract enhanced the tumor reduction capacity of CTX and reduced GPT and ALP levels in liver and serum, which were elevated by CTX administration. The LPO level was also lower in the CTX-administered animals when treated with the C orchioides extract. In conclusion, the plant extract when administered in combination with CTX, can result in enhanced anticancer properties; it also ameliorates the toxic side effects of CTX.
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Nineteen RCTs (820 children enrolled; 773 evaluated) were included. Most studies were small. Eleven studies were at low risk of bias for allocation concealment and only four studies were at low risk of performance bias. Fifteen, eight and 10 studies were at low risk of detection bias, attrition bias and reporting bias respectively. Cyclosporin when compared with placebo or no treatment significantly increased the number of children who achieved complete remission. However this was based on only eight children who achieved remission with cyclosporin compared with no children who achieved remission with placebo/no treatment in three small studies (49 children: RR 7.66, 95% CI 1.06 to 55.34). Calcineurin inhibitors significantly increased the number with complete or partial remission compared with IV cyclophosphamide (2 studies, 156 children: RR 1.98, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.13; I(2) = 20%). There was no significant differences in the number who achieved complete remission between tacrolimus versus cyclosporin (1 study, 41 children: RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.66), cyclosporin versus mycophenolate mofetil plus dexamethasone (1 study, 138 children: RR 2.14, 95% CI 0.87 to 5.24), oral cyclophosphamide with prednisone versus prednisone alone (2 studies, 91 children: RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.87), IV versus oral cyclophosphamide (1 study, 11 children: RR 3.13, 95% CI 0.81 to 12.06), IV cyclophosphamide versus oral cyclophosphamide plus IV dexamethasone (1 study, 49 children: RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.96), and azathioprine with prednisone versus prednisone alone (1 study, 31 children: RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.15 to 5.84). One study found no significant differences between three agents (cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, leflunomide) used in combination with tacrolimus and prednisone. One study found no significant difference in the percentage reduction in proteinuria (31 children: -12; 95% CI -73 to 110) between rituximab with cyclosporin/prednisolone and cyclosporin/prednisolone alone. Two studies reported ACEi significantly reduced proteinuria.
All 335 patients were followed up until death or the end of Jan. 2012, with a median follow-up period of 38.8 (2-64) months. It was shown that the variant genotype of XRCC1 399Gln/Gln was strongly significantly associated with a decreased risk of death from breast cancer, with an HR (95% CI) of 0.52 (0.28-0.91). Similarly, individuals carrying the ADPRT 762Ala/Ala demonstrated longer survival compared to ADPRT 762 Val/ Val, with an HR (95% CI) of 0.58 (0.31-0.97). Individuals with combination genotypes of XRCC1 399Gln allele and ADPRT 762Ala/Ala presented with a longer survival, the HR (95% CI) being 0.56 (0.32-0.97).
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A single intraperitoneal CP injection significantly elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species and oxidation of lipids and proteins, which are the hallmarks of oxidative damage in liver and serum. In consequence, the primary defensive reduced glutathione, total thiol and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase, were significantly reduced. In addition, liver and serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase along with acid and alkaline phosphatase were considerably increased. Oral administration of crocin significantly rejuvenated all the above altered markers to almost normal state. The protective efficacy of crocin was further supported by the histological assessment and restoration of CP-induced inflammatory cytokines and enzyme levels compared with the control drug.
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Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is (partly) mediated by free radical overload. A randomized study was performed in breast cancer patients to investigate whether free radical scavenger super oxide dismutase (SOD) protects against anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity as measured by changes in echo, electrocardiography and an array of biomarkers.
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Susac's Syndrome (SS) is a rare disease with unknown aetiology due to a microangiopathy affecting the precapillary arterioles of the brain, retina, cochlea and semicircular canals. Neurological manifestations, visual dysfunction and hearing loss represent the classical clinical triad of SS. Diagnosis is confirmed by laboratory investigations, neuroimaging findings, fluoroangiography and inner-ear studies. An early treatment with steroids and immunosuppressors limits the sequelae of disease. We report a case of SS in which the clinical triad occurred in a very short period of time. Brain MRI showed the involvement of cerebellum, this representing a rare neuroradiological finding in SS. A full remission of disease was obtained by using corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide in the acute-subacute phase and methotrexate as maintenance therapy. This latter has never been used before in SS.
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We evaluated the effects of phenylalanine on reproductive performance and teratogenesis in mice, as well as we assessed its protective effect in mice treated with an acute dose of cyclophosphamide. Animals were divided into 6 experimental groups (females N = 15/group, males N = 5/group): G1, the negative control group, phosphate-buffered saline; G2, the positive control group, 35 mg cyclophosphamide/kg body weight (b.w.); G3 and G4 received phenylalanine at doses of 150 and 300 mg/ kg b.w., respectively; G5 and G6 received phenylalanine at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg b.w. co-administered with cyclophosphamide at a dose of 35 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Pregnant mice received phenylalanine from 8-12 days of pregnancy and cyclophosphamide on the 10th day of treatment or the respective vehicles. In animals treated with cyclophosphamide, offspring fetal weight significantly decreased. The G5 and G6 groups, which received cyclophosphamide co-administered with phenylalanine, showed a smaller reduction in weight. Based on this analysis, the offspring from groups G2, G5, and G6 showed low weight due to pregnancy age. Moreover, at the doses used, phenylalanine did not interfere with embryo-fetal development. However, further studies are necessary to increase the understanding of the effects of phenylalanine on mouse reproductive performance and teratogenesis.