Generic Micronase is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Glyburide.
Generic Micronase is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines.
Generic Micronase is a sulfonylurea antidiabetic medicine. It works by causing the pancreas to release insulin, which helps to lower blood sugar.
Brand name of Generic Micronase is Micronase.
Take Generic Micronase by mouth with food.
If you are taking 1 dose daily, take Generic Micronase with breakfast or the first main meal of the day unless your doctor tells you otherwise.
High amounts of dietary fiber may decrease Generic Micronase 's effectiveness, resulting in high blood sugar.
Generic Micronase works best if it is taken at the same time each day.
Continue to take Generic Micronase even if you feel well.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Micronase suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Micronase and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Micronase are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you are allergic to Generic Micronase components.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Micronase can ham your baby.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you have certain severe problems associated with diabetes (eg, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma).
Do not take Generic Micronase if you have moderate to severe burns or very high blood acid levels (acidosis) you are taking bosentan.
Do not take Generic Micronase if you are taking bosentan.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have had a severe allergic reaction (eg, a severe rash, hives, itching, breathing difficulties, dizziness) to any other sulfonamide medicine, such as acetazolamide, celecoxib, certain diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), glipizide, probenecid, sulfamethoxazole, valdecoxib, or zonisamide.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have a history of liver, kidney, thyroid, or heart problems.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have stomach or bowel problems (eg, stomach or bowel blockage, stomach paralysis), drink alcohol, or have had poor nutrition.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have type 1 diabetes, very poor health, a high fever, a severe infection, severe diarrhea, or high blood acid levels, or have had a severe injury.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have a history of certain hormonal problems (eg, adrenal or pituitary problems, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone [SIADH]), low blood sodium levels, anemia, or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you will be having surgery.
Be careful with Generic Micronase if you are taking bosentan because liver problems may occur; the effectiveness of both medicines may be decreased; beta-blockers (eg, propranolol) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; they may also hide certain signs of low blood sugar and make it more difficult to notice; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, enalapril), anticoagulants (eg, warfarin), azole antifungals (eg, miconazole, ketoconazole), chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, clofibrate, fenfluramine, insulin, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (eg, phenelzine), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, ibuprofen), phenylbutazone, probenecid, quinolone antibiotics (eg, ciprofloxacin), salicylates (eg, aspirin), or sulfonamides (eg, sulfamethoxazole) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; calcium channel blockers (eg, diltiazem), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), decongestants (eg, pseudoephedrine), diazoxide, diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogens, hormonal contraceptives (eg, birth control pills), isoniazid, niacin, phenothiazines (eg, promethazine), phenytoin, rifamycins (eg, rifampin), sympathomimetics (eg, albuterol, epinephrine, terbutaline), or thyroid supplements (eg, levothyroxine) because they may decrease Generic Micronase 's effectiveness, resulting in high blood sugar; gemfibrozil because blood sugar may be increased or decreased; cyclosporine because the risk of its side effects may be increased by Generic Micronase.
Do not stop taking Generic Micronase suddenly.
In a rat model of severe ischemia/reperfusion, with reperfusion and treatment beginning 6 hours after onset of ischemia, glibenclamide is as effective as DC in preventing death from malignant cerebral edema but is superior to DC in preserving neurologic function and the integrity of watershed cortex and deep white matter.
Annexin 1 (ANXA1) has a well-demonstrated role in early delayed inhibitory feedback of glucocorticoids in the pituitary. ANXA1 is located in folliculo-stellate (FS) cells, and glucocorticoids act on these cells to externalize and stimulate the synthesis of ANXA1. However, ANXA1 lacks a signal sequence so the mechanism by which ANXA1 is externalized from FS cells was unknown and has been investigated. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large group of transporters with varied roles that include the externalization of proteins. Glucocorticoid-induced externalization of ANXA1 from an FS cell line (TtT/GF) and rat anterior pituitary was blocked by glyburide, which inhibits ABC transporters. Glyburide also blocked the glucocorticoid inhibition of forskolin-stimulated ACTH release from pituitary tissue in vitro. RT-PCR revealed mRNA and Western blotting demonstrated protein for the ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) transporter in mouse FS, TtT/GF, and A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells from which glucocorticoids also induce externalization of ANXA1. In TtT/GF cells, immunofluorescence labeling revealed a near total colocalization of cell surface ANXA1 and ABCA1. We conclude that ANXA1, which mediates the early delayed feedback of glucocorticoids in the anterior pituitary, is externalized from FS cells by an ABC transporter and that the ABCA1 transporter is a likely candidate.
