Salt-fractionated bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) proteins were employed for the decolorization of disperse dyes in the presence of H2O2. The effect of various experimental conditions such as concentration of enzyme, H2O2, phenol, reaction time, pH and temperature on the decolorization of dyes was investigated. Dyes were recalcitrant to the decolorization catalysed by bitter gourd peroxidase. However, these dyes were decolorized significantly in the presence of a redox mediator, phenol. Bitter gourd peroxidase (0.215 U/mL) could decolorize about 60% of Disperse Red 17 in the presence of 0.2 mM phenol, whereas Disperse Brown 1 was decolorized by only 40% even in the presence of 0.4 mM phenol. Maximum decolorization of dyes was achieved in the presence of 0.75 mM H2O2 in a buffer ofpH 3.0 and 40 degrees C within 30 min. The K(m) values obtained were 0.625 mg/(L x h) and 2.5 mg/(L x h) for Disperse Red 17 and Disperse Brown 1, respectively. In all the experiments, Disperse Brown 1 was found to be more recalcitrant to decolorization catalysed by bitter gourd peroxidise, as compared to Disperse Red 17.
Crude ethanolic extracts (CEEs) from two species of Cucurbitaceae, Cucurbita maxima and Momordica charantia (commonly called "abóbora moranga" and "melão de São Caetano", respectively) were assayed for antimalarial activity by the 4-d suppressive test. The CEE of dry C. maxima seeds showed strong antimalarial activity following oral administration (250 and 500 mg/kg), reducing by 50% the levels of parasitemia in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Treatment of normal animals with 500 mg/kg of the extract three days before intravenous injection of P. berghei caused a significant 30% reduction in parasitemic levels. No effect was observed when the animals were treated with the CEE only on the day of inoculation. Oral administration of the CEE of dry M. charantia leaves administered orally was ineffective up to 500 mg/kg in lowering the parasitemic levels of malarious mice.
These results suggest that M. charantia has potent neuroprotective activity against global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induced neuronal injury and consequent neurological deficits in diabetic mice.
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The bitter gourd genus Momordica comprises 47 species in Africa and 12 in Asia and Australia. All have unisexual flowers, and of the African species, 24 are dioecious, 23 monoecious, while all Asian species are dioecious. Maximum likelihood analyses of 6257 aligned nucleotides of plastid, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA obtained for 122 accessions of Momordica and seven outgroups show that Momordica is monophyletic and consists of 11 well-supported clades. Monoecy evolved from dioecy seven times independently, always in Africa and mostly in savanna species with low population densities. Leaky dioecy, with occasional fruit-producing males, occurs in two African species and might be the first step in an evolutionary transition towards monoecy. Dated biogeographic analyses suggest that Momordica originated in tropical Africa and that the Asian species are the result of one long-distance dispersal event about 19million years ago. The pantropical vegetable Momordica charantia is of African, not Asian origin as had previously been suggested.
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alpha-MMC was found to obviously inhibit HIV-1 III B-inducing C8166 syncytia formation and markedly reduced both expression of p24 core antigen and the numbers of HIV antigen positive cells in acutely but not chronically HIV-1-infected culture. The median effective concentration (EC50) in these assays were 0.016, 0.07, and 0.32 mg.L-1, respectively.
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Use of anti-diabetic plants is prevalent diabetic patients of the area. C. decidua, W. coagulans and G. sylvestre are recommend the further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation due to high DCI score and relatively unexplored status.
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The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris > Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis > Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex negundo (alcoholic) > T. cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cordifolia (methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V. negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cordifolia (aqueous extract) > V. negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa > A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts evaluated exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 microg/mL, as compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite.
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Five new 5β,19-epoxycucurbitane triterpenoids, taikugausins A-E (1-5), together with 5β,19-epoxy-25-methoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,19-diol (6), have been isolated and characterized from the 70 % EtOH extract of the fresh fruits of Momordica charantia. The chemical structures of compounds 1-6 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, especially 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments and HRESIMS data. The relationship between NMR chemical shifts and the configuration of C-19 with an OMe group in 5β,19-epoxycucurbitane are described. Among them, compounds 3 and 4 exhibited remarkable anti-inflammatory activities by the inhibition of nitric oxide production at the concentration of 10 µg/mL. In addition, 3 and 4 also showed moderate cytotoxicity against WiDr, Hep G2, MCF-7, and HEp-2 human tumor cell lines.
