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Cytoxan (Cyclophosphamide)
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Cytoxan

Cytoxan is used for treating certain types of the following cancers: lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, mycosis fungoides, neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, eye cancer, and breast cancer. It is usually used in combination with other medicines. It may also be used to treat certain kidney problems (nephrotic syndrome) in children or for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Xeloda, Paclitaxel

 

Also known as:  Cyclophosphamide.

Description

Cytoxan is an antineoplastic. It works by stopping or slowing the growth or spread of certain cancer cells.

Generic name of Cytoxan is Cyclophosphamide.

Cytoxan is also known as Cyclophosphamide, Cycloxan.

Brand name of Cytoxan is Cytoxan.

Dosage

Take Cytoxan tablets by mouth.

Swallow Cytoxan with water.

Take your doses at regular intervals.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Cytoxan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature at or below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. This medicine can be stored at room temperatures of up to 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) for a short time. Protect from temperatures above 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cytoxan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Cytoxan if you are allergic to Cytoxan components or to other similar medicines.

Do not take Cytoxan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Cytoxan if you are taking tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking medicines (etanercept).

Cytoxan may reduce the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your blood. To prevent bleeding, avoid situations in which bruising or injury may occur.

Cytoxan may lower your body's ability to fight infection. Prevent infection by avoiding contact with people with colds or other infections.

Use Cytoxan with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Cytoxan may decrease your body's ability to heal wounds.

Cytoxan may increase your chance of developing a second cancer, sometimes even years after stopping treatment with Cytoxan.

Cytoxan may cause infertility that is sometimes permanent.

Be very careful receiving any vaccinations while you are using Cytoxan.

The use of birth control is recommended while using Cytoxan.

Lab tests, including complete blood cell counts, platelet counts, and urine tests, may be performed to monitor your progress or to check for side effects.

Elderly people hould be very careful with Cytoxan because they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.

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Candidates for rituximab therapy were selected from a cohort of 118 patients with EGPA. The main indication for B-cells depletion was moderately severe or severe relapsing disease that was refractory to conventional immunosuppression. A primary end-point was a complete or partial remission within 3 to 6 months after rituximab administration.

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Due to biochemical characteristics of toxic action of fluoroacetate on energetics and metabolism of cells, including tumor cells, it was interesting to testify sodium fluoroacetate (SFA) for its antitumor activity in vivo. We have estimated that SFA significantly inhibits growth of Ehrlich tumor carcinoma. In experiments with autochthonous induced by benzo[a]pyrene subcutaneous tumors, SFA was not active in monotherapy regime, though potentiated antitumor effect of cyclophosphamide, significantly increasing the relative number of mice with stabilized or decreased tumor volume as well as the duration of this effect. The data obtained render basis for additional studies of mechanism of antitumor effect of SFA.

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92 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of SCLC between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed.

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To determine survival time for dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma treated with splenectomy alone, identify potential prognostic factors, and evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy.

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Drug-induced nausea and vomiting, both post-operatively and following chemotherapy, is often distressing for the patients. Our clinical impression is that certain patients are not prone to but instead protected against both post-operative and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). If support for this hypothesis could be generated, it might be easier to identify such patients as low-risk patients and judge all other patients as high-risk patients by default.

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It is well established that mutations in the BRCA1 gene are a major risk factor for breast cancer. Induction of cancer cell death and inhibition of survival are the main principles of cancer therapy. In this context, autophagy may have dual roles in cancer, acting on the one hand as a tumor suppressor and on the other as a mechanism of cell survival that can promote the growth of established tumors. Therefore, understanding the role of autophagy in cancer treatment is critical. Moreover, defects in apoptosis, programmed cell death, may lead to increased resistance to chemotherapy.

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In this series, patients who received NAC/N-CRT for cT3 and/or cN+ PUC appeared to demonstrate improved survival compared with those who underwent upfront surgery with or without ACH.

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Our findings suggest that BCS after NCT in clinical stage III patients is oncologically safe in terms of LR if breast tumor size is ≤4 cm after NCT and Ki-67 is a predictor of LR after NCT.

