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The four 1-week treatment regimens were equally effective in healing H. pylori associated duodenal ulcer disease.
Tetanus accounted for 1.1 % of our ICU admission. Eight tetanus patients (mean age 52 years; M: F ratio 7:1) were admitted. The tetanus prone wounds of seven patients were managed at home. The most common presenting complaints were trismus and stiffness of neck and back (87.5%). Elective intubation was followed by tracheostomy in all the patients. Overall mean duration of ventilatory support was 12.5 days. Treatments given in ICU were diazepam, magnesium sulphate, tetanus immunoglobulin, metronidazole, wound management and supportive measures. Five patients (62.5%) developed autonomic instability and three patients had ventilatory associated pneumonia (37.5%). Average ICU stay was 15.1 days while hospital stay was 20.1 days. Five patients (62.5%) survived the course of disease. Two patients (25%) left the hospital against medical advice while the other (12.5%) died in ICU.
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We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (14 January 2011).
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The chemistry, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, efficacy, and safety of the recently introduced combination antimicrobial agent ceftolozane-tazobactam are reviewed.
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To critically review evidence on the role of non-bismuth quadruple therapy (PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin-nitroimidazole) in the treatment of H. pylori infection.
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Antimicrobial resistance in Helicobacter pylori is a serious and increasing problem, and the development of rapid, reliable methods for detecting resistance would greatly improve the selection of antibiotics used to treat gastric infection with this organism. We assessed whether detection of the RdxA protein could provide the basis for determining the susceptibility of H. pylori to metronidazole. In order to raise polyclonal antisera to RdxA, we cloned the rdxA gene from H. pylori strain 26695 into the commercial expression vector pMAL-c2, purified the resultant fusion protein by affinity chromatography, and used this recombinant RdxA preparation to immunize rabbits. We then used this specific anti-RdxA antibody to perform immunoblotting on whole bacterial cell lysates of 17 metronidazole-sensitive and 27 metronidazole-resistant clinical isolates of H. pylori. While a 24-kDa immunoreactive band corresponding to the RdxA protein was observed in all metronidazole-sensitive strains, this band was absent in 25 of 27 resistant isolates. Our results indicate that testing for the absence of the RdxA protein would identify the majority of clinical isolates that will respond poorly to metronidazole-containing eradication regimens and have implications for the development of assays capable of detecting metronidazole resistance in H. pylori.
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Cure was observed in all 56 patients. The institutional review board stopped the treatment arm as it was adding risk with no further benefit to the patients. An observational cohort with additional 75 cases was followed up in the no treatment arm and no failure was identified (probability of an adverse event, 0%; 95% confidence interval, 0-0.03).
The in vitro inhibitory activity of 11 antimicrobials against 44 clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile was investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using E test. Metronidazole (MIC90 0.38 microg/mL), teicoplanin (MIC90 0.75 microg/mL) and vancomycin (MIC90 1.0 microg/mL) were very active against the isolates examined, whereas, resistance to imipenem, cefoxitin, clindamycin and ciprofloxacin was found in most of the tested strains. We concluded that teicoplanin warrants clinical trials to determine its adequate dosage to treat C. difficile infection. The commonly used regimens to treat intra-abdominal and/or anaerobic infections (eg. imipenem, cefoxitin, clindamycin or ciprofloxacin) need special attention, while considering the side effects of C. difficile-associated diarrhea.
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Four children (aged 7-11 years; male-female, 3:1) were admitted in our institution with history of high-grade fever with chills, anorexia, left hypochondrial pain, and splenomegaly. One child was a known case of thalassemia, and one had a history of typhoid fever. The others did not have any predisposing condition. Ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomographic scan of the abdomen showed a solitary abscess in the spleen in 2 patients and multiple abscesses in the other 2. Ultrasonography-guided needle aspiration in 3 cases revealed purulent fluid, which, on culture, grew Escherichia coli in 1 case, Salmonella paratyphi A in 1 case, but sterile in 1 case. Blood culture was sterile in all the cases, but Widal's test was positive in 2 patients. Treatment protocol included USG-guided needle aspiration of pus along with intravenous ceftriaxone, metronidazole, and amikacin for 3 to 12 weeks.
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Western diets increase colon cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence and experimental studies suggest that ginseng can inhibit colon cancer development. In this study we asked if ginseng could inhibit Western diet (20% fat) promoted colonic tumorigenesis and if compound K, a microbial metabolite of ginseng could suppress colon cancer xenograft growth.