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CYPs and Phase-II conjugated enzymes levels can be modulated in dose and time dependent manner. Observations suggest that polyherbal formulation might be a possible cause of herb-drug interaction, due to changes in pharmacokinetic of crucial CYPs and Phase-II substrate drug.
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Five vegetables traditionally consumed among South-Asian migrants in Bradford (Yorkshire, UK) were tested for their free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) in the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical) screening assay (using extracts prepared both by cold maceration and also by boiling the plant in the solvent under reflux) and for their in vitro non-enzymatic inhibition of bovine brain lipid peroxidation. In both antioxidant assays a strong activity was shown by extracts derived from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus, Malvaceae) fruits and charungli (Caralluma edulis, Asclepiadaceae) aerial parts. Extracts from bitter melon (Momordica charantia, Cucurbitaceae) and angular loofah (Luffa acutangula) showed a significant difference in the FRSA between the extract obtained by using cold maceration and that prepared by boiling the plant in the solvent under reflux, suggesting the chemical composition of the plant changed during the heating process, leading to an increase in the amount of antioxidant components. These findings confirm the great interest of the nutraceutical sciences in extracts of Caralluma edulis, whose phytochemistry and phytopharmacology should be investigated further in order to detect possible phytotherapeutic uses in the prevention of ageing related diseases (ARDs) and Alzheimer disease (AD).
Antioxidant and α-glucosidase activities and total phenolic contents (TPC) in sequential extracts of dried pulps from seven cucurbit fruit vegetables were determined for the first time. The highest TPC and metal chelating activity were obtained from the chloroform extracts of Luffa acutangula (28.04 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g extract) and Benincasa hispida (EC50 = 0.44 ± 0.03 mg/mL), respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of Sechium edule showed the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity (951.73 ± 29.14 mM TE/g extract). The highest reducing and anti-α-glucosidase activities were shown by the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia (692.56 ± 43.38 mM AscAE/g extract; 66.64 ± 2.94%, respectively). The highest correlation (r = 0.99) was observed between the TPC and DPPH values of S. edule. Although caffeic acid was quantified as the major constituent in the methanol extract of Lagenaria siceraria , isoquercetin was found to be the main contributor to the activities. Gallic acid was identified as both the main and most active antioxidant constituent in the ethyl acetate extract of S. edule.
The prevalence of CAM use was 62.5 percent. Female were 1.8 times more likely than male in using CAM. Malays (75%) were the most frequent users, followed Indians (18%) and Chinese (6%). Biological therapy (50.0%) were the most widely used, followed by manipulative-body based systems (9.2%), energy system (8.8%), alternative medicine systems (4.6%) and mind-body system (1.7%). In biological therapy, a total of 30.4 percent, 24.2 percent, 13.3 percent, and 7.9 percent of diabetic patients consumed bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia), followed by Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon Stamineus Benth), garlic (Allium Sativum), and Sabah snake grass (Clinacanthus Nutans Lindau) respectively. The mean of the expenditure on CAM usage was RM 52.8 ± 101.9 (US $16.9 ± 32.5) per month. According to multiple logistic regression analyses, being Muslim (OR 5.258, 95 percent CI 2.952-9.368) had significant positive association with CAM use.
The study was conducted to analyze the effect of plant growth regulators on callogenesis and direct and indirect organogenesis of Memordica charantia. Callus cultures were induced from leaf, stem and cotyledonary explants of Momordica charantia, at different auxin and cytokinin concentrations either in single or in combination in MS medium. The best callogenic response was observed from all three explants (leaf, stem and cotyledon) on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 and 1.5 mg L(-1) BAP with 1.5 mg L(-1) NAA and 1.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-D, respectively. The callus produced was hard, green and compact. These totipotent cells were failed to give rise shooting response when transferred to same or different growth regulator containing medium as second subculture. Indirect organogenesis response was very low or absent due to hardening of callus and habitutation. Best shooting was observed at 1.0 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.1 TDZ and 1.5 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA from shoot tip and cotyledonary node explants. While root formation was achieved when generated shoots were transferred to MS medium both full and half strength supplemented with different auxin concentrations.
