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Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a major health problem and is mainly associated with the persistent inability of men to maintain sufficient erection for satisfactory sexual performance. Millions of men are using sildenafil, vardenafil, and/or tadalafil for ED treatment. Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play a central role in the metabolism of a wide range of xenobiotics as well as endogenous compounds. Susceptibility of individuals to the adverse effects of different drugs is mainly dependent on the expression of CYPs proteins. Therefore, changes in activities of phase I drug-metabolising enzymes [arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), dimethylnitrosamine N-demethylase (DMN-dI), 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD), and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase ((EROD)] and the protein expression of different CYPs isozymes (CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP2B1/2, CYP3A4, CYP2C23, and CYP2C6) were determined after treatment of male rats with either low or high doses of sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and/or vardenafil (Levitra) for 3 weeks. The present study showed that low doses of tadalafil and vardenafil increased DMN-dI activity by 32 and 23%, respectively. On the other hand, high doses of tadalafil, vardenafil, and sildenafil decreased such activity by 50, 56, and 52%, respectively. In addition, low doses of tadalafil and vardenafil induced the protein expression of CYP2E1. On the other hand, high doses of either tadalafil or sildenafil were more potent inhibitors to CYP2E1 expression than vardenafil. Moreover, low doses of both vardenafil and sildenafil markedly increased AHH activity by 162 and 247%, respectively, whereas high doses of tadalafil, vardenafil, and sildenafil inhibited such activity by 36, 49, and 57% and inhibited the EROD activity by 39, 49, and 33%, respectively. Low and high doses of tadalafil, vardenafil, and sildenafil inhibited the activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase as well as its protein expression. In addition, such drugs inhibited the expression of CYP B1/2 along with its corresponding enzyme marker ECOD activity. It is concluded that changes in the expression and activity of phase I drug-metabolising enzymes could change the normal metabolic pathways and might enhance the deleterious effects of exogenous as well as endogenous compounds.
Relevant articles were identified through a PubMed search of clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance studies of vardenafil in patients with ED including those with diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia.
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Although this is a preference study based on subjective elements, statistically significant differences comparing the IIEF score and the EDITS Questionnaire lead us to believe that beyond patients' subjective preference per se, said preference is probably also based on a genuinely superior response to one drug over another.
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To study long-term compliance among patients who were treated according to this "three-drug regime."
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Forty-nine (49%) patients freely decided not to start any ED therapy (group 1). Of the remaining patients, 36 (36%) opted for an as-needed PDE5-I (group 2), whereas 15 (15%) decided to use a daily PDE5-I (group 3). At the 18-mo follow-up, the overall discontinuation rate from both treatment modalities was 72.6% (eg, 72.2% vs. 73.3% in group 2 vs. group 3; p=0.79). Treatment effect below expectations was the main reason for treatment discontinuation, followed by loss of interest in sex due to partner's causes.
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A case-control study linking 2 National Veterans Health Administration databases (clinical and pharmacy) for fiscal years 2004 to 2005. The likelihood of past exposure to PDE-5 inhibitors among newly diagnosed patients with CSC, identified through International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification codes, was compared with 2 age-matched control groups after excluding subjects with risk factors for CSC.
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Mean age of patients was 54 ± 9.6 years. Compared with pretreatment, no significant improvement in BMI was observed. Serum total testosterone and free testosterone were significantly increased at 12 weeks and were maintained until 24 weeks (P < 0.001). TU significantly decreased cholesterol (P < 0.0001). TU significantly improved total IIEF, all five domain scores of IIEF (P < 0.0001) and total AMS, all three domain scores of AMS (P < 0.0001). On GEQ, TU improved erectile function in 76.9% of subjects. On safety profile, TU significantly elevated Hb, Hct, and PSA at 24 weeks but within normal range. No serious adverse reactions were observed. Drop-out rate was 15.0%.
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Four patients showed a unilateral threshold decrease compatible with ototoxicity criteria; this change was reversible. A statistically significant difference in pre- versus post-drug hearing thresholds was observed in the right ear at 10,000 Hz (p = 0.008). There were no statistically significant hearing threshold differences at any other frequencies (p > 0.05).
Vaginal and clitoral vasodilatory responses to pelvic nerve electrical stimulation were measured by laser Doppler flow needle probes.
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Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are the first choice therapy in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Many men in their reproductive years are now using phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6 months of treatment with 20 mg vardenafil, compared with 100 mg sildenafil and placebo, on semen characteristics and reproductive hormones in men with and without erectile dysfunction.
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Sildenafil and its analogues (tadalafil and vardenafil) are phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors used in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. Some dietary supplements, herbal preparations and food products which claim to enhance male sexual function have been found to be adulterated with these drugs. In this study, a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) assay was developed for identification of the drugs. In addition to good and short chromatographic separation that can be achieved within 6 min by using a short 10 m capillary column, no prior sample clean-up before GC-MS analysis was required, thus making this assay a cost saving and rapid method. Furthermore, the assay is specific as the identification of sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil were done by detection of molecular ions; m/z 474, 389 and 488, [corrected] respectively, and several other characteristic ions resulted from the mass fragmentation of individual molecules. Using our currently developed assay, sildenafil and its analogues were successfully identified in food and herbal matrices.
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Survey of over-the-counter male erectile dysfunction health products available in convenience stores and pharmacies in Hong Kong.
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The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score improved from baseline and was statistically significant in all cases (P < 0.0001). When we compared the IIEF scores, we found a statistically significant difference between tadalafil and vardenafil (P = 0.0002) favoring the former; similar results were obtained with the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory for Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) Questionnaire (P = 0.000075). We also found a significant difference (P = 0.012) between tadalafil and sildenafil, again in favor of the former. In assessing drug preference, 25 patients (27.77%) chose sildenafil, 18 (20%) vardenafil, and 47 (52.22%) tadalafil. A total of 94% of patients would be willing to take another drug if the preferred choice was not available. All drugs were well tolerated.