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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a high morbidity and mortality. Although cyclophosphamide is effective for severe and refractory cases, there is demand for new treatments. The biological treatment with B-cell depletion with rituximab (RTX) has demonstrated efficacy for this demand in open-label studies.

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KL-6 can be used as a lung fibrosis severity marker, but its role as a marker for disease activity is questionable. Furthermore, following cyclophosphamide treatment serum KL-6 levels may decrease independently of the lung function parameters.

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Glomerulonephritis (GN) accounts for 10%-20% of the total incident cases of end stage renal disease (ESRD), and is the third most common cause of ESRD after diabetes and hypertension in western countries. The pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis is prevalently immune mediated: humoral and cell-mediated immunity are involved, although the rationale for an etiological treatment is still lacking. In the last forty years, empirical treatment based upon the use of corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs have obtained excellent results in improving survival of both the patient and the kidney. Almost 95% of children affected by minimal change disease (MCD) achieve remission of proteinuria within 4 to 8weeks of prednisone administration. In adults with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), prednisone induces complete or partial remission in the majority of patients, but a longer period of steroid treatment or the combination of calcineurin inhibitors or cytotoxic drugs can be needed. A percentage of 65%-70% of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN) reach complete or partial remission with a 6-month course of therapy alternating glucocorticoids with alkylating agents. Glucocorticoids plus cyclophosphamide, and, on occasion, plasmapheresis are effective in 70%-90% of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Fifty percent of responders relapse within the 3-5years and currently, the mortality of AAV at 1year exceeds 15%. This article is aimed to analyze the risk-to-benefit balance of steroids and conventional immunosuppressive regimens, focusing, for a sake of brevity, on idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) and ANCA associated vasculitis.

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On baseline PET, all cases showed (18)F-FDG-avidity, and ALK expression was related to higher (18)F-FDG uptake. ALK-positive patients tend to have better PFS than ALK-negative patients. Negative-interim PET was a good indicator of CR, and interim or post-therapy PET was helpful for predicting the prognosis only in the ALK-negative group.

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Age, sex, stage and the mean duration of follow-up were similar in both groups (p>0.05 ). Two- and five-year OS levels were 68.2% in the carboplatin group and 78.0% and 40.0%, respectively, in the actinomycin-D group. There was no statistical difference in the number of febrile episodes (p=0.86 ) and no other hematological and non-hematological adverse effects were recorded in both groups.

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To report the safety and efficacy of combined cyclophosphamide and rituximab treatment in Saudi children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Medical records of all children with SLE treated with cyclophosphamide and rituximab between June 2007 and June 2012 at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, were reviewed for demographic characteristics, age at diagnosis, concomitant treatments, indication of using rituximab and adverse events during the treatment period. Clinical and serologic response parameters included SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), complement, anti-ds DNA antibody and ANA levels, and mean daily corticosteroid dose assessed 3 months before combined cyclophosphamide and rituximab infusion course and at 6-month interval afterward. Sixteen patients (13 girls) with refractory SLE treated with cyclophosphamide and rituximab were included. The mean age at onset of SLE was 7.8 + 3.3 years, while the mean age at diagnosis was 8.1 + 3.4 years; the mean disease duration was 4.7 + 3.2 years. All patients were treated with corticosteroid and immunosuppressive drugs. Nephritis (8 patients) was the most frequent indication; other indications included refractory arthritis, thrombocytopenia, severe mucocutaneous lesions and central nervous system involvement. All patients received 2 doses, but 4 required 4-8 extra doses. All patients showed improvement in response parameters. There was significant reduction in SLEDAI (P < 0.0002) and corticosteroid dose (P < 0.005). A total of 4 adverse events were notified; 2 developed infusion-related reactions. One patient had severe soft tissue fungal infection, and other patient had pancreatitis. Our data showed beneficial therapeutic and steroid-sparing effects of rituximab as adjunctive treatment for children with refractory SLE including both renal and extrarenal manifestations. Although rituximab was well tolerated by the majority of patients, it may associated with various adverse events.

