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The purpose of the present study was to develop Tamoxifen loaded β-cyclodextrin nanosponges for oral drug delivery. The three types of Tamoxifen loaded β-cyclodextrin nanosponges were synthesized by varying the molar ratios of β-cyclodextrin to carbonyldiimidazole as a crosslinker viz. 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8. The Tamoxifen nanosponge complex (TNC) with particle size of 400-600 nm was obtained by freeze drying method. Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies confirmed the complexation of Tamoxifen with cyclodextrin nanosponge. AUC and Cmax of TNC formulation (1236.4 ± 16.12 µg · mL(-1) h, 421.156 ± 0.91 µg/mL) after gastric intubation were 1.44 fold and 1.38 fold higher than plain drug (856.079 ± 15.18 µg · mL(-1) h, 298.532 ± 1.15 µg/mL). Cytotoxic studies on MCF-7 cells showed that TNC formulation was more cytotoxic than plain Tamoxifen after 24 and 48 h of incubation.
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Most pre-menopausal women commenced therapy with tamoxifen (91%). Anastrozole was the predominant therapy for post-menopausal women (57%), followed by tamoxifen (28%). Women with osteoporosis were less likely to commence anastrozole compared with tamoxifen (anastrozole RR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-0.9). Women with arthritis were 1.6-times more likely to commence letrozole than anastrozole (95% CI = 1.1-2.1). Tamoxifen was more often initiated in women with tumours >1 cm, who were also ≥75 years. Subsidy restriction changes were associated with substantial increases in the proportion of women commencing AIs (anastrozole RR = 4.3, letrozole RR = 8.3).
Skeletally mature female beagles were treated for one year with oral doses of vehicle (VEH), risedronate (RIS; 3 doses), alendronate (ALN; 3 doses), or raloxifene (RAL; 2 doses). The middle dose of RIS and ALN and the lower dose of RAL approximate doses used for treatment of post menopausal osteoporosis. Vertebral trabecular bone matrix was assessed for collagen isomerization (ratio of alpha/beta C-telopeptide [CTX]), enzymatic (pyridinoline [PYD] and deoxypyridinoline [DPD]), and non-enzymatic (pentosidine [PEN]) cross-links.
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Nurses play a pivotal role in the identification and management of endocrine therapy-associated symptoms. Prompt symptom intervention may improve therapy adherence and ultimately, may improve long-term disease outcomes.
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Bazedoxifene was recently approved for use in the European Union for the treatment of osteoporosis and thus may represent a near-term therapeutic option for patients with advanced breast cancer.
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Before adjuvant chemotherapy, 67.8% of patients were classified as overweight or obese according to their body mass indices. Around 66.3% (95% CI 59.7-73.0) of the patients exhibited an increase in the body mass index after adjuvant chemotherapy. The average age of all patients was 56.3±11.3 years. Participants whose body mass index increased were younger than those with no increase (54.7±11.1 versus 59.3±11.2 years; p=0.007). Patients were treated with the following adjuvant chemotherapy regimens: doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel (AC-T, 129 patients, 65.8%); 5-fluoracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (36 patients, 18.4%); cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluoracil (16 patients, 8.2%); docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (7 patients, 3.6%); and other regimen (8 patients, 4.1%). The AC-T regimen showed a statistically significant association with increase in the body mass index (p<0.001 by ANOVA).
The hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence 2-24 months after event was 0.96 [confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.07, P = 0.48]; for 2-12 months, it was 0.96 (CI 0.82-1.11, P = 0.58) and for 0-2 months, the HR was 0.87 (CI 0.54-1.38 P = 0.87).
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The hormonal therapy of patients with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has mainly consisted, for several decades, of the gold standard tamoxifen. The efficacy and favorable toxicity profiles of third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs), anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane, in advanced disease led to their development in early breast cancer. Recent results consistently show the superiority of these agents over tamoxifen. Adjuvant trials evaluated AIs using four different therapeutic approaches: (1) Upfront strategy: randomization of newly diagnosed patients: tamoxifen for 5 years versus AI for 5 years. (2) Sequencial strategy: randomization of newly diagnosed patients: tamoxifen (2 - 3 years) followed by AI or the inverse for a total of 5 years versus upfront AI for 5 years. (3) Switch strategy: delayed randomization (or analysis) after 2 - 3 years of tamoxifen (patients free of disease): 2 - 3 years of tamoxifen versus 2 - 3 years of AI (total treatment 5 years). (4) Extended strategy: delayed randomization after 5 years of tamoxifen (patients free of disease): 2 - 5 years of AI versus placebo. Overall, AIs show evidence of superiority over tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting with proven improved efficacy and better toxicity profile. Despite some common characteristics, a body of evidence on AIs indicates some specific differences between the three agents in mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, efficacy as well as toxicity profiles. Consequently, these hormonal agents may not be considered interchangeable in clinical practice. This review explores available results from AI trials and tries to define their present role in the adjuvant management of postmenopausal patients with breast cancer.
