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Indocin (Indomethacin)

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Indocin is an effective medication which helps to fight with pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis. Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Indomethacin.


Indocin is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis.

Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Indocin is also known as Indometacin, Indocid, Inmecin, Indochron E-R, Indocin-SR, Flexin Continus, Indolar, Indomax, Indomod, Pardelprin, Rheumacin, Rimacid, Slo-Indo.

It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.


Shake the liquid form of Indocin before using.

Take Indocin tablets and liquid form orally with water.

Take Indocin once or twice a day at the same time.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Indocin suddenly.


If you overdose Indocin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Indocin overdosage: vomiting, migraine, lightheadedness, confusion, extreme tiredness, feeling of numbness, pricking, burning, creeping on the skin, convulsions, dyspepsia.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Indocin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Indocin if you are allergic to Indocin components.

Do not take Indocin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Indocin if you are taking angiotensin ii receptor antagonists such as candesartan (atacand), eprosartan (teveten), irbesartan (avapro), losartan (cozaar), olmesartan (benicar), telmisartan (micardis), and valsartan (diovan); beta blockers such as atenolol (tenormin), labetalol (normodyne), metoprolol (lopressor, toprol xl), nadolol (corgard), and propranolol (inderal); cyclosporine (neoral, sandimmune); digoxin (lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills') such as triamterene (dyrenium, in dyazide); lithium (eskalith, lithobid); methotrexate (rheumatrex); phenytoin (dilantin); and probenecid (benemid), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors such as benazepril (lotensin), captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), fosinopril (monopril), lisinopril (prinivil, zestril), moexipril (univasc), perindopril (aceon), quinapril (accupril), ramipril (altace), and trandolapril (mavik).

It can be dangerous to use Indocin if you suffer from or have a history of seizures, parkinson's disease, depression or mental illness, or liver or kidney disease.

Be careful with Indocin if you are planning to use indomethacin suppositories.

Be careful with Indocin if you had proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) or have recently had rectal bleeding, asthma, frequent stuffed or runny nose or nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose).

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful with Indocin if you are going to have a surgery.

Avoid driving machine.

Do not stop take it suddenly.

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Solid-state reactions are highly anisotropic. Different polymorphs of the same compound may have remarkably different chemical reactivities. It was reported that two polymorphs of indomethacin single crystals, alpha- and gamma-forms, reacted with ammonia gas at dramatically different rates. In this study, the effect of crystal packing on their difference in chemical reactivity was investigated by examining the electronic structures and properties of the crystal forms.

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Intraoperative pupil diameter, postoperative day 1 pain and inflammation, 1-month postoperative retinal thickness, and preoperative and 1-month postoperative best-corrected visual acuities.

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Whereas exogenous H(2)S delivered to the knee joint can produce a significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effect, locally produced H(2)S exerts little immunomodulatory effect. These data further support the development and use of H(2)S donors as potential alternatives (or complementary therapies) to the available anti-inflammatory compounds used for treatment of joint inflammation or relief of its symptoms.

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Salicylic acid demonstrated potential as a compound for incorporation into anti-bacterial strategies to prevent bacterial contamination of contact lenses. This study highlighted the potential for NSAIDs as anti-bacterial agents and indicates that this class of compound should be investigated for other suitable candidates.

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Ketorolac is an injectable nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is often used as a transitional short-term analgesic to treat moderate pain and to decrease opioid use. There is a paucity of literature documenting the safety of using ketorolac in neonates and infants after cardiac surgery.

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Perioperative blood loss after meloxicam is less than after indomethacin. These in vivo findings are consistent with in vitro results using selective COX 2 NSAIDs.

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Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have been reported to contract intralobar pulmonary arteries (PA) of the rabbit in a cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent manner. In the present study, we observed that COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms were expressed in freshly isolated PA of healthy rabbits. We examined the hypothesis that both COX isoforms participate in 5,6-EET-induced contraction of rabbit intralobar PA. Selective inhibition of COX-1 with 300 nM 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole (SC-560) prevented 5,6-EET (1x10(-8)-1x10(-5) M)-induced contractions of isolated intralobar rabbit PA rings in a manner similar to that observed with the nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin at 10 microM. Selective inhibition of COX-2 with either 100 nM 5-bromo-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(4-methylsulfonyl) thiophene (DUP-697) or 3 microM N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl) methanesulfonamide (NS-398) shifted the EC50 value of 5,6-EET-induced PA contraction to the right but with considerably lower efficacy than SC-560. In rabbit PA, 5,6-EET-induced contraction was primarily dependent on COX-1 activity. Differential metabolism of 5,6-EET by COX-1 and COX-2 does not explain the primary dependence of PA contraction on COX-1 activity because 5,6-EET was metabolized similarly by both COX isoforms. COX-1 and -2 were expressed primarily in PA endothelium where COX-1 expression was dense and uniform, whereas COX-2 expression was sparse and nonuniform. 5,6-EET-induced PA contraction was endothelium-dependent. These results suggest that 5,6-EET-induced contraction is primarily dependent on COX-1 activity.