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Central nervous system (CNS) relapse continues to be a frequent and usually fatal complication in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Multiple factors identify the possibility of relapse and justify neurological prophylaxis; however, most of these have not been confirmed. Thus, the use of prophylaxis has not been defined. From 1988 to 2008, 3,258 patients with DLBCL with higher clinical risks and multiple extranodal involvement that have been treated with standard anthracycline-based chemotherapy: CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) or CHOP-R (CHOP plus rituximab) and that achieve complete response were retrospectively analyzed to assess the efficacy of CNS prophylaxis. One thousand five patients received different schedules for CNS prophylaxis, and 2,253 patients did not receive CNS prophylaxis. CNS relapse was similar in patients who receive prophylaxis (6 %) compared to patients who did not receive prophylaxis (5.9 %). Overall survival of patients who either receive or did not receive prophylaxis was not statistically significant: 49 % versus 53 % (p = 0.802). Thus, it seems that CNS prophylaxis did not improve outcome in this special setting of patients, and no prognostic factors to predict the presence of CNS relapse were identified. It is evident that multicentric studies are necessary to define the role of prophylaxis in order to prevent CNS relapse and that the therapeutic procedure will be carefully revised.

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A 46-year-old man developed a fever and cough, and computed tomography showed multiple, nodular infiltrative shadows in lungs. He was diagnosed as having intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, T2W1) showed an abnormal signal area in the pons, which was IVLBCL involvement. R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) therapy and intrathecal (I.T.) injection of methotrexate, cytarabine and prednisolone were selected. Complete remission (CR) was achieved and pontine involvement disappeared. A total of 8 courses of R-CHOP therapy and 4 courses of I.T. were performed. CR has been maintained for 1 year and 2 months.

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Pleural effusion or ascites complicating plasmacytoma is rare and has a poor prognosis. A 70-year-old man was diagnosed as plasma cell leukemia and one course of ranimustine-vindesine, melphalan, and prednisolone followed by melphalan and prednisone (MP) maintained a very good partial response. After MP he was diagnosed to have pleural effusion and ascites as a complication of the plasmacytoma. Low-dose bortezomib caused disappearance of the malignant effusion. The malignant effusions recurred after the end of the second course of bortezomib. High-dose dexamethasone vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone yielded no benefit, the patient died of Aspergillus pneumonia.

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Amyloid light-chain amyloidosis (ALA) is a rare disease with poor prognosis and is often associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, multiple myeloma, or Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Only high-dose melphalan with auto-peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) has shown high long-term hematological response rates, but combinations with novel agents, including bortezomib or lenalidomide, have recently shown high hematological response rates for AL amyloidosis patients. In the present study, we treated eight Japanese patients with AL amyloidosis using bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (CyBorD). Overall response rate was 100 %; four patients (50 %) had complete remissions (CR), two (25 %) had very good partial responses, and two (25 %) had partial responses. Five of six patients (83 %) had organ responses in the heart and/or kidney. A relapsed patient repeatedly achieved CR with the CyBorD treatment. One patient died of sudden cardiac arrest a month after normalization of his serum free light chain level, which may be attributable to his spending the previous 6 months undergoing PBSCT collection and high-dose melphalan with auto-PBSCT. Altogether, the CyBorD regimen achieved high levels of hematological responses relatively quickly (within 2-3 months). The CyBorD regimen, rather than high-dose melphalan treatment, could serve as a first-line therapy for Japanese patients with ALA.

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To compare the transplant-related toxicity and the efficacy of busulfan/fludarabine (Bu/Flu) and busulfan/cyclophosphamide (Bu/Cy) as conditioning regimen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia(AML) in the first complete remission (CR1).