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The fallopian tube epithelium is one of the potential sources of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). The use of estrogen only hormone replacement therapy increases ovarian cancer (OVCA) risk. Despite estrogen's influence in OVCA, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) typically demonstrate only a 20 % response rate. This low response could be due to a variety of factors including the loss of estrogen receptor signaling or the role of estrogen in different potential cell types of origin. The response of fallopian tube epithelium to SERMs is not known, and would be useful when determining therapeutic options for tumors arising from this cell type, such as HGSC.
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The use of genomic grade can identify two clinically distinct ER-positive molecular subtypes in a simple and highly reproducible manner across multiple data sets. This study emphasizes the important role of proliferation-related genes in predicting prognosis in ER-positive BC.
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HOXB4, a member of the Homeobox transcription factor family, promotes expansion of hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells in vivo and ex vivo when overexpressed. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood. To identify direct target genes of HOXB4 in primary murine hematopoietic progenitor cells, we induced HOXB4 function in lineage-negative murine bone marrow cells, using a tamoxifen-inducible HOXB4-ER(T2) fusion protein. Using expression microarrays, 77 probe sets were identified with differentially changed expression in early response to HOXB4 induction. Among them, we show that Hemogen (Hemgn), encoding a hematopoietic-specific nuclear protein of unknown function, is a direct transcriptional target of HOXB4. We show that HOXB4 binds to the promoter region of Hemgn both ex vivo and in vivo. When we overexpressed Hemgn in bone marrow cells, we observed that Hemgn promoted cellular expansion in liquid cultures and increased self-renewal of myeloid colony-forming units in culture, partially recapitulating the effect of HOXB4 overexpression. Furthermore, down-regulation of Hemgn using an shRNA strategy proved that Hemgn contributes to HOXB4-mediated expansion in our myeloid progenitor assays. Our results identify a functionally relevant, direct transcriptional target of HOXB4 and identify other target genes that may also participate in the HOXB4 genetic network.
The number of stimulated follicles reaching ≥ 16 mm diameter was significantly more in the CC group compared to Tamoxifen stimulated group (2.1 SD ± 0.1 vs. 1.1 SD ± 0.7, p<0.0001). The endometrium at the time of hCG administration was significantly thicker in the TMX group (10.1 ± 0.1mm vs. 9.3 ± 0.4mm, p<0.0001). Ovulation occurred in 120/187 cycles (64%) in the CC group and 95/184 cycles (51.6%) in the TMX group with a significant difference between two groups in favors of clomiphene (p=0.01). Serum E(2), on the day of hCG administration, was significantly higher in the clomiphene group (p<0.0001). Pregnancy occurred in 35/187 cycles in group A (18.7%) and 20/184 cycles (10.8%) in group B and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.04).
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Medial tumor location is associated with a lower survival rate, but not with inferior local tumor control. Failure to identify nodal metastases confined to the internal mammary chain may lead to undertreatment with systemic/local agents and compromised survival.
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This study suggests that AR plays a previously unrecognized role in supporting E2-mediated ER activity in ER(+)/AR(+) breast cancer cells, and that enzalutamide may be an effective therapeutic in ER(+)/AR(+) breast cancers. Mol Cancer Res; 14(11); 1054-67. ©2016 AACR.
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Thirteen patients were evaluable for toxicity and response. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed. Of the 13 patients who initiated estradiol therapy, 6 patients (46%) had not experienced disease progression at month 3 and were switched to exemestane. On exemestane, disease progression was documented in five patients, with one having stable disease as best response. Median progression-free survival for all patients was 4.8 months (range: 0.6-9.5 months).
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Tranexamic acid has an inhibitory action on ultraviolet (UV) B-induced melanocyte activation. This study examined the sex differences in the inhibitory action of tranexamic acid on UVB-induced melanocyte activation.