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Telfairia occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) is a tropical vine grown in West Africa as a leaf vegetable and for its edible seeds. The plant is noted to have healing properties. It is used as a blood tonic to revive weak/ill individuals and its use by sickle cell patients has been documented. In this study, the antinociceptive activity of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis (TO) was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, tail clip, and hot plate tests in mice. The carrageenan- and egg albumin-induced rat paw edema tests were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action. The extract (50-400 mg/kg, p.o.) produced significant (P<.05) dose-dependent inhibition of pain response elicited by acetic acid and formalin while also increasing the nociceptive reaction latency in the tail clip and hot plate tests. In respect of anti-inflammatory activity, the extract elicited significant (P<.05) time and dose-dependent inhibition of edema development in the carrageenan and egg albumin tests. Peak effects of TO in the models were generally comparable with the effects of the standard drugs (acetylsalicylic acid, morphine, indomethacin, and chlorpheniramine) used. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, phlobatannins, and anthraquinones. The extract did not produce any mortality and visible signs of delayed toxicity when administered orally up to 2000 mg/kg. The LD50 (i.p.) was estimated to be 4073.80 mg/kg. The results obtained in this study suggest that TO possesses antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities possibly mediated through peripheral and central mechanisms involving inhibition of release and/or actions of vasoactive substances and prostaglandins.

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In rat thoracic aorta segments contracted with phenylephrine (Phe) (10(-7) mol/l), malathion (10(-10) to 10(-5) mol/l) induced concentration-dependent relaxation in arteries with intact endothelium (n = 7; p < 0.05). Malathion-mediated relaxation was blocked by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10(-4) mol/l), a nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor, and/or indomethacin (10(-5) mol/l), a nonspecific cyclooxygenase inhibitor (n = 10, p < 0.05). In thoracic aorta rings, with and without endothelium, Phe (10(-10) to 10(-5) mol/l) evoked concentration-dependent contraction, which was reduced in the presence of malathion. In rings with or without endothelium, incubated with malathion, L-NAME and indomethacin, the Phe-induced contraction was restored. The role of NO was confirmed using flow cytometry. Malathion evokes endothelium-dependent relaxation through the M1 muscarinic receptor, since this relaxation was clearly blocked by atropine (M1 and M2 blocker) and pirenzepine (M1 blocker), but was less blocked by gallamine (M2 blocker) or 4-DAMP (M3 blocker).

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The application of stimuli-responsive medical practices has emerged, in which pH-sensitive liposomes figure prominently. This study investigates the impact of the incorporation of different amounts of pH-sensitive polymer, C12H25-PAA (poly(acrylic acid) with a hydrophobic end group) in l-α-phosphatidylcholine, hydrogenated (Soy) (HSPC) phospholipidic bilayers, with respect to biomimicry and functionality. PAA is a poly(carboxylic acid) molecule, classified as a pH-sensitive polymer, whose pH-sensitivity is attributed to its regulative -COOH groups, which are protonated under acidic pH (pKa ∼4.2). Our concern was to fully characterize, in a biophysical and thermodynamical manner, the mixed nanoassemblies arising from the combination of the two biomaterials. At first, we quantified the physicochemical characteristics and physical stability of the prepared chimeric nanosystems. Then, we studied their thermotropic behavior, through measurement of thermodynamical parameters, using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Finally, the loading and release of indomethacin (IND) were evaluated, as well as the physicochemical properties and stability of the nanocarriers incorporating it. As expected, thermodynamical findings are in line with physicochemical results and also explain the loading and release profiles of IND. The novelty of this investigation is the utilization of these pH-sensitive chimeric advanced Drug Delivery nano Systems (aDDnSs) in targeted drug delivery which relies entirely on the biophysics and thermodynamics between such designs and the physiological membranes and environment of living organisms.

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From October 1994 to July 2006, medical records of 94 VLBWI weighing <1,500 g who underwent PDA ligation in the NICU of Samsung Medical Center were reviewed retrospectively. Factors affecting the final outcome of PDA ligation were evaluated by dividing the infants into 3 groups according to mortality and major morbidities as follows: mortality group (Mo), major morbidity group (Mb), and no major morbidity group (NM).

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Hemicrania continua is a strictly unilateral, continuous headache, typically mild to moderate in severity, with severe exacerbations commonly accompanied by cranial autonomic features and migrainous symptoms. It is exquisitely responsive to Indomethacin. However, some patients cannot tolerate treatment, often due to gastrointestinal side effects. Therapeutic alternatives are limited and controlled evidence lacking.

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In premature infants, the clinical effects and management of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (HSDA) are well-described. In full-term neonates the ductus arteriosus (DA) is rarely monitored except in cases of concomitant pulmonary hypertension or duct dependent congenital heart disease. Although systemic-pulmonary shunting commonly occurs in mature infants, coinciding with the normal postnatal fall in pulmonary vascular resistance, cardiac failure in the neonatal period is rarely attributed directly to the DA. In this case series, we report two full-term infants who were initially treated for pulmonary hypertension and myocardial dysfunction but developed clinical, radiographic and two-dimensional echocardiographic evidence of cardiac failure secondary to a large unrestrictive patent DA (PDA). One patient was treated with indomethacin, and, although transductal diameter decreased, there was no clinical benefit. Cardiac failure resolved and myocardial function improved in both cases after PDA ligation. We suggest that PDA be monitored closely in neonates recovering from PPHN who have ongoing oxygenation difficulties or myocardial failure. PDA ligation should be considered an option for full term neonates with cardiac failure secondary to a HSDA when other therapeutic options fail.

