Solid-state reactions are highly anisotropic. Different polymorphs of the same compound may have remarkably different chemical reactivities. It was reported that two polymorphs of indomethacin single crystals, alpha- and gamma-forms, reacted with ammonia gas at dramatically different rates. In this study, the effect of crystal packing on their difference in chemical reactivity was investigated by examining the electronic structures and properties of the crystal forms.
indocin gout medication
Intraoperative pupil diameter, postoperative day 1 pain and inflammation, 1-month postoperative retinal thickness, and preoperative and 1-month postoperative best-corrected visual acuities.
indocin 75 mg
Whereas exogenous H(2)S delivered to the knee joint can produce a significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effect, locally produced H(2)S exerts little immunomodulatory effect. These data further support the development and use of H(2)S donors as potential alternatives (or complementary therapies) to the available anti-inflammatory compounds used for treatment of joint inflammation or relief of its symptoms.
Salicylic acid demonstrated potential as a compound for incorporation into anti-bacterial strategies to prevent bacterial contamination of contact lenses. This study highlighted the potential for NSAIDs as anti-bacterial agents and indicates that this class of compound should be investigated for other suitable candidates.
indocin 150 mg
Ketorolac is an injectable nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is often used as a transitional short-term analgesic to treat moderate pain and to decrease opioid use. There is a paucity of literature documenting the safety of using ketorolac in neonates and infants after cardiac surgery.
indocin dosage chart
Perioperative blood loss after meloxicam is less than after indomethacin. These in vivo findings are consistent with in vitro results using selective COX 2 NSAIDs.
indocin gout dosage
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have been reported to contract intralobar pulmonary arteries (PA) of the rabbit in a cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent manner. In the present study, we observed that COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms were expressed in freshly isolated PA of healthy rabbits. We examined the hypothesis that both COX isoforms participate in 5,6-EET-induced contraction of rabbit intralobar PA. Selective inhibition of COX-1 with 300 nM 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole (SC-560) prevented 5,6-EET (1x10(-8)-1x10(-5) M)-induced contractions of isolated intralobar rabbit PA rings in a manner similar to that observed with the nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin at 10 microM. Selective inhibition of COX-2 with either 100 nM 5-bromo-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(4-methylsulfonyl) thiophene (DUP-697) or 3 microM N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl) methanesulfonamide (NS-398) shifted the EC50 value of 5,6-EET-induced PA contraction to the right but with considerably lower efficacy than SC-560. In rabbit PA, 5,6-EET-induced contraction was primarily dependent on COX-1 activity. Differential metabolism of 5,6-EET by COX-1 and COX-2 does not explain the primary dependence of PA contraction on COX-1 activity because 5,6-EET was metabolized similarly by both COX isoforms. COX-1 and -2 were expressed primarily in PA endothelium where COX-1 expression was dense and uniform, whereas COX-2 expression was sparse and nonuniform. 5,6-EET-induced PA contraction was endothelium-dependent. These results suggest that 5,6-EET-induced contraction is primarily dependent on COX-1 activity.
Telfairia occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) is a tropical vine grown in West Africa as a leaf vegetable and for its edible seeds. The plant is noted to have healing properties. It is used as a blood tonic to revive weak/ill individuals and its use by sickle cell patients has been documented. In this study, the antinociceptive activity of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis (TO) was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, tail clip, and hot plate tests in mice. The carrageenan- and egg albumin-induced rat paw edema tests were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action. The extract (50-400 mg/kg, p.o.) produced significant (P<.05) dose-dependent inhibition of pain response elicited by acetic acid and formalin while also increasing the nociceptive reaction latency in the tail clip and hot plate tests. In respect of anti-inflammatory activity, the extract elicited significant (P<.05) time and dose-dependent inhibition of edema development in the carrageenan and egg albumin tests. Peak effects of TO in the models were generally comparable with the effects of the standard drugs (acetylsalicylic acid, morphine, indomethacin, and chlorpheniramine) used. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, phlobatannins, and anthraquinones. The extract did not produce any mortality and visible signs of delayed toxicity when administered orally up to 2000 mg/kg. The LD50 (i.p.) was estimated to be 4073.80 mg/kg. The results obtained in this study suggest that TO possesses antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities possibly mediated through peripheral and central mechanisms involving inhibition of release and/or actions of vasoactive substances and prostaglandins.
