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To evaluate the evidence on the usefulness of high-dose PPI in standard triple therapy by performing a systematic review and a meta-analysis.
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To assess the diagnostic accuracy of the proton pump inhibitor test in a primary care population as well as its additional value over reflux history, using the symptom association probability outcome during 24-h oesophageal pH recording as reference test for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
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Patients enrolled were randomly assigned to three arms: Arm A, docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) on d4, repeated every 21 days with a maximum of 6 cycles; Arm B, the same chemotherapy preceded by three days esomeprazole (ESOM) 80 mg p.o. bid, beginning on d1 repeated weekly. Weekly intermittent administration of ESOM (3 days on 4 days off) was maintained up to maximum 66 weeks; Arm C, the same as Arm B with the only difference being dose of ESOM at 100 mg p.o. bid. The primary endpoint was response rate.
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Esomeprazole (S-omeprazole), an enantiomer of the racemate omeprazole, is the first proton pump inhibitor to be developed as an isomer. This confers improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics compared with the racemate R/S-omeprazole. The difference in the pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole compared with omeprazole and the R-isomer is due to reductions in total body clearance and first-pass metabolism in the liver. Pharmacodynamic studies showed that esomeprazole 40 mg provides greater intragastric acid control than respective doses of all the other proton pump inhibitors on the market. Several well-designed clinical trials, employing both endoscopic and symptomatic response criteria, have compared the efficacy of esomeprazole with that of other proton pump inhibitors in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease patients, and in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. In addition, the efficacy of esomeprazole for the healing and prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated dyspeptic symptoms and ulcers has been established. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and consequent clinical importance of esomeprazole in the treatment of acid-related disorders.
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A simple and enantioselective method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of (R)- and (S)-lansoprazole in human plasma by chiral liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Lansoprazole enantiomers and internal standard (esomeprazole) were extracted from plasma using acetonitrile as protein precipitating agent. Baseline chiral separation was achieved within 9.0 min on a Chiralpak IC column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with the column temperature of 30°C. The mobile phase consisted of 10 mM ammonium acetate solution containing 0.05% acetic acid/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). The mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a QTrap 5500 mass spectrometer coupled with an electrospray ionization source in positive ion mode. The multiple reactions monitoring transitions of m/z 370.1→252.1 and 346.1→198.1 were used to quantify lansoprazole enantiomers and esomeprazole, respectively. For each enantiomer, no apparent matrix effect was found, the calibration curve was linear over 5.00-3000 ng/mL, the intra- and inter-day precisions were below 10.0%, and the accuracy was -3.8 to 3.3%. Analytes were stable during the study. No chiral inversion was observed during sample storage, preparation procedure and analysis. The method was applied to the stereoselective pharmacokinetic studies in human after intravenous administration of dexlansoprazole or racemic lansoprazole.
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In this multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients with moderate-to-severe nighttime heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances (endoscopies not required) received esomeprazole 20 mg or placebo each morning for 4 weeks. Heartburn symptoms and GERD-related sleep disturbances were evaluated using the validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and validated Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire.
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The evolution of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) under current management options remains uncertain.
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There is a significant, but not always consistent, difference in oesophagitis healing rates with the same PPI(s) reported by the LA, SM, or HD classifications. The possible difference between grading classifications should be considered when interpreting or comparing healing rates for oesophagitis from different studies.
The efficacy of proton pump inhibitors in patients at high risk of gastrointestinal injury receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is currently debated.
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Esomeprazole and netazepide each increase gastrin, consistent with a secondary effect of gastric acid suppression, but by different mechanisms. Esomeprazole-induced hypergastrinaemia stimulates ECL cells and thereby increases CgA. Netazepide-induced hypergastrinaemia does not increase CgA, because netazepide blocks gastrin/CCK2 receptors on ECL cells. Co-administration of netazepide 5 mg abolishes the effect of esomeprazole-induced hypergastrinaemia on ECL cells. The quick return to baseline of gastrin and CgA and absence of dyspepsia after esomeprazole withdrawal do not support the concept of rebound hyperacidity.
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Long-term treatment with esomeprazole (20 mg once daily) is well tolerated and efficacious for preventing ulcer recurrence in Japanese NSAID users with a history of peptic ulcer.