According to the World Health Organization malaria is one of the major public health problems in Brazil and all over developing countries, where 80% of the population use traditional medicine to solve their primary medical problems. Both treatment and control of this parasitosis have become difficult, because of parasite strains that are resistant to conventional drugs, such as chloroquine. That makes the search for new antimalarial drugs not only important but urgent. We aimed therefore at evaluating the effects of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. We used aquose and ethanotic extracts in a dose of 1000 mg/kg of body weight, orally, for five consecutive days (i.e. from day 2 to day 6 postinfection). We then followed up the parasitaemia during the course of infection. Although the population use this plant as an antimalarial, in our experimental conditions, M. charantia extracts have not shown such activity.
Napin and napin-like proteins belong to the 2S albumin seed storage family of proteins and have been shown to display a variety of biological activities. However, due to a high degree of polymorphism, purification of a single napin or napin-like protein exhibiting biological activity is extremely difficult. In the present study, we have produced the napin-like protein of Momordica charantia using the methylotrophic Pichia pastoris expression system. The recombinant napin-like protein (rMcnapin) secreted in the extracellular culture supernatant was enriched by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and purified using size exclusion chromatography at a yield of ∼290 mg/L of culture. Secondary structure analysis of the purified rMcnapin revealed it to be predominantly α-helical with minimal β strand content. CD spectroscopic and fluorescence spectroscopic analyses revealed the rMcnapin to be stable at a wide range of temperatures and pH. The rMcnapin exhibited antifungal activity against Trichoderma viride with an IC50 of ∼3.7 μg/ml and trypsin inhibitor activity with an IC50 of 4.2 μM. Thus, large amounts of homogenous preparations of the biologically active rMcnapin could be obtained at shake flask level, which is otherwise difficult from its natural source.
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The increasingly diverse U.S. immigrant populations and the growing use of medicinal herbs create a need for health care professionals to expand their knowledge in this area. This is a review of tropical plants, Annona Muricata, Artemisia absinthium, Cinchona officinalis, Illicium verum, Momordica charantia, Opuntia streptacantha, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Tabebuia avellanedae (impetiginosa), commonly used by Latino and Haitian populations for the treatment of infectious disease. All the eight plants discussed here have one or more of the following: antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, or antiparasitic properties. All of these plants are primarily known and used in the tropical region, but they are also readily available for purchase in the United States, specifically in the ethnic markets. This review discusses their traditional uses, chemical constituents, proven scientific evidence, and toxicities.
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A peptide designated charantin, with a molecular mass of 9.7 kDa, was isolated from bitter gourd seeds. The procedure comprised affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion-exchange chromatography on Mono S and gel filtration on Superdex 75. The N-terminal sequence of charantin exhibited marked similarity to that of the 7.8-kDa napin-like peptide previously isolated from bitter gourd seeds. Charantin inhibited cell-free translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC50 of 400 nm, a potency lower than that of the previously reported small ribosome-inactivating protein gamma-momorcharin (IC50 = 55 nm) which also exhibited an abundance of arginine and glutamate/glutamine residues. Charantin reacted positively in the N-glycosidase assay, yielding a band similar to that formed by the small ribosome-inactivating proteins gamma-momorcharin and luffin S.
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Natural products isolated from plants used in traditional medicine, which have potent anti-plasmodial action in vitro, represent potential sources of new anti-malarial drugs.
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A lot of treatment strategies available for diabetes but its complications are still a medical problem around the globe. It demands to find out some alternative therapeutic measures. In order to investigate the anti-diabetic potential of probiotics and natural extracts, this study was designed. Accordingly, a local source of yogurt probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum was isolated and characterized that showed its probiotic properties. Besides this, natural extracts of plants fruits like java plum (Syzygium cumini) and bitter gourd (M. charantia) were made. Lactobacillus fermentum and the extracts were administered individually as well as in combination to diabetes induced mice. Different parameters like body weight, blood glucose level and lipid profile including total cholesterol, HDL & LDL were analyzed before and after treatment. The results showed that Lactobacillus fermentum and natural extracts have hypoglycemic as well hypolipidemic activity against diabetic mice. This study can further investigated to screen potential compounds from these extracts to control the glucose and the lipid levels in diabetic patients.