In rat thoracic aorta segments contracted with phenylephrine (Phe) (10(-7) mol/l), malathion (10(-10) to 10(-5) mol/l) induced concentration-dependent relaxation in arteries with intact endothelium (n = 7; p < 0.05). Malathion-mediated relaxation was blocked by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10(-4) mol/l), a nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor, and/or indomethacin (10(-5) mol/l), a nonspecific cyclooxygenase inhibitor (n = 10, p < 0.05). In thoracic aorta rings, with and without endothelium, Phe (10(-10) to 10(-5) mol/l) evoked concentration-dependent contraction, which was reduced in the presence of malathion. In rings with or without endothelium, incubated with malathion, L-NAME and indomethacin, the Phe-induced contraction was restored. The role of NO was confirmed using flow cytometry. Malathion evokes endothelium-dependent relaxation through the M1 muscarinic receptor, since this relaxation was clearly blocked by atropine (M1 and M2 blocker) and pirenzepine (M1 blocker), but was less blocked by gallamine (M2 blocker) or 4-DAMP (M3 blocker).
The application of stimuli-responsive medical practices has emerged, in which pH-sensitive liposomes figure prominently. This study investigates the impact of the incorporation of different amounts of pH-sensitive polymer, C12H25-PAA (poly(acrylic acid) with a hydrophobic end group) in l-α-phosphatidylcholine, hydrogenated (Soy) (HSPC) phospholipidic bilayers, with respect to biomimicry and functionality. PAA is a poly(carboxylic acid) molecule, classified as a pH-sensitive polymer, whose pH-sensitivity is attributed to its regulative -COOH groups, which are protonated under acidic pH (pKa ∼4.2). Our concern was to fully characterize, in a biophysical and thermodynamical manner, the mixed nanoassemblies arising from the combination of the two biomaterials. At first, we quantified the physicochemical characteristics and physical stability of the prepared chimeric nanosystems. Then, we studied their thermotropic behavior, through measurement of thermodynamical parameters, using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Finally, the loading and release of indomethacin (IND) were evaluated, as well as the physicochemical properties and stability of the nanocarriers incorporating it. As expected, thermodynamical findings are in line with physicochemical results and also explain the loading and release profiles of IND. The novelty of this investigation is the utilization of these pH-sensitive chimeric advanced Drug Delivery nano Systems (aDDnSs) in targeted drug delivery which relies entirely on the biophysics and thermodynamics between such designs and the physiological membranes and environment of living organisms.
indocin user reviews
From October 1994 to July 2006, medical records of 94 VLBWI weighing <1,500 g who underwent PDA ligation in the NICU of Samsung Medical Center were reviewed retrospectively. Factors affecting the final outcome of PDA ligation were evaluated by dividing the infants into 3 groups according to mortality and major morbidities as follows: mortality group (Mo), major morbidity group (Mb), and no major morbidity group (NM).
indocin 50 mg
Hemicrania continua is a strictly unilateral, continuous headache, typically mild to moderate in severity, with severe exacerbations commonly accompanied by cranial autonomic features and migrainous symptoms. It is exquisitely responsive to Indomethacin. However, some patients cannot tolerate treatment, often due to gastrointestinal side effects. Therapeutic alternatives are limited and controlled evidence lacking.
In premature infants, the clinical effects and management of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (HSDA) are well-described. In full-term neonates the ductus arteriosus (DA) is rarely monitored except in cases of concomitant pulmonary hypertension or duct dependent congenital heart disease. Although systemic-pulmonary shunting commonly occurs in mature infants, coinciding with the normal postnatal fall in pulmonary vascular resistance, cardiac failure in the neonatal period is rarely attributed directly to the DA. In this case series, we report two full-term infants who were initially treated for pulmonary hypertension and myocardial dysfunction but developed clinical, radiographic and two-dimensional echocardiographic evidence of cardiac failure secondary to a large unrestrictive patent DA (PDA). One patient was treated with indomethacin, and, although transductal diameter decreased, there was no clinical benefit. Cardiac failure resolved and myocardial function improved in both cases after PDA ligation. We suggest that PDA be monitored closely in neonates recovering from PPHN who have ongoing oxygenation difficulties or myocardial failure. PDA ligation should be considered an option for full term neonates with cardiac failure secondary to a HSDA when other therapeutic options fail.