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None of the Candida strains had entirely the same (100%) susceptibility / resistance profiles in both batches of corresponding antimycotic drugs; while, different multiple antifungal susceptibility (MAS) rates were also recorded in batches 1 and 2 for corresponding antifungals. Only 14.3%, 27.3%, 16.7-33.3%, and 8.3-25.0% of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. pseudotropicalis, and C. tropicalis strains, respectively, had similar susceptibility/resistance profiles toward coressponding antifungal agents in both batches; while up to 57.1% of C. albicans, 45.5% of C. glabrata, 66.7% of C. pseudotropicalis, and 50.0% of C. tropicalis strains were susceptible to one batch of antifungals but resistant to corresponding antifungals in the second batch. As high as 71.4% (C. albicans), 73.0% (C. glabrata), 50.0% (C. pseudotropicalis), and 66.74% (C. tropicalis) strains had differences of ≥ 10.0 mm among corresponding antimycotic agents.
This retrospective cohort study employed data from 464 UK ambulatory practices participating in The Health Improvement Network. All children with ≥ 2 years of follow-up from 1994 to 2009 were followed between practice enrollment and IBD development, practice deregistration, 19 years of age, or death; those with previous IBD were excluded. All antibiotic prescriptions were captured. Antianaerobic antibiotic agents were defined as penicillin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, tetracyclines, clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin, carbapenems, and oral vancomycin.
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Oral administration of RDZ at 30 to 50 mg/kg q12h for 14 days resolved diarrhea and eradicated infection (on the basis of polymerase chain reaction [PCR] testing) in 1 naturally infected cat and 10 experimentally inoculated cats receiving a different isolate of T. foetus.
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Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
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This report describes a 3-year-old child who presented with generalised oedema and hypoproteinaemia owing to giardiasis, was treated with oral metronidazole and recovered fully 10 days after therapy. The importance of considering giardiasis in patients with hypoproteinaemia of obscure aetiology is emphasised.
Lemierre's syndrome is characterized by acute oropharyngeal infection complicated by internal jugular venous thrombosis secondary to septic thrombophlebitis, and metastatic abscesses. We report a case of Lemierre's syndrome in an 18-year-old Caucasian woman presenting with a peritonsillar abscess and ipsilateral VIth cranial nerve palsy.
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The growth-inhibiting activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC dried inner bark-derived constituents against Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504 was examined using paper disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) bioassays. The activity of the isolated compounds was compared to that of the commercially available anti-Helicobacter pylori agents, amoxicillin, metronidazole, and tetracycline. The biologically active components of Tabebuia impetiginosa dried inner bark (taheebo) were characterized by spectroscopic analysis as 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone, anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, and 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (lapachol). With the paper disc diffusion assay 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone exhibited strong activity against Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504 at 0.01 mg/disc. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, lapachol and metronidazole were less effective, exhibiting moderate anti-Helicobacter pylori activity at 0.1 mg/disc. Amoxicillin and tetracycline were the most potent compounds tested, displaying very strong activity at 0.005 mg/disc. 2-(Hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone exhibited moderate activity at this dose. Tetracycline still had strong activity at 0.001 mg/disc while amoxicillin had little activity at this dose. In the MIC bioassay, 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone (2 microg/mL), anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (8 microg/mL), and lapachol (4 microg/mL) were more active than metronidazole (32 microg/mL) but less effective than amoxicillin (0.063 microg/mL) and tetracycline (0.5 microg/mL). The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of seven 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives (structurally related to lapachol), 1,4-naphthoquinone, 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin), 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (lawsone), 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin), 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (juglone), and 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (dichlone) was also evaluated using the paper disc assay. Menadione and plumbagin were the most potent compounds tested with the later still exhibiting very strong activity at 0.001 mg/disc. Menadione, juglone and tetracycline had strong activity at this low dose while the latter two compounds and amoxicillin had very strong activity at 0.005 mg/disc. Lawsone was unusual in that it had very strong activity at 0.1 and 0.05 mg/disc but weak activity at doses of 0.01 mg/disc and lower. Naphthazalin, lapachol and dichlone had similar activities while metronidazole had the lowest activity of all compounds tested. These results may be an indication of at least one of the pharmacological actions of taheebo. The Tabebuia impetiginosa dried inner bark-derived materials, particularly 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone, merit further study as potential Helicobacter pylori eradicating agents or lead compounds.
