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Attaining the treatment target of LDL-C < 100 mg/dl within multifactorial treatment of MetS by expert clinics, is achievable and beneficial even in patients without diabetes or known CVD. This induces a considerable e-CVD risk reduction in MetS patients. Actual CVD events were negligible, suggesting that e-CVD risk overestimates actual CVD risk in MetS, at least in patients achieving LDL-C < 100 mg/dl [ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00416741].
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The aim of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of lipid-lowering therapy and therapeutic decisions made by physicians for patients not achieving LDL targets.
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a marked increase in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke (by a factor of two to three compared with non-diabetic patients), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for the majority of deaths among patients with diabetes. A new fixed dose combination containing atorvastatin 10 mg + metformin SR 500 mg is being introduced in the Indian market for the treatment of dyslipidaemia in diabetic patients. The present study was therefore undertaken to assess efficacy, safety and tolerability of a fixed dose combination of atorvastatin 10mg + metformin SR 500mg in adult Indian patients with diabetic dyslipidaemia. The final protocol was approved by relevant ethics committee before the initiation of study. Informed consent was obtained from all the patients prior to enrollment in study. The total duration of study was 14 weeks including two weeks dietary run in period. Patients fulfilling the selection criteria received a single oral tablet of fixed dose combination of atorvastatin 10mg + metformin SR 500mg once daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy parameters were assessed by evaluating reduction in fasting and postprandial plasma glucose concentration levels at baseline and thereafter at each follow up visit at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks and plasma lipid profile and glycosylated Hb levels at baseline and end of study. The secondary efficacy parameters were assessed by evaluating percentage change from baseline at the end of the study (week 12) in the plasma concentration of the various lipid parameters such as total, HDL-, LDL- and very low density (VLDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo B, Apo A1, TC/LDL ratio, LDL/ HDL ratio, and percentage of patients achieving LDL-cholesterol goals as per NCEP ATP III guidelines. A total of 213 patients were enrolled in the study. Of these seven patients were lost to follow-up and considered as drop-outs. Therapy with the fixed dose combination of atorvastatin 10 mg + metformin SR 500 mg resulted in a significant reduction in the mean plasma fasting and postprandial glucose levels (35 and 38.8% respectively). There was a steep fall in the HbA1c levels from baseline levels of 8.76% to 6.74% (23.1%). There was also a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in mean total cholesterol (31.2%), LDL cholesterol (35.4%), VLDL-cholesterol (19.6%) and a significant increase HDL-cholesterol (9.5%). Thus there appeared to be trend towards reducing atherosclerosis following therapy with the fixed dose combination of atorvastatin 10 mg + metformin SR 500 mg. Mean body mass index was significantly reduced in the patients in the present study following therapy with the study drugs. The fixed dose combination of atorvastatin with metformin was well tolerated with mostly gastro-intestinal adverse events being reported in the current study. Moreover, most of the adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity and disappeared with continued treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that, the fixed dose combination of atorvastatin 10 mg + metformin SR 500 mg is efficacious and well tolerated therapeutic modality in patients with diabetic dyslipidaemia. Furthermore this combination offers dosage convenience to the patient and by virtue of its dual mode of action is a useful addition to the therapeutic armamentarium for patients with diabetic dyslipidaemia.
An experimental study was carried out on 60 NZ rabbits with advanced atherosclerosis, distributed in four groups of 15 animals each. Group 1: Control. Group 2: paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) in the thoracic aorta. Group 3: Atorvastatin 2.5mg/day po+PES implant, and Group 4: Atorvastatin 2.5mg/day po. They were followed up at 30, 60 and 90 days. Histo-morphometric analyses were carried out.
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This study was designed to establish the mechanism responsible for the increased apolipoprotein (apo) A-II levels caused by the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor torcetrapib. Nineteen subjects with low HDL cholesterol (<40 mg/dl), nine of whom were also treated with 20 mg of atorvastatin daily, received placebo for 4 weeks, followed by 120 mg of torcetrapib daily for the next 4 weeks. Six subjects in the nonatorvastatin cohort participated in a third phase, in which they received 120 mg of torcetrapib twice daily for 4 weeks. At the end of each phase, subjects underwent a primed-constant infusion of [5,5,5-(2)H(3)]L-leucine to determine the kinetics of HDL apoA-II. Relative to placebo, torcetrapib significantly increased apoA-II concentrations by reducing HDL apoA-II catabolism in the atorvastatin (-9.4%, P < 0.003) and nonatorvastatin once- (-9.9%, P = 0.02) and twice- (-13.2%, P = 0.02) daily cohorts. Torcetrapib significantly increased the amount of apoA-II in the alpha-2-migrating subpopulation of HDL when given as monotherapy (27%, P < 0.02; 57%, P < 0.003) or on a background of atorvastatin (28%, P < 0.01). In contrast, torcetrapib reduced concentrations of apoA-II in alpha-3-migrating HDL, with mean reductions of -14% (P = 0.23), -18% (P < 0.02), and -18% (P < 0.01) noted during the atorvastatin and nonatorvastatin 120 mg once- and twice-daily phases, respectively. Our findings indicate that CETP inhibition increases plasma concentrations of apoA-II by delaying HDL apoA-II catabolism and significantly alters the remodeling of apoA-II-containing HDL subpopulations.