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We rejected the hypothesis that all human MODY-associated mutations in HNF1A / HNF4A induce changes in the pharmacokinetics of sulfonylureas in humans analogically to the Hnf1a(-/-) mouse model.
Extraction of whole plant of T. procumbens using 50%methanol. The extract was tested for acute and sub-chronic anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats and for acute toxicity test among normal rats. Observations on body weight as well as on the oral glucose tolerance levels were also recorded.
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This study investigates whether potassium ion (K+) channels are involved in the nitric oxide (NO)-induced relaxation in segments of the isolated rat basilar artery, mounted onto a wire myograph. A high extracellular K+ concentration partly inhibited the relaxant effects of the NO donors DEA/NO and SIN-1 (3-morpholino-sydnonimine). Whereas single applications of the K+ channel inhibitors tetraethyl-ammonium (10(-3) M), glibenclamide (10(-6) M), 4-aminopyridine (10(-3) M), or BaCl(2) (5 x 10(-5) M) did not affect the responses to DEA/NO, a combination of these inhibitors reduced the effects of DEA/NO. These data suggest, that the relaxant effects of NO donors are partly mediated via activation of K+channels. Different K+ channel types seem to be involved that function in a redundant manner and compensate for each other.
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The plant-derived insecticides have introduced a new concept in insecticide research. In response to insect attacks, some plants can release volatile sulfur compounds such as dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) in the atmosphere, which are lethal for the generalist insects. We demonstrate that DMDS induced an uncommon complex neurotoxic activity. The studies of in vivo toxicity of DMDS in three insect species and mice indicated a highest bioactivity for insects. Although DMDS did not alter the electrophysiological properties of the cockroach Periplaneta americana giant axon, it affected the synaptic transmission at the presynaptic level resulting in an inhibition of the neurotransmitter release. Whole cell patch-clamp experiments performed on cockroach cultured dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons revealed a dose-dependent hyperpolarization induced by DMDS associated with a decrease in the input resistance and the disappearance of action potentials. The hyperpolarization was inhibited by glibenclamide and tolbutamide, and was dependent on intracellular ATP concentration, demonstrating a neurotoxicity via the activation of KATP channels. Finally, the same effects observed with oligomycin, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and KCN together with the studies of DMDS toxicity on isolated mitochondria confirmed an unusual action occurring through an inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome oxydase). This DMDS-induced inhibition of complex IV subsequently decreased the intracellular ATP concentration, which thereby activated neuronal KATP channels mediating membrane hyperpolarization and reduction of neuronal activity.
Anaesthetised male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in an open chest model of myocardial infarction. Animals were randomly assigned to receive one of the following drugs: (1) saline control, (2) glibenclamide, 0.3 mg/kg, or (3) gliclazide, 1 mg/kg i.v. bolus. Each was then further randomised to one of the following treatments: (a) control, (b) IPC (consisting of 2 x 5 mins of regional ischaemia and 5 minutes reperfusion) or (c) nicorandil (50 ug/kg/min i.v). infusion. Each group then underwent 25 mins regional ischaemia and 2 hrs reperfusion. Infarct to risk zone ratio (%) was calculated by computerised planimetry of tetrazolium stained heart slices. The membrane potential of mitochondria isolated from rat ventricles was measured using flow cytometry. Comparisons were made between groups in control medium, nicorandil alone, and nicorandil with either glibenclamide or gliclazide.
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IP was elicited by a single cycle of 5 min occlusion and 5 min reperfusion of coronary artery, followed by 15 min of test ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Vehicle or the ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP) blocker, glibenclamide (3 or 6 mg/kg; G3 or G6) was administered before IP (groups; IP, G3+IP, G6+IP). As respective controls, the same treatment was performed in groups without IP (groups; C, G3, G6). Tissue levels of ATP, creatine phosphate (CP) and intracellular pH (pHi) in the area at risk were measured by 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RH after 5 min of preconditioning ischemia was assessed by regional myocardial blood flow.