We have previously shown that non-selective cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, via indomethacin, unfavourably increased central blood pressure in older adults, with little effect in young adults. In addition, the vasoactive prostaglandins have been shown to contribute to both peripheral vasodilator responses and large artery function; however, there is little information available in older adults and conflicting reports in young adults on the extent to which resistance vessel function is influenced by indomethacin. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that cyclo-oxygenase inhibition using indomethacin would attenuate forearm vascular conductance during reactive hyperaemia in older adults compared with young adults. Forearm blood flow responses to 5 min of forearm ischaemia were measured in 26 healthy adults (13 young, 25 ± 5 years old; and 13 older, 65 ± 6 years old), using venous occlusion plethysmography before and after indomethacin. Baseline forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were not different between groups during either trial, and there were no age-related differences prior to cyclo-oxygenase inhibition. Peak forearm vascular conductance and blood flow were similar between groups before indomethacin, but lower in older adults after indomethacin compared with young adults (27 ± 4 versus 41 ± 4 ml (100 ml)(-1) min(-1) (100 mmHg)(-1), P = 0.02; and 23 ± 3 versus 33 ± 3 ml (100 ml)(-1) min(-1), P = 0.02, respectively). These results, in conjunction with our previous findings in large arteries, suggest that ageing alters the effect of cyclo-oxygenase inhibition on vascular responses, and specifically, the resistance vessel responses underlying reactive hyperaemia.
indocin max dose
SummaryCongenital Nephrotic Syndrome of the Finish type (CNF) is a rare and severe disease. A neonate with CNF is described. The diagnosis carries a dramatically poorer prognosis than nephrotic syndrome diagnosed after one year. The clinical course is one of persistent oedema and recurrent infections leading to death. The gene for the Finish type has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 19. Case reports show it to be responsive to captopril and indomethacin. It is uniformly resistant to steroids and immunosuppressive drugs.
indocin and alcohol
The indomethacin on the applied concentration causes a great number of macroscopic and microscopic injuries to gastric mucosa of rats when compared to celecoxib which does not cause lesions. Omeprazole and misoprostol on the applied concentrations do not present macroscopic and microscopic effectiveness on the gastric cytoprotection when applying indomethacin. Considering the microscopic analysis of the average of the edema, the group of animals, which was given misoprostol as cytoprotection, presented a lower average compared to the group which was given omeprazole.
indocin suppository dosage
1. This study characterises some of the mechanisms and mediators involved in the orofacial nociception triggered by injection of formalin into the upper lip of the rat, by assessing the influence of various treatments on behavioural nociceptive responses (duration of facial rubbing) elicited either by a low subthreshold (i.e. non-nociceptive; 0.63%) or a higher concentration of the algogen (2.5%). 2. The kininase II inhibitor captopril (5 mg kg(-1), s.c.) and prostaglandin(PG) E(2) (100 ng lip(-1)) potentiated both phases of the response to 0.63% formalin, whereas tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha; 5 pg lip(-1)), interleukin(IL)-1 beta (0.5 pg lip(-1)), IL-6 (2 ng lip(-1)) and IL-8 (200 pg lip(-1)), or the indirectly acting sympathomimetic drug tyramine (200 microg lip(-1)), each augmented only the second phase of nociception. 3. Conversely, both phases of nociception induced by 2.5% formalin were inhibited by the bradykinin (BK) B(2) receptor antagonist HOE140 (5 microg lip(-1)) or the selective beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol (100 microg lip(-1)). However, the BK B(1) receptor antagonist des-Arg(9)-Leu(8)-BK (1 and 2 microg lip(-1)), antibody and/or antiserum against each of the cytokines, the adrenergic neurone blocker guanethidine (30 mg kg(-1) day(-1), s.c., for 3 days) and the cyclooxygenase(COX)-2 inhibitor celecoxib (50 and 200 microg lip(-1), s.c.; or 1 and 3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) reduced only the second phase of the response. The nonselective COX inhibitor indomethacin and the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor MK886 did not change formalin-induced nociception. 4. Our results indicate that BK, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, sympathetic amines and PGs (but not leukotrienes) contribute significantly to formalin-induced orofacial nociception in the rat and the response seems to be more susceptible to inhibition by B(2) receptor antagonist and selective COX-2 inhibitor than by B(1) receptor antagonist or nonselective COX inhibitor.