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We have previously shown that non-selective cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, via indomethacin, unfavourably increased central blood pressure in older adults, with little effect in young adults. In addition, the vasoactive prostaglandins have been shown to contribute to both peripheral vasodilator responses and large artery function; however, there is little information available in older adults and conflicting reports in young adults on the extent to which resistance vessel function is influenced by indomethacin. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that cyclo-oxygenase inhibition using indomethacin would attenuate forearm vascular conductance during reactive hyperaemia in older adults compared with young adults. Forearm blood flow responses to 5 min of forearm ischaemia were measured in 26 healthy adults (13 young, 25 ± 5 years old; and 13 older, 65 ± 6 years old), using venous occlusion plethysmography before and after indomethacin. Baseline forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were not different between groups during either trial, and there were no age-related differences prior to cyclo-oxygenase inhibition. Peak forearm vascular conductance and blood flow were similar between groups before indomethacin, but lower in older adults after indomethacin compared with young adults (27 ± 4 versus 41 ± 4 ml (100 ml)(-1) min(-1) (100 mmHg)(-1), P = 0.02; and 23 ± 3 versus 33 ± 3 ml (100 ml)(-1) min(-1), P = 0.02, respectively). These results, in conjunction with our previous findings in large arteries, suggest that ageing alters the effect of cyclo-oxygenase inhibition on vascular responses, and specifically, the resistance vessel responses underlying reactive hyperaemia.

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SummaryCongenital Nephrotic Syndrome of the Finish type (CNF) is a rare and severe disease. A neonate with CNF is described. The diagnosis carries a dramatically poorer prognosis than nephrotic syndrome diagnosed after one year. The clinical course is one of persistent oedema and recurrent infections leading to death. The gene for the Finish type has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 19. Case reports show it to be responsive to captopril and indomethacin. It is uniformly resistant to steroids and immunosuppressive drugs.

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The indomethacin on the applied concentration causes a great number of macroscopic and microscopic injuries to gastric mucosa of rats when compared to celecoxib which does not cause lesions. Omeprazole and misoprostol on the applied concentrations do not present macroscopic and microscopic effectiveness on the gastric cytoprotection when applying indomethacin. Considering the microscopic analysis of the average of the edema, the group of animals, which was given misoprostol as cytoprotection, presented a lower average compared to the group which was given omeprazole.

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1. This study characterises some of the mechanisms and mediators involved in the orofacial nociception triggered by injection of formalin into the upper lip of the rat, by assessing the influence of various treatments on behavioural nociceptive responses (duration of facial rubbing) elicited either by a low subthreshold (i.e. non-nociceptive; 0.63%) or a higher concentration of the algogen (2.5%). 2. The kininase II inhibitor captopril (5 mg kg(-1), s.c.) and prostaglandin(PG) E(2) (100 ng lip(-1)) potentiated both phases of the response to 0.63% formalin, whereas tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha; 5 pg lip(-1)), interleukin(IL)-1 beta (0.5 pg lip(-1)), IL-6 (2 ng lip(-1)) and IL-8 (200 pg lip(-1)), or the indirectly acting sympathomimetic drug tyramine (200 microg lip(-1)), each augmented only the second phase of nociception. 3. Conversely, both phases of nociception induced by 2.5% formalin were inhibited by the bradykinin (BK) B(2) receptor antagonist HOE140 (5 microg lip(-1)) or the selective beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol (100 microg lip(-1)). However, the BK B(1) receptor antagonist des-Arg(9)-Leu(8)-BK (1 and 2 microg lip(-1)), antibody and/or antiserum against each of the cytokines, the adrenergic neurone blocker guanethidine (30 mg kg(-1) day(-1), s.c., for 3 days) and the cyclooxygenase(COX)-2 inhibitor celecoxib (50 and 200 microg lip(-1), s.c.; or 1 and 3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) reduced only the second phase of the response. The nonselective COX inhibitor indomethacin and the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor MK886 did not change formalin-induced nociception. 4. Our results indicate that BK, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, sympathetic amines and PGs (but not leukotrienes) contribute significantly to formalin-induced orofacial nociception in the rat and the response seems to be more susceptible to inhibition by B(2) receptor antagonist and selective COX-2 inhibitor than by B(1) receptor antagonist or nonselective COX inhibitor.

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Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common event in organ transplantation, being implicated as a potential contributor for the development of chronic allograft nephropathy. There are new evidences showing a tissue inflammatory response following renal IRI. Cyclooxygenases (COX) 1 and 2 can be detected in tissue submitted to IRI and may have impact on organ function outcome. We evaluated the role of COX inhibition on the renal tissue damage that follows IRI. Mice were submitted to 45 min of renal pedicle ligature and allowed to reperfuse for 24, 48, 72 and 120 h. Blood and kidney samples were collected at reperfusion times. mRNA was extracted from the kidney samples to amplify COX-1, COX-2 and beta-actin genes. Animals were pretreated with indomethacin or rofecoxib before the surgery. Indomethacin treatment induced a better renal function (serum urea) when compared to control animals at 24, 48 and 72 h (219+/-54.5 vs. 338+/-51 mg/dl; 106+/-51 vs. 326+/-86 mg/dl; 94+/-14 vs. 138+/-38 mg/dl, respectively). Surprisingly, rofecoxib use was associated with even better renal improvement following IR. Animals treated with the later drug showed lower urea values at 24 h post reperfusion compared to indomethacin-treated animals (128+/-33 vs. 219+/-54.5 mg/dl, P<0.05). Blockade of COX-1 and -2 resulted in a decrease of tubular necrosis. mRNA COX-2 was up-regulated post IRI and considerable inhibited after indomethacin or rofecoxib treatment. Our data show COX-1/-2 participates in the inflammatory tissue response to IR injury and its inhibition is associated with an improvement in renal function.