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Cardiovascular and pulmonary responses to sarafotoxin (S) 6a and S6c were investigated in the anesthetized cat. Intravenous injections of the peptides in doses of 0.1-1.0 nmol/kg caused decreases or biphasic changes in arterial pressure (AP) and increases in central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), and cardiac output (CO). Secondary decreases in CO were observed in response to higher doses, and biphasic changes in systemic (SVR) and pulmonary (PVR) vascular resistances were observed. Under constant-flow conditions, the peptides only increased pulmonary lobar arterial perfusion pressure and lobar vascular resistance. AP responses to S6a, S6c, endothelin (ET)-1, ET-2, vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC), and Lys7-ET-1 were similar, whereas AP responses to S6b and ET-3 were similar. S6a, S6b, S6c, ET-1, ET-2, ET-3, VIC, Lys7-ET-1, and big ET-1 increased PAP. S6a and S6c increased distal aortic and superior mesenteric arterial (SMA) blood flow and caused biphasic changes at the highest doses. Under constant-flow conditions, S6a and S6c produced dose-dependent biphasic changes in hindquarters perfusion pressure. Changes in SVR and PVR in response to the peptide were not affected by hexamethonium, glyburide, or meclofenamate, indicating that responses are independent of autonomic reflexes, activation of ATP-regulated K+ channels, or release of cyclooxygenase products. In contrast, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester decreased hindquarters vasodilator response to S6a and S6c. The present data show that S6a and S6c produce both vasodilation and vasoconstriction in the systemic vascular bed and increase lobar vascular resistance and that hindquarters vasodilator responses are mediated, in part, by the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor.
PURPOSE. Tryptanthrin, an indole quinazoline alkaloid with multiple medical activities, has been recently under preclinical development as an anti-tuberculosis and anti-tumor drug. The aims of this study are to characterize the intestinal transport of tryptanthrin in Caco-2 cells, to determine whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) are involved in this issue, and to evaluate the potential influence of tryptanthrin on the function of P-gp and MRP2. METHODS. Transport assays of tryptanthrin were performed in Caco-2 monolayers with or without the supplement of P-gp and MRP2 inhibitors. Transport assays of P-gp and MRP2 substrates were also performed in the presence of tryptanthrin. The effect of tryptanthrin on the expression of P-gp and MRP2 was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-PCR. RESULTS. Both absorption and secretion of tryptanthrin were concentration-independent at a low concentration range of 0.8-20 µM. The apparent permeability (Papp) for the apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) was 6.138 ± 0.291 × 10-5. The ratio of Papp (BL→AP) to Papp (AP→BL) was 0.77, suggesting greater permeability in the absorptive direction. Both the P-gp inhibitor, verapamil, and the MRP2 inhibitor, glibenclamide, didn't affect the efflux transport of tryptanthrin. The efflux transport of the P-gp substrate, digoxin, and the MRP2 substrate, pravastatin sodium, decreased when tryptanthrin was present. However, tryptanthrin didn't change the expression of P-gp and MRP2. CONCLUSIONS. Tryptanthrin was well absorbed across the Caco-2 monolayers, and its transepithelial transports were dominated by passive diffusion. Tryptanthrin was not a substrate, but a potential inhibitor of P-gp and MRP2. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.
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Hypoxia from birth in immature rabbits increases the tolerance of isolated hearts to ischemia compared with age-matched normoxic rabbits. We determined whether this increased tolerance to ischemia was due to an alteration in the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel and whether increased KATP channel activation was associated with increases in intracellular lactate.