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Contexte : Un hôpital de district à Kaboul, Afghanistan, soutenu par Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF).Objectifs : Evaluer les pratiques en matière de prescription d'antibiotiques en consultation externe en été (août 2013) et en hiver (janvier 2014).Schema : Etude transversale basée sur les données hospitalières recueillies en routine et la méthode de dose thérapeutique quotidienne (DDD) de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS).Resultats : L'analyse de 4857 prescriptions (été) et de 4821 prescriptions (hiver) a montré que respectivement 62% et 50% de tous les consultants externes se voyaient prescrire au moins un antibiotique. Les prescriptions non accompagnées d'un diagnostic établi représentaient une proportion importante de l'ensemble des antibiotiques prescrits. En ce qui concerne les infections respiratoires hautes (URTI), les problèmes dentaires, les infections urinaires (UTI) et la diarrhée, on notait une bonne adhésion aux doses recommandées dans les directives standard de traitement de MSF quand on les mesurait en fonction des DDD. Cependant, certains médicaments, ne figurant pas dans les directives, étaient néanmoins prescrits comme par exemple l'amoxicilline et la métronidazole dans les UTI et l'azithromycine dans les URTI.Conclusion : Les taux de prescriptions d'antibiotiques en consultation externe dans un hôpital de district d'Afghanistan étaient très élevés, atteignant le double des recommandations de l'OMS de 30%. Même s'il n'a pas été observé de non adhésion aux doses recommandées, il semble y avoir eu des prescriptions inappropriées pour certaines pathologies. Cette étude suggère que la connaissance des déterminants de la prescription d'antibiotiques en fonction du contexte est une première étape dans la rationalisation des pratiques de prescription dans ce type de situation.
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The study group consisted of 30 patients with 141 admissions. During metabolic crises, hyperammonemia was found in 130 (92%) admissions and almost all patients were managed with normal saline, ≥ 10% dextrose, and restriction of protein intake. In 56 (40%) admissions, management was done in intensive care unit, 31 (22%) with mechanical ventilation, 10 (7%) with haemodialysis, 16 (11%) with vasopressor agents, and 12 (9%) with insulin. In the rescue procedure, L-carnitine was used in 135 (96%) patients, sodium bicarbonate in 116 (82%), sodium benzoate in 76 (54%), and metronidazole in 10 (7%), biotin in about one-quarter, L-arginine in one third, and antibiotics in three-quarter of the admissions. Blood/packed RBCs were used in 28 (20%) patients, platelets in 26 (18%), fresh frozen plasma in 8 (6%), and granulocyte-colony stimulating factors in 10 (7%) admissions. All patients were managed completely/partially with medical nutrition formula plus amino acid mixture, vitamins and minerals. For long-term management 24 (80%) patients were on L-carnitine, 22 (73%) on sodium benzoate, 6 (20%) on biotin, one half on alkaline therapy and 4 (13%) on regular metronidazole use. Almost all patients were on medical formula and regular follow-up.
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We evaluated the efficacy of the nonsystemic oral antibiotic rifaximin for the treatment of metronidazole-resistant C. difficile infection. Twenty-five patients with C. difficile infection were enrolled in the study. All had mild-to-moderate C. difficile infection (5-10 bowel movements a day without sepsis) unresponsive to metronidazole (i.e. stools positive for toxins A and B after oral metronidazole 500 mg three times daily [t.i.d.] for 5 days). After discontinuation of metronidazole, rifaximin 400 mg t.i.d. for 14 days was prescribed. Patients were followed for 56 days and stool was tested for C. difficile using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess the effect of treatment. A negative PCR test result was interpreted as a favorable response to rifaximin.
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Current and future treatment modalities for Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) are reviewed.
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The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of a 1-week proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy after failure of dual therapy in Helicobacter pylori eradication, and to compare the effectiveness of clarithromycin and metronidazole in this regimen. Between January 1996 and March 1997, 67 patients with persistent H. pylori infection after a 2-week course of dual therapy (amoxicillin plus omeprazole) were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to receive amoxicillin (1000 mg twice daily) and omeprazole (20 mg twice daily) plus either metronidazole (500 mg twice daily) or clarithromycin (250 mg twice daily). Endoscopy was performed in each patient to assess the status of H. pylori using the rapid urease test (CLOtest) and the histologic findings before dual therapy, after dual therapy, and after triple therapy. H. pylori isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance when triple therapy failed. The 1-week triple therapy was well tolerated in both groups with no adverse effects severe enough to cause withdrawal from the trial. Residual H. pylori was eradicated in 94% (33/35) of patients in the clarithromycin group and 84% (27/32) in the metronidazole group; the difference was not statistically significant. All seven patients in whom triple therapy failed were infected with metronidazole-resistant isolates and two also had clarithromycin-resistant isolates. This 1-week triple therapy is safe and effective in eradicating residual H. pylori after dual therapy failure. Failure of the rescue regimen is related to antimicrobial agent resistance. Because of the high metronidazole resistance rate in Taiwan, clarithromycin appears to be more promising than metronidazole for the control of H. pylori.