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The male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups of 10: sham, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), ICH + hirudin (thrombin inhibitor), and ICH + indometacin (Indo, an anti-inflammation drug). ICH model was created by intrastriatal thrombin (1U) injection. BrdU (50 mg/kg) was administrated on the same day after surgery for 6 consecutive days. Motor functions were evaluated with rotarod and beam walking tests. The spatial memory deficit was measured with Morris water maze (MWM). Cell quantification was performed for doublecortin (DCX, immature neuron), BrdU (S-phase proliferating cell population) and CD68 (activated microglia/macrophage) immune-reactive cells.

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Background. Renal colic is a medical emergency due to the rapid onset and devastating nature of its pain. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are both used as first-line choices in its management. Aim. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of opioids and NSAIDs in the management of acute renal colic. Methods. One hundred and fifty-eight patients were divided into two groups (n = 79) and received either 10 mg morphine or 100 mg indomethacin suppositories. The severity of pain was measured using verbal numeric rating scale at baseline and 20, 40, 60, and 90 minutes after the administration of analgesics. Drug side effects as well as patients' vital signs were also recorded. Results. The mean decrease in the pain score during the first 20 minutes was significantly higher among those who received morphine suppository. However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding the mean decrease in pain score during the first 40, 60, and 90 minutes after the admission. Prevalence of drug side effects or changes in the vital signs was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. Morphine suppositories seem to be more efficient in achieving rapid pain relief comparing to indomethacin.

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After the whisky congeners were intragastrically administered previous to or simultaneous with ethanol ingestion, the gastric damage was macroscopically and microscopically measured.

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Intestinal muscularis resident macrophages distributed in myenteric region may play an important role in the immunological host defense against infection. In this study, we investigated the phagocytic stimulation of resident macrophages on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and smooth muscle contraction in the small intestine of rat. After the injection of FITC-dextran to rat, phagocytosed macrophages could be detected in the myenteric plexus. FITC-positive macrophages were also immunostained with COX-2 antibody. The number of COX-2 immunopositive cells increased in a time-dependent manner reaching its maximum at 4 hr after the injection, which then decreased gradually but considerable number of cells were still remained on 7 days. The injection of FITC-dextran, however, did not change the population of ED2-positive resident macrophages even on 7 days. Production of PGE2 was significantly higher in the dextran treated tissue as compared to control tissue. In the smooth muscle tissue phagocytosed dextran, carbachol-induced contraction was significantly decreased. The suppression of the carbachol-induced contraction was completely restored by COX inhibitor, indomethacin. Finally we demonstrated that, in freshly isolated macrophage cells, addition of dextran induced a slow and sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These results indicate that phagocytotic activation of muscularis resident macrophages induces COX-2 gene expression and then results in production of PGE2 to suppress the smooth muscle contractile activity.

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PGE(2) inhibits mature T cell proliferation and protects T cells from activation-induced cell death (AICD). We have previously demonstrated that human follicular dendritic cells (FDC) strongly express PGI synthase. In this study, the hypothesis that FDC have regulatory roles on germinal center T cells by controlling production of PGE(2) and PGI(2) was tested. Confocal microscopic analyses of human tonsil tissues revealed that FDC indeed expressed PGE synthase in addition to PGIS. To confirm these results, we studied the regulation mechanism of PG production in FDC, using an established human FDC-like cell line, HK. Specifically in response to TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, and LPS, protein expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and downstream PGE synthase was up-regulated with coordinate kinetics, whereas COX-1 and PGIS were constitutively expressed. The increase of these enzymes was reflected in actual production of PGE(2) and PGI(2). Interestingly, IL-4 almost completely abrogated the stimulatory activity of TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, and LPS in PG production. Furthermore, the up-regulation of PGE(2) and PGI(2) production was markedly down-regulated by indomethacin and a selective COX-2 inhibitor. PGI(2) analog and PGE(2) inhibited proliferation and AICD of T cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Finally, coculture experiments revealed that HK cells indeed inhibit proliferation and AICD of T cells. Put together, these results show an unrecognized pathway of FDC and T cell interactions and differential mechanisms for PGE(2) and PGI(2) production, suggesting an important implication for development and use of anti-inflammatory drugs.

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The RR of upper GI bleeding/perforation was 4.50 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 3.82-5.31) for traditional NSAIDs and 1.88 (95% CI 0.96-3.71) for coxibs. RRs lower than that for NSAIDs overall were observed for ibuprofen (2.69 [95% CI 2.17-3.33]), rofecoxib (2.12 [95% CI 1.59-2.84]), aceclofenac (1.44 [95% CI 0.65-3.2]), and celecoxib (1.42 [95% CI 0.85-2.37]), while higher RRs were observed for ketorolac (14.54 [95% CI 5.87-36.04]) and piroxicam (9.94 [95% CI 5.99-16.50). Estimated RRs were 5.63 (95% CI 3.83-8.28) for naproxen, 5.57 (95% CI 3.94-7.87) for ketoprofen, 5.40 (95% CI 4.16-7.00) for indomethacin, 4.15 (95% CI 2.59-6.64) for meloxicam, and 3.98 (95% CI 3.36-4.72) for diclofenac. The degree of inhibition of whole blood COX-1 did not significantly correlate with RR of upper GI bleeding/perforation associated with individual NSAIDs (r(2) = 0.34, P = 0.058), but a profound and coincident inhibition (>80%) of both COX isozymes was associated with higher risk. NSAIDs with a long plasma half-life and with a slow-release formulation were associated with a greater risk than NSAIDs with a short half-life.