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The ATP-gated K(+) channel openers - diazoxide, levcromakalim and morphine - enhance K(+) efflux by opening ATP-gated K(+) channels, thereby inducing cell hyperpolarization. Hyperpolarization decreases intracellular Ca(2+) levels, which leads to a decrease in neurotransmitter release contributing to the antinociceptive effects of the drugs. Previous findings implicate the release of endogenous opioids as the mediator of the antinociceptive effects of ATP-gated K(+) channel openers. Diazoxide and levcromakalim, administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), produced dose-dependent antinociception as determined by the tail-flick method ¿ED(50) 44 microg/mouse [95% confidence limits (CLs) from 28 to 68 microg/mouse] for diazoxide¿. Glyburide (10 microg/mouse), an ATP-gated K(+) channel antagonist, attenuated the effects of diazoxide, levcromakalim and morphine. Diazoxide- and levcromakalim-induced antinociception were both antagonized by CTOP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr amide), a mu-opioid receptor selective antagonist, and ICI 174,864 (N, N-diallyl-Tyr-Aib-Aib-Phe-Leu), a delta-opioid receptor antagonist, but were differentially attenuated by the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, nor-Binaltorphimine. Combinations of inactive doses of the K(+) channel openers and opioid receptor agonists produced significant antinociceptive enhancement. Diazoxide (2 microg/mouse) shifted morphine's dose-response curve 47-fold, while levcromakalim (0.1 microg/mouse) shifted the curve 27-fold. The dose-response curve of kappa-opioid receptor agonist U50,488H (trans-(+/-)-3, 4 Dichloro-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide methane sulfonate) was shifted 106-fold by diazoxide in a parallel manner, while levcromakalim administration increased the potency of U50,488H by 15-fold. Diazoxide shifted the dose-response curve of the delta-opioid receptor agonist, DPDPE [(D-Pen(2,5))-enkephalin], leftward in a non-parallel manner, while DPDPE was 6-fold more potent when combined with levcromakalim. We hypothesize that endogenous opioids mediate ATP-gated K(+) channel opener-induced antinociception and enhancement of opioids.
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The pharmacokinetics and effects of glibenclamide in two formulations, the established formulation, HB 419 (5 mg) and the new micronized formulation, HB 420 (3.5 mg) were compared after once daily administration of each to eight type 2 diabetics in a double blind crossover trial. On the second day of administration of each formulation, blood glucose and serum C-peptide, insulin and glibenclamide concentrations (radioimmunoassays) were measured for eight hours after tablet ingestion. Although the amount of glibenclamide per tablet of HB 420 was lower than the amount of glibenclamide per tablet of HB 419, serum concentrations of drug were higher after HB 420 than after HB 419, and were also less variable between individuals. However, there were no corresponding differences in serum C-peptide and insulin levels, or in blood glucose levels. Thus intestinal absorption of glibenclamide appeared to be greater and less variable from HB 420 than from HB 419 but both formulations apparently produced drug concentrations in the serum well above that needed for maximum therapeutic response in the patients studied.
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The aim was to clarify the site in the coronary microcirculation that is dilated by an ATP sensitive potassium channel opener, levcromakalim, and to examine whether the magnitude of dilatation is size dependent.
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This study was aimed to clarify the mechanisms of gastroprotection by centipedic acid (CPA), a natural diterpene from Egletes viscosa LESS. (Asteraceae) using ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in mice and gastric secretion in 4-h pylorus-ligated rats as model systems. In mice, intragastrically administered CPA (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) greatly reduced the mucosal lesions induced by 96% ethanol (0.2 ml, p.o.) by 18, 53, and 79%, respectively, whereas N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 300 mg/kg, i.p.), the reference compound produced a 50% inhibition. In 4-h pylorus-ligated rats, CPA (50 mg/kg) applied intraduodenally decreased both gastric secretory volume and total acidity. Similar to NAC, the plant diterpene effectively prevented the ethanol associated decrease in non-proteic sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and the elevated thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in gastric tissue, suggesting that these compounds exert an antioxidant effect. Pretreatment of mice with indomethacin, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor but not with capsazepine, the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1)-receptor antagonist greatly suppressed the gastroprotective effect of CPA. Furthermore, CPA gastroprotection was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with L-NAME or glibenclamide the respective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and K(+)(ATP) channel activation. These data suggest that CPA affords gastroprotection by different and complementary mechanisms, which include a sparing effect on NP-SH reserve, and roles for endogenous prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and TRPV1-receptor and K(+)(ATP) channel activation.