The combination therapy has better efficacy than the monotherapy in improving the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with emotional disorders. In addition, this combination treatment is safe, with a low incidence of adverse events.
Carriage of CYP2C19*2 allele and the use of omeprazole/esomeprazole were associated with the inter-individual variability in the active metabolite clearance. The relationship between inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA, %) and the active metabolite AUC (h*μg/L) was described by a sigmoid function (Emax 56 ± 5%; EAUC50 15.9 ± 0.8 h*μg/L) with a gamma exponent (7.04 ± 2.26).
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Six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All used triple therapy for 7 days. A mean intention-to-treat cure rate of 82% was achieved with high-dose PPI and one of 74% with standard dose (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17). Subgroup analysis showed that the maximum increase was observed when the PPI compared were omeprazole 20 mg or pantoprazole 40 mg vs. esomeprazole 40 mg.
From July 2007 to June 2012, twenty-four subjects received 10-day quadruple therapy. The eradication rates according to intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were both 95.8% (23 of 24; 95% confidence interval, 87.8-103.8%). Adverse events were seen in 25.0% (6 of 24) of the patients. Drug compliance was 100.0% (24/24).
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Our two interesting and instructive cases of anaphylaxis to PPIs relate to the orally disintegrating form of lansoprazole and omeprazole. The first patient had taken esomeprazole 20 mg/day for 1 month without any side effects before experiencing anaphylaxis to lansoprazole. To our knowledge, this is the first report of anaphylaxis to the orally disintegrating form of lansoprazole. In the second case, the patient was misdiagnosed with penicillin allergy which she suffered from earlier.
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To compare triple therapy with sequential and concomitant therapies directly in a head-to-head comparison in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients.
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H. pylori eradication rates of ELAz and ECA were similar at intention-to-treat (both 65%) and per-protocol analyses (70% versus 76%, respectively). Incidence of poor compliance was lower, although not significantly, in patients randomised to ELAz than to ECA (4% versus 10%); tolerability was significantly higher for ELAz than for ECA (88% versus 70%; P=0.01).
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A total of 406 patients were randomized to treatment. At week 8, GU healing rates with esomeprazole 40 and 20 mg were 91.5% (118/129; 95% CI, 86.7-96.3%) and 88.4% (122/138; 95% CI, 83.1-93.7%), respectively, and were significantly higher than the 74.2% rate (98/132; 95% CI, 66.8-81.7%) with ranitidine (p<0.01 for both comparisons). GU healing rates at 4 wks (78.3%[101/129] and 79.0%[109/138] in the esomeprazole 40- and 20-mg groups, respectively) were also significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the ranitidine group (66.7%[88/132]). All treatments were well tolerated.
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This 10-day quadruple therapy obtains a high eradication rate, but probiotic supplementation reduces side-effects and permits a slight improvement in eradicating H. pylori.
Despite GERD being a chronic disease in most patients, there was a high degree of alteration seen in the utilization patterns of PPIs. A high proportion discontinued PPI therapy indicating mild symptoms or remission. The switching between different PPIs was low indicating good efficacy and tolerability in most patients. The policy change was more effective in new PPI users compared with the mandated shift in ongoing esomeprazole users.
Esomeprazole, given as a continuous high-dose intravenous infusion followed by an oral regimen after successful endoscopic therapy for PUB, was well tolerated, with no apparent safety concerns from either the high-dose intravenous treatment or oral phases.
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Patients with the primary symptom of heartburn were included at baseline, and stratified into non-erosive (NERD) and erosive reflux disease (ERD), LA grades A-D (Los Angeles classification). After a 2- to 8-week course with esomeprazole therapy to achieve endoscopic healing in ERD and symptom relief in NERD, patients were treated routinely at the discretion of their physician. We report oesophagitis status and the presence of endoscopic and confirmed Barrett's oesophagus after 5 years.
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Esomeprazole, at daily doses of 40 mg or 20 mg, is effective and safe for the treatment of chronic heartburn in patients without erosive oesophagitis.
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To assess efficiency of esomeprazole in the treatment of duodenal ulcer (DU) associated with H. pylori in various eradication regimens.