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A single perioperative intravenous dose of ketorolac was associated with a greater than three-fold increase in the likelihood of requirement for surgical hematoma evacuation. Our data suggest that it may be prudent to consider carefully whether the potential risks associated with the use of ketorolac outweigh the potential benefits of using ketorolac in patients undergoing reduction mammoplasty.

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Omeprazole, lansoprazole, and revaprazan did not protect against Indo-induced IEC-6 cell injury. Indo-PC was less damaging in vitro than Indo alone. In vivo, neither omeprazole nor lansoprazole protected against Indo-induced small bowel injury; however, revaprazan pretreatment and Indo-PC resulted in significantly fewer erosions (>50% reduction) or bleeding (>80% reduction).

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We conducted a retrospective analysis in infants who were <33 weeks' gestation, had sPDA, and were treated with high-dose intravenous indomethacin. From 1993 to 2002, 129 infants with sPDA received indomethacin after diagnosis of sPDA was confirmed by echocardiography. Treatment was started in all infants with intravenous indomethacin (0.2 mg/kg given 5 times at 0 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours). When the ductus was still open at 36 hours, indomethacin every 12 hours was continued and single doses increased up to 1 mg/kg until ductal closure was achieved.

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CC Chemokine ligand 22 (Ccl22) is a selective, high affinity ligand at the CC chemokine receptor 4 (Ccr4). We have identified cDNAs encoding both ligand and receptor of the Ccl22-Ccr4 pair in cDNA libraries of the anterior hypothalamus/pre-optic area (AH/POA) by PCR. The AH/POA is the key brain region where endogenous pyrogens have been shown to act on warm sensitive neurons to affect thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and other thermogenically responsive tissues. We show that functional Ccr4 receptors are present in the AH/POA neurons as injection of Ccl22 into the POA but not to other hypothalamic nuclei induces an increase in core body temperature as measured by radiotelemetry. Indomethacin (5 mg/kg s.c) pre-treatment markedly reduced the hyperthermia evoked by POA injection of Ccl22 (10 ng/0.5 ul) and thus suggests that this hyperthermia is mediated through cyclooxygenase activation and thus likely through the formation and action of the pyrogen prostaglandin E2. The temperature elevation involves a decrease in the respiratory exchange ratio and increased activation of the brown adipose tissue as demonstrated by ¹⁸F-FDG-PET imaging. We describe a novel role to the ligand Ccl22 and its receptor Ccr4 in the anterior hypothalamus in temperature regulation that depends on the synthesis of the endogenous pyrogen, prostaglandin E2.

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Ageing reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in humans and animals, and in humans, exercise training reverses the ageing-associated reduction in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) by which 10-12 weeks of treadmill exercise enhances endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in muscles of differing fibre composition from young and old rats. Three- and 22-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were assigned to young sedentary, young exercise-trained, old sedentary, or old exercise-trained groups. Arterioles were isolated from the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles; luminal diameter changes were determined in response to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-9)-10(-4) mol l(-1)) alone and in the presence of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor l-NAME (10(-5) mol l(-1)) or the combination of l-NAME and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10(-5) mol l(-1)). Training ameliorated the ageing-induced reduction in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in soleus muscle arterioles. Treatment with l-NAME alone and in combination with indomethacin abolished differences in ACh vasodilatation occurring with ageing and training. Expression of endothelial NOS (eNOS) mRNA in soleus arterioles was unaltered by ageing, whereas eNOS protein was increased with age; training elevated both eNOS mRNA and protein. In gastrocnemius muscle arterioles, ageing did not alter maximal vasodilatation, but ageing and training increased maximal arteriolar diameter. These results demonstrate that ageing-induced reductions and training-induced enhancement of endothelial vasodilatation both occur through the nitric oxide signalling mechanism in highly oxidative skeletal muscle, but ageing and training do not appear to act on the same portion of the signalling cascade.

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Involvement of COX-derived prostaglandins in vascular endothelial function outside the transplanted organ is strongly diminished after allogeneic renal transplantation. RAS blockade improves common cardiovascular risk factors and endothelium-dependent dilation, but fails to restore prostaglandin function.

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indocin gel 2017-10-19

We sought to compare postoperative pain and complications in patients undergoing free tissue transfer for buy indocin reconstruction of head and neck defects with and without ketorolac.

indocin sr dosage 2016-10-13

Mean and standard deviations of postoperative pain 1 hour after surgery in the pethidin and ketorolac groups were 5.06 ± 1.41 and 3.88 ± 0.93, respectively. The scale was significantly lower in the ketorolac group (P < 0.001). Postoperative pain intensity 2 hours after surgery in these two groups was 4.48 ± 1.52 and 3.55 ± 1.15, respectively, and the difference between the two groups was significant (P = buy indocin 0.006). The variation in postoperative pain intensity in the ketorolac group was statistically lower than the pethidin group (P = 0.020). CONCLUSION.

indocin tablets 2017-04-15

30 healthy, ASA physical status I adult men. buy indocin

indocin medication dosage 2015-08-26

Taking together, these results suggest that the antiulcer activity of CCRE is dependent of NO buy indocin and prostaglandin pathways possibly due to its ability to stimulate the synthesis of NO, and activation of endogenous prostaglandin production. Therefore, the use of CCRE in traditional Brazilian medicine against gastric disorders has a scientific basis.