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This is the first report of cloning and expression of the MC polypeptide-P gene. The cloned gene could be helpful for exploring the mechanisms of polypeptide-P gene expression and regulation in MC. Furthermore, this gene could be used as a potential tool both for screening MC varieties with high hypoglycaemically active substance content and for breeding new varieties of MC with high economic value, which could in turn be beneficial to farmers.
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A codon-optimized recombinant ribonuclease, MC1 is characterized for its uridine-specific cleavage ability to map nucleoside modifications in RNA. The published MC1 amino acid sequence, as noted in a previous study, was used as a template to construct a synthetic gene with a natural codon bias favoring expression in Escherichia coli. Following optimization of various expression conditions, the active recombinant ribonuclease was successfully purified as a C-terminal His-tag fusion protein from E. coli [Rosetta 2(DE3)] cells. The isolated protein was tested for its ribonuclease activity against oligoribonucleotides and commercially available E. coli tRNA(Tyr I). Analysis of MC1 digestion products by ion-pairing reverse phase liquid-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (IP-RP-LC-MS) revealed enzymatic cleavage of RNA at the 5'-termini of uridine and pseudouridine, but cleavage was absent if the uridine was chemically modified or preceded by a nucleoside with a bulky modification. Furthermore, the utility of this enzyme to generate complementary digestion products to other common endonucleases, such as RNase T1, which enables the unambiguous mapping of modified residues in RNA is demonstrated.
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The prevalence of CAM use was high among diabetics. Islam faith is predictor for CAM use among Type 2 DM patients. The most-common herbs used were bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia) and Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon Stamineus, Benth). Further studies on the anti-glycemic activity of the isolated compound may be needed in the future.
Estrogen or combinational hormone therapy can protect to menopausal symptoms but exogenous estrogen therapy has some potential risks which in turns lead to the appearance of various diseases. In recent years plants with high phytoestrogen content are recommended as therapeutic agents for postmenopausal hormonal treatment. In this research, we investigated the effects of Momordica charantia (MC) on the estrogen production and E2 as well as anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic role on the ovariectomy rat model. The rats were ovariectomized and fed on 2 g/kg of fruit extra of MC for 30 days by gavage. 17-β estradiol (E2) and 8-OHdG levels in serum, markers of oxidative damage of ROS and ESRα, ESRβ and NF-kB gene levels were measured in uterus horn tissue. Caspase-3, caspase-9, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, Bcl-2 and Nf-kB proteins expression were assessed by western blotting. Structural changes in tissue were examined with H&E staining. MC administration also stimulated the E2 production and ESRα/ESRβ gene levels and the inhibited oxidative damage. Furthermore, MC treatment enhanced anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory process and tissue regeneration. Data herein support that MC directly regulates uterine estrogen response and may serve as a new phytoestrogenic substance for the treatment of post-menopausal symptoms.
beta- Momorcharin is a basic glycoprotein found in the seeds of Momordica charantia L. It differed immunologically from alpha- momorcharin also of the same source but possessed similar mid-term abortifacient activity. Intraperitoneal administration of beta- momocharin into mice on Days 4 and 6 of pregnancy led to an inhibition of pregnancy. In vitro study showed that the protein disturbed peri-implantation development by: (a) blocking the hatching of embryos from the zona pellucida; (b) decreasing the incidence of successful attachment of the blastocyst; (c) reducing the trophoblast outgrowth; and (d) disrupting the development of inner cell mass. It is likely that beta- momorcharin inhibited embryonic implantation by a similar biological action previously described for alpha- momorcharin .
Petroleum ether, benzene and alcohol extracts of the seeds of Momordica charantia tested in rats at the dose level of 25 mg/100 g body weight for 35 days showed antispermatogenic activity as the number of spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa was decreased. Increase in cholesterol level and Sudanophilic lipid accumulation indicates inhibition in the steroidogenesis. At the same time the weight of epididymis, prostate gland, seminal vesicle and levator ani was increased which showed its androgenic property. Out of the three extracts, the alcohol extract was more potent in its antispermatogenic, antisteroidogenic and androgenic activities.