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Persantine (Dipyridamole)

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Generic Persantine is a coumarin anticoagulants. Generic Persantine is indicated as an adjunct to coumarin anticoagulants in the prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complications of cardiac valve replacement. Generic Persantine keeps blood flowing smoothly by preventing blood cells from clumping together (coagulating).

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Argatroban, Plavix, Salagen, Arixtra


Also known as:  Dipyridamole.


Generic Persantine is a coumarin anticoagulants.

Generic Persantine is indicated as an adjunct to coumarin anticoagulants in the prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complications of cardiac valve replacement. Generic Persantine keeps blood flowing smoothly by preventing blood cells from clumping together (coagulating).

Persantine is also known as Dipyridamole.

Generic name of Generic Persantine is Dipyridamole.

Brand name of Generic Persantine is Persantine.


You can take Generic Persantine with or without food.

The recommended Generic Persantine dose is 75-100 mg four times daily.

Try to take this Generic Persantine at the same time each day.

Do not store in the bathroom.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Persantine suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Persantine and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Persantine overdosage: warm feeling, flushes, sweating, restlessness, weakness, dizziness.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Persantine are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Persantine if you are allergic to Generic Persantine components.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you have unstable angina.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you have had recently sustained myocardial infarction or hypotension.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you use anticoagulants ("blood thinners"), aspirin, valproic acid.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Persantine taking suddenly.

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To extend the duration of high thoracic epidural analgesia (HTEA) treatment compared with the authors' previous studies, to test the hypothesis that the mechanism by which HTEA reduces angina during long-term treatment includes an improvement in myocardial blood flow distribution and a reduction in stress-induced ischemia, and to show that new myocardial infarctions are not masked or missed in patients receiving HTEA.

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Dipyridamole-thallium imaging has been suggested as a method of preoperatively assessing cardiac risk in patients undergoing major surgery. To define more clearly its proper role in preoperative assessment, we prospectively evaluated 111 patients undergoing vascular surgery. In the first set of 61 patients, our data confirmed the value of preoperative dipyridamole-thallium scanning in identifying the patients who suffered postoperative ischemic events. Events occurred in eight of 18 patients with reversible defects on preoperative imaging, compared with no events in 43 patients with no thallium redistribution (confidence interval for the risk difference: 0.624, 0.256). The results also suggested that clinical factors might allow identification of a low-risk subset of patients. To test the hypothesis that patients with no evidence of congestive heart failure, angina, prior myocardial infarction, or diabetes do not require further preoperative testing, we evaluated an additional 50 patients having vascular procedures. None of the 23 without the clinical markers had untoward outcomes, while ten of 27 patients with one or more of these clinical markers suffered postoperative ischemic events (confidence interval for the risk difference: 0.592, 0.148). In the clinical high-risk subset, further risk stratification is achieved with dipyridamole-thallium scanning.

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Quantitative coronary angiography of noninfarct arteries was performed on paired cine-angiograms of 149 patients from fibrinolytic trials who had a patent infarct-related artery 3 to 4 weeks following STEMI and who were randomized to either continue the daily combination of 50-mg aspirin and 400-mg dipyridamole or to matching placebo. Follow-up angiography was scheduled at 1 year.

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In high-risk patients with ACS, even in the absence of LAD disease, CFR significantly improves prediction of adverse events when added to standard evaluation. This finding supports a role of CFR in the risk stratification early after ACS and is in context with the concept that CFR reflects global atherosclerotic burden, endothelial dysfunction, and microvascular damage, more than just mirroring focal LAD disease.

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In previous work, we described a group of patients with angina-like chest pain and normal coronary arteries. These patients had impaired coronary vasodilator responses to the stress of rapid atrial pacing and to the administration of dipyridamole, a potent vasodilator of coronary arterioles. This abnormality appears to be localized to the prearteriolar microvascular bed. To determine whether these patients have a more generalized abnormality of vasodilator reserve, we used mercury-in-Silastic strain-gauge plethysmography to compare their hyperemic responses to forearm ischemia with those of normal controls. After 10 minutes of ischemia, peak forearm flow was 39.9 +/- 5.0 ml per minute per deciliter in the controls [corrected] and 31.7 +/- 10.5 in the patients [corrected] (21 percent reduction; 95 percent confidence interval, 4 percent to 37 percent). Flow responses were also significantly reduced after three and five minutes of ischemia. Correspondingly, the vascular resistance after ischemia was also consistently higher in the patients with microvascular angina. The degree of vasodilator impairment in the peripheral circulation correlated well with the degree of vasodilator impairment in the coronary circulation (r = 0.74; P less than 0.004). Thus, patients with microvascular angina appear to have an impairment of vasodilator reserve that affects not only their coronary circulation but also their peripheral arterial bed.