indocin 40 mg
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common event in organ transplantation, being implicated as a potential contributor for the development of chronic allograft nephropathy. There are new evidences showing a tissue inflammatory response following renal IRI. Cyclooxygenases (COX) 1 and 2 can be detected in tissue submitted to IRI and may have impact on organ function outcome. We evaluated the role of COX inhibition on the renal tissue damage that follows IRI. Mice were submitted to 45 min of renal pedicle ligature and allowed to reperfuse for 24, 48, 72 and 120 h. Blood and kidney samples were collected at reperfusion times. mRNA was extracted from the kidney samples to amplify COX-1, COX-2 and beta-actin genes. Animals were pretreated with indomethacin or rofecoxib before the surgery. Indomethacin treatment induced a better renal function (serum urea) when compared to control animals at 24, 48 and 72 h (219+/-54.5 vs. 338+/-51 mg/dl; 106+/-51 vs. 326+/-86 mg/dl; 94+/-14 vs. 138+/-38 mg/dl, respectively). Surprisingly, rofecoxib use was associated with even better renal improvement following IR. Animals treated with the later drug showed lower urea values at 24 h post reperfusion compared to indomethacin-treated animals (128+/-33 vs. 219+/-54.5 mg/dl, P<0.05). Blockade of COX-1 and -2 resulted in a decrease of tubular necrosis. mRNA COX-2 was up-regulated post IRI and considerable inhibited after indomethacin or rofecoxib treatment. Our data show COX-1/-2 participates in the inflammatory tissue response to IR injury and its inhibition is associated with an improvement in renal function.
indocin oral suspension
The male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups of 10: sham, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), ICH + hirudin (thrombin inhibitor), and ICH + indometacin (Indo, an anti-inflammation drug). ICH model was created by intrastriatal thrombin (1U) injection. BrdU (50 mg/kg) was administrated on the same day after surgery for 6 consecutive days. Motor functions were evaluated with rotarod and beam walking tests. The spatial memory deficit was measured with Morris water maze (MWM). Cell quantification was performed for doublecortin (DCX, immature neuron), BrdU (S-phase proliferating cell population) and CD68 (activated microglia/macrophage) immune-reactive cells.
indocin sr medication
Background. Renal colic is a medical emergency due to the rapid onset and devastating nature of its pain. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are both used as first-line choices in its management. Aim. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of opioids and NSAIDs in the management of acute renal colic. Methods. One hundred and fifty-eight patients were divided into two groups (n = 79) and received either 10 mg morphine or 100 mg indomethacin suppositories. The severity of pain was measured using verbal numeric rating scale at baseline and 20, 40, 60, and 90 minutes after the administration of analgesics. Drug side effects as well as patients' vital signs were also recorded. Results. The mean decrease in the pain score during the first 20 minutes was significantly higher among those who received morphine suppository. However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding the mean decrease in pain score during the first 40, 60, and 90 minutes after the admission. Prevalence of drug side effects or changes in the vital signs was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. Morphine suppositories seem to be more efficient in achieving rapid pain relief comparing to indomethacin.