indocin capsule 2016-08-27

Polyvinyl chloride-induced increase in all three eicosanoids was attenuated by heparin coating buy indocin , whereas complement inhibition selectively reduced the synthesis of leukotriene B4.

indocin dosage chart 2017-07-07

This study analyzed the effect of in utero exposure to maternal diabetes on contraction to noradrenaline in mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) from adult offspring, focusing on the role of cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostanoids. Diabetes in the maternal rat was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight) on day 7 of pregnancy. Contraction to noradrenaline was analyzed in isolated MRA from offspring of diabetic (O-DR) and non-diabetic (O-CR) rats at 3, 6 and 12 months of age. Release of thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) and prostaglandins E(2) (PGE(2)) and F(2α) (PGF(2α)), was measured by specific enzyme immunoassay kits. O-DR developed hypertension from 6 months of age compared with O-CR. Arteries from O-DR were hyperactive to noradrenaline only at 6 and 12 months of age. Endothelial removal abolished this hyperreactivity to noradrenaline between O-CR and O-DR. Preincubation with either the COX-1/2 (indomethacin) or COX-2 inhibitor (NS-398) decreased noradrenaline contraction only in 6- and 12-month-old O-DR, while it remained unmodified by COX-1 inhibitor SC-560. In vessels from 6-month-old O-DR, a similar reduction in the contraction to noradrenaline produced by NS-398 was observed when TP and EP receptors were blocked (SQ29548+AH6809). In 12-month-old O-DR, this effect was only achieved when TP, EP and FP were blocked (SQ29548+AH6809+AL8810). Noradrenaline-stimulated TxB(2) and PGE(2) release was higher in 6- and 12-month-old O-DR, whereas PGF(2α) was increased only in 12-month-old O-DR. Our results demonstrated that in utero exposure to buy indocin maternal hyperglycaemia in rats increases the participation of COX-2-derived prostanoids on contraction to noradrenaline, which might help to explain the greater response to this agonist in MRA from 6- and 12-month-old offspring. As increased contractile response in resistance vessels may contribute to hypertension, our results suggest a role for these COX-2-derived prostanoids in elevating vascular resistance and blood pressure in offspring of diabetic rats.

indocin user reviews 2015-02-15

Medicinal plants are a largely unexplored buy indocin source of drug repository. Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat diverse conditions.

indocin gout medicine 2016-09-19

Those who received 30 mg of intravenous ketorolac preoperatively had less pain in the early (8-hour) postoperative period. The median interval to rescue medication was 2 hours longer in the ketorolac group. However, the difference in the total narcotic consumption was clinically and statistically insignificant between the buy indocin ketorolac and control groups.

indocin online 2016-07-20

Both molecular and crystal-engineering approaches were exploited to synthesize a new class of multidrug-containing supramolecular gelators. A well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, namely, indomethacin, was conjugated with six different l-amino acids to generate the corresponding peptides having free carboxylic acid functionality, which reacted further with an antiviral drug, namely, amantadine, a primary amine, in 1:1 ratio to yield six primary ammonium monocarboxylate salts. Half of the synthesized salts showed gelation ability that included hydrogelation, organogelation and ambidextrous gelation. The gels buy indocin were characterized by table-top and dynamic rheology and different microscopic techniques. Further insights into the gelation mechanism were obtained by temperature-dependent (1) H NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, photoluminescence and dynamic light scattering. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies on two gelator salts revealed the presence of 2D hydrogen-bonded networks. One such ambidextrous gelator (capable of gelling both pure water and methyl salicylate, which are important solvents for biological applications) was promising in both mechanical (rheoreversible and injectable) and biological (self-delivery) applications for future multidrug-containing injectable delivery vehicles.

indocin dosage 2017-10-13

Obese subjects with orthopedic trauma exhibit increased inflammation and an increased risk of pulmonary edema. Prostaglandin buy indocin E(2) (PGE(2) ) production is elevated during inflammation and associated with increased vascular permeability. We hypothesize that pulmonary edema in obesity following orthopedic trauma is due to elevated PGE(2) and resultant increases in pulmonary permeability.

indocin er dosage 2017-12-01

FCA injection caused a progressive enhancement of paw volume and a rapid increase of TNFalpha and IL-1beta serum levels. After the randomization, mud-bath applications reduced inflammation and at the end of the treatment the paw volume and the TNFa and IL-1beta serum levels buy indocin were significantly tapered in comparison to the controls (p < 0.01).

indocin and alcohol 2015-03-09

Free radicals are highly reactive species which played an important role in the pathogenesis of acute inflammation. In this study, the protective role of the known antioxidant, thioctic acid, in carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats was assessed and was compared to the reference non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) indomethacin. In addition, the roles of oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO), inducible cyclooxygenase isoform (COX-2) and interleukin (IL)-10 mRNA expressions in thioctic acid-induced effects were also investigated. Inflammation was induced by injection of 0.1 ml of 1.5% carrageenan into the plantar side of right hind paws of the rats. Thioctic acid (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg), indomethacin (10 mg/kg), DMSO and saline were injected i.p. 2 h before carrageenan injection. The percentage increase in paw weight was calculated. Frozen hind paw were used for estimation of lipid peroxides (MDA), NO, GSH, COX-2 and IL-10 mRNA expression. Formalin fixed hind paw were used for histopathological examination. Thioctic acid (200 mg/kg) reduced both paw edema formation and lymphocytes infiltration more significant than indomethacin itself: Both thioctic acid and indomethacin reduced paw MDA and NO formation. In addition, both agents restored the depleted GSH contents in the paw. Thioctic acid decreased the elevated COX-2 mRNA while indomethacin, failed. Furthermore, thioctic acid increased IL-10 mRNA expression while indomethacin decreased its expression. Thioctic acid exhibited a potent anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced inflammation compared to the NSAID indomethacin. The mechanisms of thioctic induced protection were proved to be due to reduction of NO, MDA, COX-2 mRNA and induction of GSH, IL-10 buy indocin mRNA.