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B-28 compared doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC X 4) with AC X 4 followed by paclitaxel X 4. Tamoxifen was given to patients age 50 years or older and those younger than age 50 years with ER-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive tumors. Lumpectomy patients received breast radiotherapy. Mastectomy patients received no radiotherapy. The present study includes 1065 ER-positive, tamoxifen-treated patients with RS assessment. Cumulative incidence functions and subdistribution hazard regression models were used for LRR to account for competing risks including distant recurrence, second primary cancers, and death from other causes. Median follow-up was 11.2 years. All statistical tests were one-sided.
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A lung progenitor cell signature predicts poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma. Modulation of these genes or their signaling pathways may be effective therapeutic strategies in the future.
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In the tamoxifen arm, 46% of women had a 10% or greater reduction in breast density at their 12- to 18-month mammogram. Compared with all women in the placebo group, women in the tamoxifen group who experienced a 10% or greater reduction in breast density had 63% reduction in breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = 0.20 to 0.69, P = .002), whereas those who took tamoxifen but experienced less than a 10% reduction in breast density had no risk reduction (odds ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 0.72 to 1.77, P = .60). In the placebo arm, there was no statistically significant difference in breast cancer risk between subjects who experienced less than a 10% reduction in mammographic density and subjects who experienced a greater reduction.
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Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is widely considered the most important development in the treatment of breast cancer since tamoxifen. Previous studies have found trastuzumab reduces the risk of relapse in breast cancer patients significantly when given in the adjuvant setting. As a targeted therapy, it has lesser side effects in comparison with conventional chemotherapy. However, the administration of this agent can cause serious side effects. We report on a 45-year-old woman with breast cancer, positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 by immunohistochemistry score 3+, who was treated in an adjuvant setting with trastuzumab and developed severe neutropenia. Twenty seven weeks after initiation of trastuzumab, the patient developed fever, neutropenia (grade 3), and oral stomatitis (grade 4). The maintenance therapy was stopped for approximately 8 weeks. After recovery of the neutrophils, trastuzumab was restarted. Two weeks later, the patient developed the same pattern of toxicity. The situation necessitated the discontinuation of trastuzumab. Thereafter, the neutrophils normalized and the patient's condition improved. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature describing severe neutropenia directly related to trastuzumab during the adjuvant maintenance therapy. Clinicians should be aware of this rare side effect of trastuzumab, as stopping this agent can prevent severe complications.
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The relative impact of tamoxifen therapy in women with breast cancer on overall survival, especially as it pertains to cardiac and cardiovascular outcomes, remains under debate in the literature. This review focuses specifically on outcomes of studies that examined large clinical trials with longest duration in patient follow-up relative to these parameters in which compliance with therapy could be documented. Over time, evidence supports potential cardioprotective effects and capacity of adjuvant therapy to improve lipid profiles in women treated with tamoxifen. While some benefit to cardiac health is supported, outcomes related to cardiovascular events remain variable across studies and challenging to interpret. In summary, overall survival in women treated with tamoxifen over time has increasingly shown a trend towards positive outcomes in the context of evaluation of post-treatment cardiac and vascular health. Potential mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of tamoxifen are briefly discussed.
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Our data suggest that tamoxifen produces beneficial effects on cardiac hypertrophy and hence may be considered as a preventive measure for cardiac hypertrophy.
Patients with idiopathic RPF who have elevated acute-phase reactant levels are more symptomatic. Neither acute-phase reactant levels or their initial changes can be taken as a major predictor for treatment success.
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This pilot study aimed to test the possibility of therapeutic benefit imparted by early intervention based on sequential tumour marker (TM) measurements during follow-up of primary breast cancer (PBC) patients.
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Although the first generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen (TAM) is well known for its uterotrophic activity, this study compares the stimulatory effect of the TAM derivatives toremifene (TORE) and ospemifene (OSPE) on estrogen-sensitive parameters in rat and human uterine tissues.
To present a new case of sclerosing peritonitis associated with bilateral luteinized thecoma of the ovaries, linked to anticonvulsant therapy.
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An antibody targeting the 17βHSD14 antigen was generated and validated using HSD17B14-transfected cells and a peptide-neutralising assay. Tissue microarrays with tumours from 912 post-menopausal women diagnosed with lymph node-negative breast cancer, and randomised to adjuvant tamoxifen or no endocrine treatment, were analysed for 17βHSD14 protein expression with immunohistochemistry.
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A total of 167 women with all 3 imaging studies were evaluable and form the basis of this report (T=89, E=78). Using T scores, the mean difference from baseline was significant between the 2 groups at 12 months at both the spine (P=.0002) and the hip (P=.0004), and at 24 months only at the hip (P=.02).