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Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a synthetic antineoplastic drug with severe and life-threatening side effects. Studies in search of protective agents, preferably natural products, that can alleviate these side effects are valuable because they can contribute to improve current chemotherapeutic treatment strategies. Curculigo orchioides Gaertn (family Hypoxidaceae) is well known for its medicinal use in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine, and various studies have been reported that proved its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the tumor reduction capacity of CTX in combination with C orchioides methanolic extract was studied using Dalton's lymphoma ascites-induced solid tumor models. Effect of C orchioides on the reversal of the damage induced by CTX administration (intraperitoneally) was also determined in this study. For this, solid tumor volume, serum cytokine levels, hematolological parameters, intestinal histopathology, and serum and tissue biochemical parameters (Glutathione [GSH], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], glutamate pyruvate transaminase [GPT], lipid peroxidation [LPO]) were analyzed. Immune suppression and increased serum proinflammatory cytokine levels caused by CTX administration (25 mg/kg body weight) were reversed by C orchioides (20 mg/kg body weight). The alcoholic extract enhanced the tumor reduction capacity of CTX and reduced GPT and ALP levels in liver and serum, which were elevated by CTX administration. The LPO level was also lower in the CTX-administered animals when treated with the C orchioides extract. In conclusion, the plant extract when administered in combination with CTX, can result in enhanced anticancer properties; it also ameliorates the toxic side effects of CTX.

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Nineteen RCTs (820 children enrolled; 773 evaluated) were included. Most studies were small. Eleven studies were at low risk of bias for allocation concealment and only four studies were at low risk of performance bias. Fifteen, eight and 10 studies were at low risk of detection bias, attrition bias and reporting bias respectively. Cyclosporin when compared with placebo or no treatment significantly increased the number of children who achieved complete remission. However this was based on only eight children who achieved remission with cyclosporin compared with no children who achieved remission with placebo/no treatment in three small studies (49 children: RR 7.66, 95% CI 1.06 to 55.34). Calcineurin inhibitors significantly increased the number with complete or partial remission compared with IV cyclophosphamide (2 studies, 156 children: RR 1.98, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.13; I(2) = 20%). There was no significant differences in the number who achieved complete remission between tacrolimus versus cyclosporin (1 study, 41 children: RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.66), cyclosporin versus mycophenolate mofetil plus dexamethasone (1 study, 138 children: RR 2.14, 95% CI 0.87 to 5.24), oral cyclophosphamide with prednisone versus prednisone alone (2 studies, 91 children: RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.87), IV versus oral cyclophosphamide (1 study, 11 children: RR 3.13, 95% CI 0.81 to 12.06), IV cyclophosphamide versus oral cyclophosphamide plus IV dexamethasone (1 study, 49 children: RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.96), and azathioprine with prednisone versus prednisone alone (1 study, 31 children: RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.15 to 5.84). One study found no significant differences between three agents (cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, leflunomide) used in combination with tacrolimus and prednisone. One study found no significant difference in the percentage reduction in proteinuria (31 children: -12; 95% CI -73 to 110) between rituximab with cyclosporin/prednisolone and cyclosporin/prednisolone alone. Two studies reported ACEi significantly reduced proteinuria.

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All 335 patients were followed up until death or the end of Jan. 2012, with a median follow-up period of 38.8 (2-64) months. It was shown that the variant genotype of XRCC1 399Gln/Gln was strongly significantly associated with a decreased risk of death from breast cancer, with an HR (95% CI) of 0.52 (0.28-0.91). Similarly, individuals carrying the ADPRT 762Ala/Ala demonstrated longer survival compared to ADPRT 762 Val/ Val, with an HR (95% CI) of 0.58 (0.31-0.97). Individuals with combination genotypes of XRCC1 399Gln allele and ADPRT 762Ala/Ala presented with a longer survival, the HR (95% CI) being 0.56 (0.32-0.97).

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A single intraperitoneal CP injection significantly elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species and oxidation of lipids and proteins, which are the hallmarks of oxidative damage in liver and serum. In consequence, the primary defensive reduced glutathione, total thiol and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase, were significantly reduced. In addition, liver and serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase along with acid and alkaline phosphatase were considerably increased. Oral administration of crocin significantly rejuvenated all the above altered markers to almost normal state. The protective efficacy of crocin was further supported by the histological assessment and restoration of CP-induced inflammatory cytokines and enzyme levels compared with the control drug.