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The warm-up phenomenon observed after the second of two sequential exercise tests is characterized by an increased time to ischemia and ischemic threshold, and the latter is related to ischemic preconditioning. Previous studies have demonstrated that a single dose of glibenclamide, a cardiac ATP-sensitive K (K(ATP)) channel blocker, prevents ischemic preconditioning. This study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with glibenclamide during two sequential exercise tests.
H2S produces pig bladder neck relaxation via activation of adenosine 5'-triphosphate dependent K(+) channel and by smooth muscle intracellular Ca(2+) desensitization dependent mechanisms. H2S also promotes the release of sensory neuropeptides and cyclooxygenase-1 pathway derived prostanoids from capsaicin sensitive primary afferents via transient receptor potential A1, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and/or related ion channel activation.
To evaluate whether the addition of glyburide to diet therapy modifies pregnancy outcomes in women with mild gestational diabetes.
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GAMES-RP is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial designed to evaluate RP-1127 in patients at high risk for the development of malignant cerebral edema. The study population consisted of subjects with a clinical diagnosis of acute severe anterior circulation ischemic stroke with a baseline diffusion-weighted image lesion between 82 and 300 cm(3) who are 18-80 years of age. The target time from symptom onset to start of study infusion was ≤10 h. Subjects were randomized to RP-1127 (glyburide for injection) or placebo and treated with a continuous infusion for 72 h.
1. In rat aortae with [E(+)-tissue] and without [E(-)-tissue] intact endothelium, LP-805 relaxed the preparations precontracted with 35.9 mM K+ and its action in E(+)-tissues was more potent than that in E(-)-tissues. Moreover, the inhibitory action of glibenclamide in E(-)-tissues was more potent than that in E(+)-tissues. 2. The relaxing action of LP-805 on E(+)-tissues treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10 microM), a potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, was the same as that in E(-)-tissues. 3. Methylene blue (10 microM) also inhibited the LP-805 induced relaxation in E(+)-tissues. 4. Indomethacin (10 microM) had no effect on LP-805-induced relaxation in E(+)-tissues. 5. These results suggest that the vasorelaxant action of LP-805 involves the mechanism which causes the release of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelium.
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The current investigation has designed to study the role of two antidiabetics, glibenclamide and metformin on the spontaneous uterine contractions in the non-diabetic non-pregnant female rats. The rat uteri were isolated and allocated to two groups: 1)the glibenclamide group: After recording the normal spontaneous uterine contractions, the vehicle (ethanol) and glibenclamide molar concentrations (10(-7), 10(-6) and 10(-5) M) were analyzed on uterine contractions by recording on smoked paper on a rotating kymograph drum, and 2) the metformin group: After recording the normal spontaneous uterine contractions, the metformin concentrations (10(-7), 10(-6) and 10(-5) M) were analyzed on uterine contractions. Responses to the two drugs and vehicle control (ethanol) were recorded for 30 min. Glibenclamide has not significantly effected on the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions of the isolated rat uteri. Metformin also has no significant effect on the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions of the isolated rat uteri. In conclusion, the two oral antidiabetics glibenclamide and metformin have not changed both the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous uterine contractions in the non-pregnant non-diabetic female rats.
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Although a variety of HPLC methods have been previously described for the quantification of glyburide, attempts to implement them clinically have been unsuccessful. Some are time consuming, expensive, or not directly applicable to human plasma. Others are outdated, as the necessary materials are no longer available.
In single channel patch-clamp recordings from freshly dissociated rat corpus striatum (caudate-putamen) neurons, the sulfonylurea drugs tolbutamide and glibenclamide caused a concentration-dependent blockade of a K+ channel that is activated by D2 dopamine receptor agonists. Tolbutamide was about 10-100 times more potent than glibenclamide, a rank-order potency opposite to that seen at previously described adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channels. The channel also was poorly activated by diazoxide, which is a known opener of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channels. However, like adenosine triphosphate-sensitive channels, it opened in the absence of dopaminergic agonist when the cells were treated with the metabolic inhibitor rotenone, indicating that channel openings occur under energy-depleting conditions. This suggests the existence of a novel, pharmacologically distinct class of sulfonyl-urea-sensitive K+ channels, regulated metabolically and also mediating dopaminergic neurotransmission.
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