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We investigated whether vardenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, alters plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and arginine.
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Vardenafil is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for ED and provides improvement in key indices of erectile function among Japanese men with ED. The results of our trial show that up to nearly 90% of patients achieve improved erections with the administration of vardenafil.
To investigate the ability of resveratrol and/or vardenafil to increase cGMP in an in vitro model using CCSMCs and to improve erectile function in an in vivo rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes.
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To assess the role of vardenafil in continence recovery after bilateral nerve sparing radical prostatectomy (BNS-RP).
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vardenafil (Levitra), a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor, on cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and on 5-hyroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) expression in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups (n=5 in each group): a control group, a 0.5 mg/kg-1 day vardenafil-treated group, a 1 mg/kg-1 day vardenafil-treated group, a 2 mg/kg-1 day vardenafil-treated group, a 1 mg/kg-3 day vardenafil-treated group, and a 1 mg/kg-7 day vardenafil-treated group. 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry was then performed to evaluate cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. In addition, 5-HT and TPH immunohistochemistry was conducted to evaluate serotonin expression in the dorsal raphe. The results revealed that treatment with vardenafil increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus and enhanced 5-HT synthesis and TPH expression in the dorsal raphe in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. The findings demonstrate that the increasing effect of vardenafil on cell proliferation is closely associated with the enhancing effect of vardenafil on serotonin expression under normal conditions.
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Our results provide preclinical evidence that both drugs stimulate chloride transport activity of F508del-CFTR protein.
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Sildenafil, Vardenafil and Tadalafil are all effective and well-tolerated treatments for ED in SCI patients. Although no statistical analysis could be applied on these data, these results might indicate that Sildenafil is more effective in treating ED. Clinic trials are important for proper dose titration and appropriate education of the patients.
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The small numbers of papers with large and diverse outcome measures did not consent a meta-analysis of treatment results. 705 used sildenafil, 305 vardenafil and 224 tadalafil. Median age was less than 40 years. Only 1 study excluded tetraplegic individuals. For measures of ED evaluated, 11 out of 13 studies reported a significant statistical improvement with PDE5 inhibitors versus placebo or erectile baseline (P < 0.01, or p < 0.005). The most frequent predicable factor for the therapeutic success of PDE5 inhibitors was upper motoneuron lesion. Statistical impact on ejaculation success rates was shown in at least one paper for all PDE5 inhibitors (p < 0.05). Overall, 15 patients, (7 using sildenafil), discontinued the therapies due to drawbacks. Only 1 sildenafil study reported a follow-up maximum of 24 months.
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HC rabbits had a lower erectile response to SNP than controls; in both control and HC rabbits there was a greater erectile response after simultaneous exposure to SNP and vardenafil, or SNP and sildenafil. However, the responses of the HC rabbits were still significantly less than those of the controls. Corpora from control rabbits responded to EFS with greater relaxations at all frequencies, except 1 Hz. Corpora from both HC and control rabbits had greater responses to EFS after exposure to vardenafil and sildenafil; N'-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester diminished the response to EFS.
Treatment with vardenafil resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the load-independent cardiac contractility parameters reaching its maximum at the dose of 100μg/kg (ESPVR: 2.15 ± 0.15 vs. 3.29 ± 0.26 mm Hg/μL; PRSW: 93.28 ± 4.04 vs. 134.90 ± 6.27 mm Hg; peak positive dP/dt/EDV: 38.73 ± 7.97 vs. 53.02 ± 3.74 mm Hg·s-1·µL-1; before versus after 100 μg/kg vardenafil). Results of the in vitro organ-bath experiments showed an augmented vasorelaxation of precontracted aortic rings after vardenafil treatment.
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To determine whether chronic vardenafil exposure alters cavernous protein expression predicting improved erectile function in diabetes.
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To assess the pharmacodynamic effects of coadministered vardenafil and tamsulosin in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) undergoing stable tamsulosin therapy.
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Significant advances in the pharmacologic treatment of erectile dysfunction (ERD) have occurred in recent years, most notably the introduction of sildenafil, the first oral selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, in 1998. Sildenafil quickly gained acceptance by the medical community and the public because of its broad efficacy for different types of ERD and its ease of use. Two PDE5 inhibitors, vardenafil and tadalafil, have since joined sildenafil to compete in the ERD market. A review was conducted by the Drug Information Service of a pharmacy benefits manager (PBM) to determine the relative merits and place in therapy of commonly used ERD drugs as part of drug formulary management process and decision making by the Pharmacy & Therapeutics (P&T) committee.
These results show that PDE-5 is expressed in LUT tissues. PDE-5 inhibitors induced significant relaxation of these tissues, inhibited the proliferation of human prostate stromal cells and reduced the irritative symptoms of BPH/LUTS in vivo. Therefore, PDE-5 inhibitors could be used as an effective treatment for BPH/LUTS.
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The combination of tamsulosin and vardenafil for 12 weeks was well tolerated and more effective to improve both LUTS and erectile function, as compared with tamsulosin alone. Further studies are needed to assess the role of combined therapy of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and alpha blockers in treating LUTS/BPH.
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To determine the safety and efficacy of vardenafil in a large international pool of men with ED (aged ≥ 18 years) and associated underlying conditions (N=73,946), in a real-life setting.
The histologic findings in vardenafil treatment groups were statistically significant decreased edema and follicle degeneration, with vascular congestion, hemorrhage and follicle degeneration being dose-dependent. There were no statistically significant changes in the biochemical parameters.