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Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is (partly) mediated by free radical overload. A randomized study was performed in breast cancer patients to investigate whether free radical scavenger super oxide dismutase (SOD) protects against anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity as measured by changes in echo, electrocardiography and an array of biomarkers.

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Susac's Syndrome (SS) is a rare disease with unknown aetiology due to a microangiopathy affecting the precapillary arterioles of the brain, retina, cochlea and semicircular canals. Neurological manifestations, visual dysfunction and hearing loss represent the classical clinical triad of SS. Diagnosis is confirmed by laboratory investigations, neuroimaging findings, fluoroangiography and inner-ear studies. An early treatment with steroids and immunosuppressors limits the sequelae of disease. We report a case of SS in which the clinical triad occurred in a very short period of time. Brain MRI showed the involvement of cerebellum, this representing a rare neuroradiological finding in SS. A full remission of disease was obtained by using corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide in the acute-subacute phase and methotrexate as maintenance therapy. This latter has never been used before in SS.

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We evaluated the effects of phenylalanine on reproductive performance and teratogenesis in mice, as well as we assessed its protective effect in mice treated with an acute dose of cyclophosphamide. Animals were divided into 6 experimental groups (females N = 15/group, males N = 5/group): G1, the negative control group, phosphate-buffered saline; G2, the positive control group, 35 mg cyclophosphamide/kg body weight (b.w.); G3 and G4 received phenylalanine at doses of 150 and 300 mg/ kg b.w., respectively; G5 and G6 received phenylalanine at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg b.w. co-administered with cyclophosphamide at a dose of 35 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Pregnant mice received phenylalanine from 8-12 days of pregnancy and cyclophosphamide on the 10th day of treatment or the respective vehicles. In animals treated with cyclophosphamide, offspring fetal weight significantly decreased. The G5 and G6 groups, which received cyclophosphamide co-administered with phenylalanine, showed a smaller reduction in weight. Based on this analysis, the offspring from groups G2, G5, and G6 showed low weight due to pregnancy age. Moreover, at the doses used, phenylalanine did not interfere with embryo-fetal development. However, further studies are necessary to increase the understanding of the effects of phenylalanine on mouse reproductive performance and teratogenesis.

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cytoxan tablet form 2016-05-30

The final Chemo-N0 trial analysis (recruitment 1993-1998; n=647; 12 centres) comprises 113 (5- buy cytoxan 167) months of median follow-up. Patients with low-uPA and PAI-1 tumour tissue levels (n=283) were observed. External quality assurance guaranteed uPA/PAI-1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardisation. Of 364 high uPA and/or PAI-1 patients, 242 agreed to randomisation for CMF chemotherapy (n=117) versus observation (n=125).

cytoxan generic price 2015-03-28

Rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) was given on days 0, 1, buy cytoxan 4, 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57, 71, 85, and 99 together with six CHOP-14 cycles. Results were to be compared with patients who had received the same chemotherapy in combination with eight 2-week applications of rituximab in RICOVER-60.

cytoxan mg 2017-01-30

Despite many unanswered questions regarding the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc-ILD) and the lack of accurate epidemiological risk factors, there have been major advances in the identification and prognostic evaluation of SSc-ILD. The evaluation of disease severity is a multidisciplinary exercise, requiring the integration of pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography data, and symptomatic severity and these factors all need to be considered in the detection of disease progression. Except in a minority of patients with reversible inflammatory disease, the primary goal of treatment is the prevention of disease progression. Current treatment regimens are centered on immunosuppressive therapy with controlled treatment data largely confined to the use of cyclophosphamide. The results of two controlled buy cytoxan trials indicate that cyclophosphamide therapy is appropriate in SSc-ILD patients with extensive fibrotic lung involvement. There is a need to broaden therapeutic approaches with the exploration of rituximab (based on recent pilot data) and antifibrotic agents, shown to have treatment effects in other fibrotic interstitial lung diseases. However, it is also important to avoid the overtreatment of SSc-ILD patients with limited nonprogressive lung involvement. In that setting, an initial policy of nonintervention but meticulous observation ("masterful inactivity with cat-like observation") is often warranted.