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Atorvastatin administration did not alter plasma total cholesterol but it significantly decreased triglyceride levels. In sham operated and 3-day unilateral ureteral obstruction rats atorvastatin treatment did not have effects on the glomerular filtration rate or effective renal plasma flow and it also did not affect urinary microalbumin levels. In rats with 12-day unilateral ureteral obstruction the glomerular filtration rate but not effective renal plasma flow was significantly higher and urinary microalbumin was significantly lower in atorvastatin treated rats than in those without atorvastatin treatment.
These days apolipoproteins especially apo B and apo A I are thought to be better predictors of risk of coronary artery disease as compared to lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol. Lifestyle modification and use of lipid modifying drugs such as statins and fibrates have proven effective in reducing the risk of coronary artery disease. Statins and fibrates are known to possess anti-atherosclerotic properties in addition to lipid modifying effects. Extensive data is available regarding lipid modification especially lowering of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by these drugs. But the data regarding the effect of statins and fibrates, on apolipoprotein levels is scanty. Hence the present study was aimed at assessing the effect of statins (atorvastatin, simvastatin) and fenofibrate on serum apo B and apo A I levels in addition to their lipid modifying effects in various age groups of coronary artery disease patients. One hundred patients suffering from coronary artery disease were randomly assigned to 10 mg atorvastatin, 10 mg simvastatin and 200 mg fenofibrate, separately (without any combination). All the patients were divided into three age groups; group I (35-45 years), group II (46-55 years) and group III (> 55 years). Significant modification was observed in lipid and lipoprotein profile of coronary artery disease patients when treated with these drugs (statins and fibrates). A significant increase in serum apo A I (p < 0.01) and decline in serum apo B levels (p < 0.01) was observed in case of coronary artery disease patients after 16 weeks treatment, though the effect started after 1 month. All the three drugs reduced serum apo B levels in a comparable manner. Fenofibrate increased serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apo A I levels more as compared to statins. It had nearly, proportionate effect in increasing high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apo A I levels and reducing serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apo B levels while the effect was disproportionate in case of atorvastatin and simvastatin. All the three drugs not only corrected lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol levels but also modified, apolipoprotein levels in a positive direction in coronary artery disease patients. Advancing age had no appreciable effect on the efficacy of these drugs.
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Patients with CKD were compared with the non-CKD patients. Cox regression models were used to study the relationships between on-treatment levels of LC and incident MCE.
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Adiponectin and resistin, two recently discovered adipocyte-secreted hormones, may link obesity with insulin resistance and/or metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate the association of adiponectin and resistin with inflammatory markers, hyperlipidemia, and vascular reactivity and an interventional study to investigate whether atorvastatin mediates its beneficial effects by altering adiponectin or resistin levels.
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Calcific aortic valve disease is the most common indication for surgical valve replacement in the United States. The cellular mechanisms of valve calcification are not well understood. We have previously shown that cellular proliferation and osteoblastogenesis are important in the development of valvular heart disease. Lrp5, a known low-density receptor-related protein, plays an essential role in cellular proliferation and osteoblastogenesis via the beta-catenin signaling pathway. We hypothesize that Lrp5 also plays a role in aortic valve (AV) calcification in experimental hypercholesterolemia.
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The increased cardiovascular risk associated with hypertriglyceridemia is thought to be due in part to high levels of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins and small dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In this post hoc analysis, effects of increasing doses of atorvastatin (10, 20, 40, and 80 mg) on atherogenic lipid subclasses commonly associated with hypertriglyceridemia were evaluated in 191 men and women who were candidates for lipid-lowering therapy and had baseline TG levels >200 mg/dl (2.3 mmol/L). After 8 weeks of treatment, in addition to significantly decreasing LDL cholesterol and TG levels, atorvastatin significantly increased LDL peak particle diameter (p <0.01) and significantly decreased the concentration of small LDL subclasses IIIa and IIIb (p <0.0001) from baseline at all doses. These effects were more pronounced with higher compared with lower doses of atorvastatin. Each dose of atorvastatin also significantly lowered levels of very LDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein (p <0.0001), and small very LDL subclass 3 (p <0.0001). Greater decreases were achieved by those patients receiving higher doses of atorvastatin (20, 40, and 80 mg). The increase in LDL size correlated with the decrease in TG levels, but not with the decrease in LDL cholesterol levels. However, the decrease in small dense LDL cholesterol concentrations correlated significantly with TG and LDL cholesterol decreases. In conclusion, atorvastatin significantly lowered levels of TG-rich remnant lipoproteins and favorably changed LDL particle size in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. These effects may explain the benefits of statin therapy in high-risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia even when levels of LDL cholesterol are at goal.