indocin overdose 2017-07-21

In a first phase, the different remedies were tested in the four experimental conditions, following a single-blind (measurement) procedure. In a second phase, some of the remedies (in the same and in different dilutions) were tested by oral administration in the carrageenan-induced edema, under double-blind (treatment administration and measurement) and fully randomized conditions. Seven-hundred-twenty male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 170-180 g were used. Six homeopathic remedies (Arnica montana D4, Apis mellifica D4, D30, Atropa belladonna D4, Hamamelis virginiana D4, Lachesis D6, D30, Phosphorus D6, D30), saline and indomethacin buy indocin were tested. Edema was measured using a water-based plethysmometer, before and at different times after edema induction. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student t test.

indocin gout dosage 2015-03-20

Included in this retrospective study of the Pediatric Hospital Information System database were 13,853 VLBW infants from 19 US children's hospitals, admitted at age < 3 d between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014. PDA management and in buy indocin -hospital outcomes were examined for trends and variation.

indocin 50mg capsules 2017-06-13

The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ketorolac tromethamine shows higher plasma concentrations and a longer plasma half-life in adults ≥65 years of Astelin Dosage Instructions age than in subjects aged <65 years, after intramuscular administration. An intranasal formulation of ketorolac tromethamine is approved for short-term treatment of moderate to moderately severe pain requiring analgesia at the opioid level.

indocin gout medication 2015-07-04

Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) is a relatively new technique giving new possibilities in liquid chromatography, especially concerning decrease of time and solvent consumption. UPLC chromatographic system is designed in a special way to withstand high system back-pressures. Special analytical columns UPLC Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) packed with 1.7 microm particles are used in connection with this system. The quality control analyses of Claritin Dosage Instructions four pharmaceutical formulations were transferred from HPLC to UPLC system. The results are compared for Triamcinolon cream containing trimacinolone acetonide, methylparaben, propylparaben and triamcinolone as degradation product, for Hydrocortison cream (hydrocortisone acetate, methylparaben, propylparaben and hydrocortisone degradation product), for Indomethacin gel (indomethacin and its degradation products 4-chlorobenzoic acid and 5-methoxy-2-methylindoleacetic acid) and for Estrogel gel (estradiol, methylparaben, propylparaben and estrone as degradation product). The UPLC system allows shortening analysis time up to nine times comparing to the conventional system using 5 microm particle packed analytical columns. In comparison with 3 microm particle packed analytical columns analysis should be shortened about three times. The negative effect of particle decrease is back-pressure increase about nine times (versus 5 microm) or three times (versus 3 microm), respectively. The separation on UPLC is performed under very high pressures (up to 100MPa is possible in UPLC system), but it has no negative influence on analytical column or other components of chromatographic system. Separation efficiency remains maintained or is even improved. Differences and SST parameters, advantages and disadvantages of UPLC are discussed.

indocin generic table 2015-10-14

The PGD(2)/PGJ(2)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma pathway induces eotaxin production from sebocytes, Glucophage And Alcohol which may explain the massive eosinophil infiltrates observed around pilosebaceous units in EPF.

indocin 25 mg 2017-09-21

A restricted access media-molecularly imprinted polymer (RAM-MIP) for flufenamic acid has been developed for the simultaneous determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in river water samples. The RAM-MIP was prepared using 4-vinylpyridine and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively, by a multi-step swelling and polymerization method followed by a surface modification technique. The RAM-MIP for flufenamic acid showed excellent molecular recognition abilities for flufenamic acid and mefenamic acid, and moderate molecular recognition abilities for indomethacin, etodolac and ketoprofen. The simultaneous determination of NSAIDs (mefenamic acid, indomethacin, etodolac and ketoprofen) in river water samples was carried out by LC-MS/MS using the RAM-MIP for flufenamic acid as a pretreatment column. The concentrations of mefenamic acid, indomethacin and etodolac in river water samples were determined to be 0.4, 0.7 and 0.3ng/L, respectively, while ketoprofen was Generic Viagra Pricing below the limit of quantitation.

indocin dosage forms 2016-05-11

The majority of previous studies on unilateral headaches Plavix Overdose Treatment beyond migraine and cluster headache have focussed on certain disorders such as paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT and primary stabbing headache. We assessed headache characteristics, importance of neuroimaging and response to indomethacin in an unselected series of uncommon unilateral headaches. We investigated all consecutive patients presented with unilateral headaches not fulfilling ICHD-II criteria of migraine and cluster headache. Patients underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography as well as an indo-test, i.e. oral indomethacin 75 mg b.i.d. for 3 days. Among 63 patients we diagnosed primary stabbing headache in 12 patients, (probable) paroxysmal hemicrania in 6 and tension-type headache in 3 patients. One patient each had probable SUNCT, new daily persistent headache and nasociliary neuralgia. Eight patients had a secondary headache and 31 could not be classified according to ICDH-II. Imaging revealed lesions causally related to the headache in 8 patients. Indo-test achieved full remission of headache in 13 of 51 patients. At follow-up 11 ± 3 months after the first visit 29% of the patients were headache-free for ≥3 months. In conclusion, almost half of the patients presented with unilateral headaches beyond migraine and cluster headache cannot be classified according to ICHD-II. Among classifiable headaches primary stabbing headache was the most common. Imaging should be considered to rule out secondary headaches. The course is favourable in one third of the patients.