cytoxan tablet dosage 2016-06-29

Treatment responses and clinical outcomes in Asian patients with LN compare favorably with patients from other parts of the world. The prevention and treatment buy cytoxan of infective complications remain significant challenges in managing LN in Asia.

cytoxan overdose 2015-09-06

Treatment with imiquimod significantly inhibited tumor growth, an effect that was associated with increased tumor infiltration by CD11c(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) cells, and abolished by depletion of CD8(+) cells. Administration of imiquimod in combination with RT enhanced significantly tumor response compared with either treatment alone (P < 0.005), and 11% to 66% of irradiated tumors completely regressed. Importantly, the addition of topical imiquimod also resulted in growth inhibition buy cytoxan of a secondary tumor outside of the radiation field. Low-dose cyclophosphamide given before start of treatment with imiquimod and RT further improved tumor inhibition and reduced tumor recurrence. Mice that remained tumor-free rejected a tumorigenic inoculum of TSA cells, showing long-term immunologic memory.

cytoxan drug class 2017-03-18

MYC dysregulation, including MYC gene rearrangement and Myc protein overexpression, is of buy cytoxan increasing clinical importance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the roles of MYC and the relative importance of rearrangement vs overexpression remain to be refined. Gaining knowledge about the tumor biology associated with MYC dysregulation is important to understand the roles of MYC and MYC-associated biology in lymphomagenesis. In this study, we determined MYC rearrangement status (n=344) and Myc expression (n=535) in a well-characterized DLBCL cohort, individually assessed the clinical and pathobiological features of patients with MYC rearrangement and Myc protein overexpression, and analyzed the prognosis and gene expression profiling signatures associated with these MYC abnormalities in germinal center B-cell-like and activated B-cell-like DLBCL. Our results showed that the prognostic importance of MYC rearrangement vs Myc overexpression is significantly different in germinal center B-cell-like vs activated B-cell-like DLBCL. In germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL, MYC-rearranged germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL patients with Myc overexpression significantly contributed to the clinical, biological, and prognostic characteristics of the overall Myc-overexpressing germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL group. In contrast, in activated B-cell-like DLBCL, the occurrence, clinical and biological features, and prognosis of Myc overexpression were independent of MYC rearrangement. High Myc levels and Myc-independent mechanisms, either tumor cell intrinsic or related to tumor microenvironment, conferred significantly worse survival to MYC-rearranged germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL patients, even among Myc(high)Bcl-2(high) DLBCL patients. This study provides new insight into the tumor biology and prognostic effects associated with MYC dysregulation and suggest that detection of both MYC translocations and evaluation of Myc and Bcl-2 expression is necessary to predict the prognosis of DLBCL patients.

cytoxan user reviews 2017-07-29

Objective. To assess the effect of different lasers on cyclophosphamide- (CTX-) induced leucopenia in rats. Methods. 11 rats were normal control and 55 rats were injected with a dose of 80 mg/kg CTX for the first time and 40 mg buy cytoxan /kg on the 6th and the 11th days to establish a leucopenia model. Rats of the irradiation groups received a 5-minute laser irradiation with either single 10.6  μ m or 650 nm laser or alternatively 10.6  μ m-650 nm laser irradiation, besides a sham treatment on acupoint Dazhui (DU 14) and acupoint Zusanli (ST 36) of both sides, 8 times for 16 days. Normal and model control group received no treatment. Results. On day 16 after the first CTX injection, the WBC counts from all the laser irradiation groups were significantly higher than those from the model control and the sham group (P < 0.05), while there were no significant differences compared with the normal control (P > 0.05). The TI of 10.6  μ m-650 nm laser irradiation group was significantly higher than that of the model control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. The single and combined 10.6  μ m and 650 nm laser irradiation on ST36 and DU14 accelerated the recovery of the WBC count in the rats with leucopenia.