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One hundred seventeen ambulatory care patients with dyslipidemia who were treated with atorvastatin.
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The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of triple oral therapy and different combination of rosiglitazone, atorvastatin, and glimepiride on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The various biochemical parameters studied included glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c), fasting plasma sugar levels, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol in diabetic and normal rats. The present study demonstrates that atorvastatin could increase the effect of rosiglitazone and glimepiride and lipid-lowering effect of combination of rosiglitazone and glimepiride (GLIM). According to our finding, similar results for rosiglitazone plus atorvastatin were obtained in terms of correcting lipid parameters, whereas the suppressive action of triple oral therapy of rosiglitazone and glimepiride, and atorvastatin on blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride was more beneficial than that of dual therapy of different combinations and monotherapy.
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We evaluated relationships between the LDL cholesterol and CRP levels achieved after treatment with 80 mg of atorvastatin or 40 mg of pravastatin per day and the risk of recurrent myocardial infarction or death from coronary causes among 3745 patients with acute coronary syndromes.
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Enhancement by atorvastatin of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7) axis in VSMCs could represent a new and beneficial mechanism on cardiovascular action of this widely used drug.
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Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were randomized to be treated once daily by atorvastatin 80 mg or placebo for nine months. LV mass was assessed by serial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. LV systolic and diastolic function was determined by echocardiography. Markers of collagen metabolism and inflammation were also assessed.
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In January 1990, 413 (21%) of the patients had started statin treatment, and during follow-up another 1294 patients (66%) started after a mean delay of 4.3 years. Most patients received simvastatin (n=1167, 33 mg daily) or atorvastatin (n=211, 49 mg daily). We observed an overall risk reduction of 76% (hazard ratio 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.30), P<0.001). In fact, the risk of myocardial infarction in these statin treated patients was not significantly greater than that in an age-matched sample from the general population (hazard ration 1.44 (0.80 to 2.60), P=0.23).
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PRINCE and TNT are not registered. CAP is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00451828.
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a repeated bout of eccentric exercise on health-related parameters and muscle performance on subjects undergoing atorvastatin therapy. Twenty-eight elderly men participated in the investigation and were assigned either in a control (n = 14) or in a statin therapy group (n = 14). All participants performed two isokinetic eccentric exercise bouts separated by 3 weeks. Muscle damage indices, resting energy expenditure, substrate metabolism, lipid and lipoprotein profile, as well as insulin sensitivity, were evaluated before and after eccentric. No differences in muscle function were observed between the two groups either at rest or after exercise. Eccentric exercise increased resting energy expenditure, increased fat oxidation, improved lipid profile, and increased insulin resistance 2 days after both eccentric exercise bouts. However, these changes appeared to lesser extent after the second bout. No differences were observed in the responses in the health-related parameters in the control and in the statin therapy group. Eccentric exercise affected similarly the control and the atorvastatin-treated individuals. The present results indicate that atorvastatin-treated elderly individuals may participate in various physical activities, even high-intensity muscle-damaging activities, without negative impact on muscle function and adaptation.
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In this contribution the ability of (19)F MAS NMR spectroscopy to probe structural variability of poorly water-soluble drugs formulated as solid dispersions in polymer matrices is discussed. The application potentiality of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a moderately sized active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, Atorvastatin) exhibiting extensive polymorphism. In this respect, a range of model systems with the API incorporated in the matrix of polvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared. The extent of mixing of both components was determined by T(1)((1)H) and T(1ρ)((1)H) relaxation experiments, and it was found that the API forms nanosized domains. Subsequently it was found out that the polymer matrix induces two kinds of changes in (19)F MAS NMR spectra. At first, this is a high-frequency shift reaching 2-3 ppm which is independent on molecular structure of the API and which results from the long-range polarization of the electron cloud around (19)F nucleus induced by electrostatic fields of the polymer matrix. At second, this is broadening of the signals and formation of shoulders reflecting changes in molecular arrangement of the API. To avoid misleading in the interpretation of the recorded (19)F MAS NMR spectra, because both the contributions act simultaneously, we applied chemometric approach based on multivariate analysis. It is demonstrated that factor analysis of the recorded spectra can separate both these spectral contributions, and the subtle structural differences in the molecular arrangement of the API in the nanosized domains can be traced. In this way (19)F MAS NMR spectra of both pure APIs and APIs in solid dispersions can be directly compared. The proposed strategy thus provides a powerful tool for the analysis of new formulations of fluorinated pharmaceutical substances in polymer matrices.