After the whisky congeners were intragastrically administered previous to or simultaneous with ethanol ingestion, the gastric damage was macroscopically and microscopically measured.
indocin 50mg medication
Intestinal muscularis resident macrophages distributed in myenteric region may play an important role in the immunological host defense against infection. In this study, we investigated the phagocytic stimulation of resident macrophages on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and smooth muscle contraction in the small intestine of rat. After the injection of FITC-dextran to rat, phagocytosed macrophages could be detected in the myenteric plexus. FITC-positive macrophages were also immunostained with COX-2 antibody. The number of COX-2 immunopositive cells increased in a time-dependent manner reaching its maximum at 4 hr after the injection, which then decreased gradually but considerable number of cells were still remained on 7 days. The injection of FITC-dextran, however, did not change the population of ED2-positive resident macrophages even on 7 days. Production of PGE2 was significantly higher in the dextran treated tissue as compared to control tissue. In the smooth muscle tissue phagocytosed dextran, carbachol-induced contraction was significantly decreased. The suppression of the carbachol-induced contraction was completely restored by COX inhibitor, indomethacin. Finally we demonstrated that, in freshly isolated macrophage cells, addition of dextran induced a slow and sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These results indicate that phagocytotic activation of muscularis resident macrophages induces COX-2 gene expression and then results in production of PGE2 to suppress the smooth muscle contractile activity.
PGE(2) inhibits mature T cell proliferation and protects T cells from activation-induced cell death (AICD). We have previously demonstrated that human follicular dendritic cells (FDC) strongly express PGI synthase. In this study, the hypothesis that FDC have regulatory roles on germinal center T cells by controlling production of PGE(2) and PGI(2) was tested. Confocal microscopic analyses of human tonsil tissues revealed that FDC indeed expressed PGE synthase in addition to PGIS. To confirm these results, we studied the regulation mechanism of PG production in FDC, using an established human FDC-like cell line, HK. Specifically in response to TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, and LPS, protein expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and downstream PGE synthase was up-regulated with coordinate kinetics, whereas COX-1 and PGIS were constitutively expressed. The increase of these enzymes was reflected in actual production of PGE(2) and PGI(2). Interestingly, IL-4 almost completely abrogated the stimulatory activity of TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, and LPS in PG production. Furthermore, the up-regulation of PGE(2) and PGI(2) production was markedly down-regulated by indomethacin and a selective COX-2 inhibitor. PGI(2) analog and PGE(2) inhibited proliferation and AICD of T cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Finally, coculture experiments revealed that HK cells indeed inhibit proliferation and AICD of T cells. Put together, these results show an unrecognized pathway of FDC and T cell interactions and differential mechanisms for PGE(2) and PGI(2) production, suggesting an important implication for development and use of anti-inflammatory drugs.
indocin name brand
The RR of upper GI bleeding/perforation was 4.50 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 3.82-5.31) for traditional NSAIDs and 1.88 (95% CI 0.96-3.71) for coxibs. RRs lower than that for NSAIDs overall were observed for ibuprofen (2.69 [95% CI 2.17-3.33]), rofecoxib (2.12 [95% CI 1.59-2.84]), aceclofenac (1.44 [95% CI 0.65-3.2]), and celecoxib (1.42 [95% CI 0.85-2.37]), while higher RRs were observed for ketorolac (14.54 [95% CI 5.87-36.04]) and piroxicam (9.94 [95% CI 5.99-16.50). Estimated RRs were 5.63 (95% CI 3.83-8.28) for naproxen, 5.57 (95% CI 3.94-7.87) for ketoprofen, 5.40 (95% CI 4.16-7.00) for indomethacin, 4.15 (95% CI 2.59-6.64) for meloxicam, and 3.98 (95% CI 3.36-4.72) for diclofenac. The degree of inhibition of whole blood COX-1 did not significantly correlate with RR of upper GI bleeding/perforation associated with individual NSAIDs (r(2) = 0.34, P = 0.058), but a profound and coincident inhibition (>80%) of both COX isozymes was associated with higher risk. NSAIDs with a long plasma half-life and with a slow-release formulation were associated with a greater risk than NSAIDs with a short half-life.
indocin 20 mg
A single perioperative intravenous dose of ketorolac was associated with a greater than three-fold increase in the likelihood of requirement for surgical hematoma evacuation. Our data suggest that it may be prudent to consider carefully whether the potential risks associated with the use of ketorolac outweigh the potential benefits of using ketorolac in patients undergoing reduction mammoplasty.
indocin generic table
Omeprazole, lansoprazole, and revaprazan did not protect against Indo-induced IEC-6 cell injury. Indo-PC was less damaging in vitro than Indo alone. In vivo, neither omeprazole nor lansoprazole protected against Indo-induced small bowel injury; however, revaprazan pretreatment and Indo-PC resulted in significantly fewer erosions (>50% reduction) or bleeding (>80% reduction).