cytoxan dosage vasculitis 2015-11-10

Preoperative bevacizumab and chemotherapy may benefit a subset of breast cancer (BC) patients. To explore potential mechanisms of this benefit, we conducted a buy cytoxan phase II study of neoadjuvant bevacizumab (single dose) followed by combined bevacizumab and adriamycin/cyclophosphamide/paclitaxel chemotherapy in HER2-negative BC. The regimen was well-tolerated and showed a higher rate of pathologic complete response (pCR) in triple-negative (TN)BC (11/21 patients or 52%, [95% confidence interval (CI): 30,74]) than in hormone receptor-positive (HR)BC [5/78 patients or 6% (95%CI: 2,14)]. Within the HRBCs, basal-like subtype was significantly associated with pCR (P = 0.007; Fisher exact test). We assessed interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and tissue biopsies before and after bevacizumab monotherapy and circulating plasma biomarkers at baseline and before and after combination therapy. Bevacizumab alone lowered IFP, but to a smaller extent than previously observed in other tumor types. Pathologic response to therapy correlated with sVEGFR1 postbevacizumab alone in TNBC (Spearman correlation 0.610, P = 0.0033) and pretreatment microvascular density (MVD) in all patients (Spearman correlation 0.465, P = 0.0005). Moreover, increased pericyte-covered MVD, a marker of extent of vascular normalization, after bevacizumab monotherapy was associated with improved pathologic response to treatment, especially in patients with a high pretreatment MVD. These data suggest that bevacizumab prunes vessels while normalizing those remaining, and thus is beneficial only when sufficient numbers of vessels are initially present. This study implicates pretreatment MVD as a potential predictive biomarker of response to bevacizumab in BC and suggests that new therapies are needed to normalize vessels without pruning.

cytoxan drug 2015-04-16

Retrospective analysis of peripheral blood stem cell collection data [CD34⁺ cells collected, successful mobilization rate (CD34⁺ cells≥2×10⁶/kg body weight), good mobilization rate (CD34⁺ cells≥5×10⁶/kg body weight)] of 149 multiple myeloma patients who were treated with cyclophosphamide (CTX) or E-CHOP (etoposide+ CTX+epirubicin+vindesine+prednisone) chemotherapy combined with G-CSF mobilization from January 1998 buy cytoxan to March 2014. The relevance between gender, age, subtype, DS staging, ISS staging, treatment before mobilization, disease status at mobilization, regiment of mobilizationand the collection results was analyzed.

cytoxan high dose 2015-02-10

The aim of this study is to develop and buy cytoxan validate a wipe sampling procedure followed by liquid chromatographic separation with electrospray ionization and a tandem mass spectrometric detection method for the simultaneous determination of cyclophosphamide (CP), docetaxel (DOC), doxorubicin (DOXO) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).

cytoxan dosing schedule 2016-04-21

Among women with high-risk early breast cancer, the use of tailored dose-dense chemotherapy compared buy cytoxan with standard adjuvant chemotherapy did not result in a statistically significant improvement in breast cancer recurrence-free survival. Nonhematologic toxic effects were more frequent in the tailored dose-dense group.

cytoxan 100 mg 2016-04-27

NACT before primary radical surgery followed by adjuvant chemoradiation or chemotherapy was well tolerated and seems to be effective for early stage SCNEC patients. Prospective clinical study is necessary and we hope that this research's results help to design a prospective clinical study. buy cytoxan

cytoxan oral dosage 2015-09-28

Extranodal involvement is considered a buy cytoxan poor prognostic factor for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); however, the prognostic impact of specific sites of involvement has not been fully elucidated.

cytoxan drug action 2017-12-02

TNBC is not a uniform molecular or disease entity but a constellation of variably well-defined biological properties whose relationship to each other is not understood. There is good support for the existence of a basal expression subtype, p53 mutated, high-genomic instability subtype of TNBC. This should be considered a distinct TNBC subtype. Other subtypes with variable degrees of supporting evidence exist within the nonbasal/p53wt (wild-type p53) TNBC, including a group of TNBC with PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathway activation that buy cytoxan have better overall prognosis than the basal TNBC. Consistent molecular phenotyping of TNBC by whole genome sequencing, transcriptomics, and functional studies with patient-derived tumor xenograft models will be essential components in clinical and biological studies as means of resolving this heterogeneity.