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Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant flora in the normal human skin and mucous membranes and are, therefore, a common cause of endogenous infections. Since anaerobic infections are generally polymicrobial, where anaerobes are mixed with aerobic organisms, therapy should provide coverage of both types of pathogens. The isolation of anaerobes requires appropriate methods of collection, transportation and cultivation of specimens. The lack of use of any of these methods can lead to inadequate recovery of anaerobes and inappropriate therapy. Treatment of anaerobic infection is complicated by the slow growth of these organisms and the growing resistance of anaerobic bacteria to antimicrobials. The primary role of antimicrobials is to limit the local and systemic spread of infection. Surgical drainage is of primary importance. This includes debriding of necrotic tissue, draining the pus, improving circulation, alleviating obstruction and increasing tissue oxygenation. The most effective antimicrobials against anaerobic organisms are metronidazole, the carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem and ertapenem), chloramphenicol, the combinations of a penicillin and a beta-lactamase inhibitor (ampicillin or ticarcillin plus clavulanate, amoxicillin plus sulbactam, and piperacillin plus tazobactam), tigecycline and clindamycin.
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A total of 120 patients were eligible for analysis. By intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis, the eradication rates were 83% and 86% in the RAM-10 group and 75% and 76% in the RAM-20 group, respectively (P = 0.26 and P = 0.17). Both regimens were well-tolerated and compliance was >98% in both groups.
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The response rate was 40.3% (n=140). Of these 52.9 % were public health dental officers (PHDOs) and 47.1% were dental surgeons. The males constituted 74.3% of the respondents. There were statistically significant differences be-tween dental surgeons and (PHDOs) in knowledge on prophylactic antibiotic use (P = 0.001) and patient influence on pre-scription (P = 0.001). Amoxicillin, in combination with metronidazole, was the most common combination of antibiotics used followed by co-trimoxazole with metronidazole.
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We investigated whether variations in gene expression of enzymes associated with anaerobic resistance of laboratory-derived strains of Trichomonas vaginalis could be detected in a group of 28 clinical isolates with variations in metronidazole sensitivity. We compared isolates by real-time PCR because this method allows for highly sensitive quantification of mRNA and for evaluation of several genes simultaneously. We found that PFOR gene A mRNA levels were highly correlated with PFOR gene B levels, as well as the D subunit of malic enzyme and ferrodoxin. Ferrodoxin mRNA expression was also significantly correlated with that of malic enzyme and hydrogenase. However, when we evaluated relationships between these enzymes and resistance to metronidazole, we found no significant correlations between aerobic or anaerobic in vitro sensitivity to drug and mRNA levels of any of the enzymes tested. Similarly, using a Student's t-test, no significant differences in enzyme mRNA levels were observed between isolates separated by metronidazole resistance or susceptibility. The lack of correlation between gene expression and resistance or susceptibility could be the result of differences in expression at the protein level or because other biochemical pathways or genes are involved in the resistance observed in clinical settings.
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In this retrospective study, we collected radiographs from 54 published and unpublished endodontic regenerative cases and 40 control cases (20 apexification and 20 nonsurgical root canal treatments) and used a geometrical imaging program, NIH ImageJ with TurboReg plug-in, to minimize potential differences in angulations between the preoperative and recall images and to calculate continued development of root length and dentin wall thickness.
The eradication rate was significantly higher in tailored group than in triple plus bismuth and concomitant groups in both intention-to-treat (88.7 vs 77.4 vs 78.3%, p < .001) and per-protocol (93.3 vs 87.0 vs 87.4%, p = .021) analyses in a setting with high antibiotic resistance (clarithromycin 48.8%, metronidazole 65.7%, and dual resistance 35.3%). Significantly, fewer adverse effects occurred in tailored group than in concomitant group (22.0 vs 31.7%, p = .018). The eradication rates of dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance, isolated clarithromycin resistance, isolated metronidazole resistance, and dual susceptible were 78.7, 82.4, 94.8, and 94.4% in triple therapy plus bismuth and 75.9, 87.2, 92.9, and 95.2% in concomitant therapy, respectively.