indocin medication 2016-03-20

2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is recognized as a potent endocannabinoid, which reduces synaptic transmission through cannabinoid CB(1) receptors, and is hydrolyzed by monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) to arachidonic acid (AA), a cyclooxygenase substrate. We already reported that centrally administered MGL and cyclooxygenase inhibitors each reduced the intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered bombesin-induced secretion of adrenal catecholamines, while a centrally Cymbalta Dosage Increase administered CB(1)-antagonist potentiated the response, indirectly suggesting bidirectional roles of brain 2-AG (stimulatory and inhibitory roles) in the bombesin-induced response. In the present study, we separately examined these bidirectional roles using 2-AG and 2-AG ether (2-AG-E) (stable 2-AG analog for MGL) in rats. 2-AG (0.5 μmol/animal, i.c.v.), but not 2-AG-E (0.5 μmol/animal, i.c.v.), elevated basal plasma catecholamines with JZL184 (MGL inhibitor)- and indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor)-sensitive brain mechanisms. 2-AG-E (0.1 μmol/animal, i.c.v.) effectively reduced the bombesin (1 nmol/animal, i.c.v.)-induced elevation of plasma catecholamines with rimonabant (CB(1) antagonist)-sensitive brain mechanisms. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated the bombesin-induced activation of diacylglycerol lipase α (2-AG-producing enzyme)-positive spinally projecting neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, a control center of central adrenomedullary outflow. These results directly indicate bidirectional roles of brain 2-AG, a stimulatory role as an AA precursor and an inhibitory role as an endocannabinoid, in the bombesin-induced central adrenomedullary outflow in rats.

indocin pain medication 2015-02-09

Rabbits aortic rings were isolated and were divided into six groups including removal of endothelium, integrity of endothelium, 1 x 10(-5) mol X L(-1) indomethacin (Indo), 1 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1) propranolol (Prop), 1 x 10(-4) mol x L(-1) N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and 1 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1) methylene blue (MB). Then the thoracic aortic rings were treated with PC with cumulative concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg x L(-1) respectively and the changes of tension were recorded, and investigate the effect of 40 mg x L(-1) PC on the contraction of aortic smooth muscles, thoracic aortic rings were pre-treated with NA (1 x 10(-8) to approximately 1 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1)), KCl (6.3 to approximately 100 mmol x L(-1)) and CaCl2 (1 x 10(-5) to approximately 1 x Lioresal Generic 10(-5) mol x L(-1)) followed by treatment with PC. Then, rabbits common carotid artery was intubated and arterial blood pressure in vivo was recorded. PC with cumulative concentrations of 4.0, 8.0, 16, 32, 64, 84 mg x kg(-1) was injected into vein and the changes of arterial blood pressure were observed.

indocin 75 mg 2015-10-22

These results suggest SJW as a safe therapeutic perspective for migraine pain, and indicate PKC as an innovative target for antimigraine therapy.

indocin alcohol 2016-01-15

Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 2.

indocin medication generic 2016-06-12

Ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus can lead to severe cardiorespiratory compromise in preterm infants. This report reviews the postoperative course of a patient with significant cardiorespiratory instability following surgical ligation of the patent ductus arteriosus and presents a framework for enhanced cardiovascular care in this population. A preterm infant, born at 24 wk gestation underwent ligation of a large haemodynamically significant ductus arteriosus after failure of 2 courses of indomethacin. He developed systemic hypotension, which was aggressively treated with high doses of multiple cardiotropic agents. After 10 hr of refractory hypotension, the addition of hydrocortisone normalized blood pressure. This article outlines preprocedural categorization of infants according to ductal illness severity which facilitates the risk assignment for postoperative deterioration, development of clinical guidelines specific to the likely haemodynamic changes, enhanced role of functional echocardiography for guiding therapy, and interprofessional education.

indocin generic 2017-04-05

Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) was used to prepare coprecipitates of indomethacin (IM) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) with the aim to improve the dissolution rate of IM. The coprecipitates of IM and PVP at various proportions were prepared using a stirred batch reactor containing sc-CO2 as a gas saturated solution (i.e., the compressible CO2 is dissolved in the molten compound). Temperatures between 40 and 90 degrees C and pressure of 150 or 200 bar were employed. The coprecipitates prepared at 75 degrees C and 150 bar were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and dissolution testing. The results suggested that IM was totally amorphous at PVP weight fraction of 0.80 and above (indeed, as a molecular composite in which the drug molecules interact with the polymer backbone). As the PVP weight fraction decreased, IM displayed an increasing amount of crystalline material. The SEM photographs of coprecipitates showed a foamed and porous structure. The dissolution rate of IM was increased by incorporation of PVP. IM and PVP at various weight fractions exhibited comparatively higher dissolution rates than that of crystalline IM alone. The sc-CO2 based process produced a solvent free, completely amorphous porous IM solid dispersion with a rapid dissolution rate.