cytoxan chemo drug 2017-10-04

Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease has been reported to coexist with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positive vasculitis. Seronegative anti-GBM disease has been previously described and mostly blamed for Mobic Drug Meloxicam the relative insensitivity of earlier serologic assays. A 58-year-old male was transferred to our facility for acute kidney injury. Prior to his hospital admission, the patient had a 2 week history of progressive fatigue, fevers, anorexia, vomiting, decreased urine output, sinus congestion, and non-productive cough. His creatinine reached 13 mg/dL. P-ANCA was positive, anti GBM antibody was negative twice, and urinalysis showed hematuria. Chest x-ray demonstrated diffuse opacities, concerning for pulmonary hemorrhage. Renal biopsy showed a severe necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis with circumferential crescents. There was bright linear glomerular basement membrane staining with IgG consistent with anti-GBM disease. Given these findings, the patient was started on oral cyclophosphamide (160 mg daily), in addition to pulse dose methylprednisolone. He was also initiated on therapeutic plasma exchange. Due to worsening renal function, hemodialysis was started. The patient was discharged from the hospital and completed a course of treatment with cyclophosphamide and prednisone but remains oligo-anuric and hemodialysis dependent at 150 days since presentation. This case highlights the importance of tissue diagnosis in situations similar to this.

cytoxan 150 mg 2015-03-17

Bortezomib targets molecular dysregulation of nuclear factor-κB activation and cell cycle control, which are characteristic features of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We evaluated the Tofranil Drug Classification safety and efficacy of bortezomib treatment with dose-dense cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) every 2 weeks (CHOP-14).

cytoxan in pills 2017-03-15

A total of 46 of 81 contacted patients with a median age of 32.5 years at the time of enrolment into the aforementioned clinical trials responded to the questionnaire. The median follow-up after completion of treatment was 14 Cardura Bph Dosage years. Last menstrual bleeding occurred significantly earlier in patients compared with the general population (47 versus 51 years, P < 0.0001). In comparison to the distribution of menopausal symptoms in the general population, the percentage of women with moderate or severe menopausal symptoms was increased. In 23 patients who agreed to participate in laboratory analyses, anti-Muller hormone as a marker of ovarian reserve was decreased when compared with correspondent age groups of the general population.

cytoxan storage 2016-10-25

Cryoglobulinaemia is a systemic inflammatory condition characterised by immune complex-mediated small-to-medium-sized vasculitis. It has a wide variety of presentations ranging from bruising, neuropathy, and hepatosplenomegaly to acute renal failure. Mixed cryoglobulinaemia is the most common type and is strongly associated with hepatitis C. Management approaches include use of cyclophosphamide, prednisolone, and plasmapheresis, with differing views on alternative treatments in resistant cases. Rituximab has emerged as an attractive option in resistant cases on account of its potent immunosuppressive effects on B cells. We describe a case of type 2 mixed cryoglobulinaemia in association with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma resistant to standard treatments which responded well to rituximab. This case is remarkable as mixed cryoglobulinaemia associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting with nephritis is unusual, and, contrary to the high rate of recurrence in lymphoma-related cryoglobulinaemia, our patient has not shown any recurrence over 24 months. This highlights an alternative treatment modality which Norvasc Generic can be used in patients not responsive to existing managements for this condition with benefits of minimal side effects and no oncogenetic potential.

cytoxan chemotherapy drug 2015-04-17

This was a single-center retrospective observational study. All pregnancies in women with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (n = 13) and microscopic Cialis Tablets polyangiitis (n = 1) were included. Women of childbearing age were counseled to abstain from pregnancy during or shortly after disease activity or <1 year after cyclophosphamide treatment.

cytoxan brand name 2016-08-20

Clinical data, including respiratory function, imaging, treatment, and prognosis, were retrospectively collected for 17 patients with RA-ILD who required hospitalization at the University of Tokyo Hospital due to an acute Vantin Medication exacerbation (12 patients) or subacute exacerbation (5 patients).