We conducted a retrospective analysis in infants who were <33 weeks' gestation, had sPDA, and were treated with high-dose intravenous indomethacin. From 1993 to 2002, 129 infants with sPDA received indomethacin after diagnosis of sPDA was confirmed by echocardiography. Treatment was started in all infants with intravenous indomethacin (0.2 mg/kg given 5 times at 0 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours). When the ductus was still open at 36 hours, indomethacin every 12 hours was continued and single doses increased up to 1 mg/kg until ductal closure was achieved.
indocin max dosage
CC Chemokine ligand 22 (Ccl22) is a selective, high affinity ligand at the CC chemokine receptor 4 (Ccr4). We have identified cDNAs encoding both ligand and receptor of the Ccl22-Ccr4 pair in cDNA libraries of the anterior hypothalamus/pre-optic area (AH/POA) by PCR. The AH/POA is the key brain region where endogenous pyrogens have been shown to act on warm sensitive neurons to affect thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and other thermogenically responsive tissues. We show that functional Ccr4 receptors are present in the AH/POA neurons as injection of Ccl22 into the POA but not to other hypothalamic nuclei induces an increase in core body temperature as measured by radiotelemetry. Indomethacin (5 mg/kg s.c) pre-treatment markedly reduced the hyperthermia evoked by POA injection of Ccl22 (10 ng/0.5 ul) and thus suggests that this hyperthermia is mediated through cyclooxygenase activation and thus likely through the formation and action of the pyrogen prostaglandin E2. The temperature elevation involves a decrease in the respiratory exchange ratio and increased activation of the brown adipose tissue as demonstrated by ¹⁸F-FDG-PET imaging. We describe a novel role to the ligand Ccl22 and its receptor Ccr4 in the anterior hypothalamus in temperature regulation that depends on the synthesis of the endogenous pyrogen, prostaglandin E2.
indocin sr capsules
Ageing reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in humans and animals, and in humans, exercise training reverses the ageing-associated reduction in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) by which 10-12 weeks of treadmill exercise enhances endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in muscles of differing fibre composition from young and old rats. Three- and 22-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were assigned to young sedentary, young exercise-trained, old sedentary, or old exercise-trained groups. Arterioles were isolated from the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles; luminal diameter changes were determined in response to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-9)-10(-4) mol l(-1)) alone and in the presence of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor l-NAME (10(-5) mol l(-1)) or the combination of l-NAME and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10(-5) mol l(-1)). Training ameliorated the ageing-induced reduction in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in soleus muscle arterioles. Treatment with l-NAME alone and in combination with indomethacin abolished differences in ACh vasodilatation occurring with ageing and training. Expression of endothelial NOS (eNOS) mRNA in soleus arterioles was unaltered by ageing, whereas eNOS protein was increased with age; training elevated both eNOS mRNA and protein. In gastrocnemius muscle arterioles, ageing did not alter maximal vasodilatation, but ageing and training increased maximal arteriolar diameter. These results demonstrate that ageing-induced reductions and training-induced enhancement of endothelial vasodilatation both occur through the nitric oxide signalling mechanism in highly oxidative skeletal muscle, but ageing and training do not appear to act on the same portion of the signalling cascade.
indocin sr alcohol
Involvement of COX-derived prostaglandins in vascular endothelial function outside the transplanted organ is strongly diminished after allogeneic renal transplantation. RAS blockade improves common cardiovascular risk factors and endothelium-dependent dilation, but fails to restore prostaglandin function.