persantine dose calculation

False thrombocytopenia may result from platelet aggregation, especially in feline ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) blood specimens. Citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD) was added to 46 feline EDTA specimens to test its anti-aggregation action. Platelet aggregation was estimated from blood films and a complete blood count was performed with a Sysmex XT-2000iV analyser. Platelet aggregation score was >2 in 11/46 EDTA tubes and only in one EDTA+CTAD specimen. The platelet count was higher in all CTAD-supplemented tubes except one, medians measured by cytometry being 225.5 × 10(9)/l and 249.0 × 10(9)/l in EDTA and EDTA+CTAD, respectively (P = 0.007). Adding CTAD had statistically and analytically significant but moderate effects on other blood variables, the most intense variations being observed for reticulocytes (about 3% higher in EDTA specimens) and reticulocyte indexes. Addition of CTAD to EDTA when sampling feline blood is a useful option to reduce platelet clumping.

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Vasodilator stress echocardiography can cause myocardial ischaemia in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis and angiographically normal coronary arteries. The aim of the study was to determine the mechanism of ischaemia in this clinical model.

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Stable bicarbonate biorelevant buffers could be established to perform intrinsic dissolution rate determinations for indomethacin and dipyridamole as long a continuous gas sparging of CO2(g) was used. Depending of the pH of the dissolution medium, the intrinsic dissolution rates of both indomethacin and dipyridamole were affected by the bicarbonate concentration. Sparging with CO2(g) to create physiologic buffers has a unique advantage over conventional buffers in that gas sparging serves as a continuous source of bicarbonate buffer species. This advantage was demonstrated by performing dissolution experiments at pH values typically associated with the fed state (pH 5) and applying relatively low CO2(g) pressures, resulting in bicarbonate concentrations less than 0.5 mM. It was demonstrated that CO2(g) sparging at a pH consistent with the fed state created an in-situ bicarbonate buffer at low concentrations, which had a significant impact on the dissolution of a basic drug such as dipyridamole.

persantine dosage chart

In 41 patients with a history of an acute myocardial infarction, the location of myocardial ischemia was studied by 201Tl emission computed tomography immediately and 3 h after intravenous dipyridamole. Distant ischemia was distinguished from peri-infarctional ischemia by the presence of transient thallium defects in, or slow thallium washout from myocardium not supplied by the infarct-related coronary artery. Ischemia at a distance occurred in 13 patients and was always accompanied by peri-infarctional ischemia. Peri-infarctional ischemia without distant ischemia was observed in 15 patients. The occurrence of distant ischemia was found to be dependent on the severity of stenosis in non-infarct coronary vessels. 12 (86%) of 14 patients with non-infarct stenosis of 75% or greater had distant ischemia, but only 1 (4%) of 27 patients with a stenosis of less than 75% in another vessel. In the presence of distant ischemia, peri-infarctional ischemia was in 11 patients (85%) associated with collaterals supplying the infarct zone, whereas in 13 (87%) of the patients with peri-infarctional ischemia only, incomplete obstruction of the infarct-vessel was observed. It is concluded that, by the distinction between peri-infarctional and distant ischemia, the presence of a significant stenosis in non-infarct vessels can be non-invasively predicted from tomographic thallium scintigraphy with dipyridamole.

persantine medication classification

The effects of cepharanthin and dipyridamole depot capsules (RAD) on the fate of Teflon fluorocarbon resin grafts used for replacement of the canine superior vena cava were studied. After short-term observation of 11 implanted grafts, 57 adult mongrel dogs underwent superior vena caval replacement with these Teflon grafts. Cepharanthin (2 mg/kg daily) and RAD (10 mg/kg daily) were administered after surgery to 28 and 14 animals, respectively. Dogs were killed at 12 days to 6 months after graft implantation. Fifteen dogs served as controls. In the cepharanthin-treated group, three grafts exhibited luminal obstruction with severe intimal hyperplasia, but smooth, semitransparent thin neointima was recognized in 25. The endothelial cell lining of the neointima exhibited excellent spread 2 months after implantation. Although one graft was obstructed with hyperproliferative fibrosis in the RAD-treated group, a well-developed neointima with complete coverage of endothelial cells was confirmed in 14 dogs. With regard to the rate of occurrence of luminal obstruction, these data were significantly different from those of the control group, which suggests that intimal hyperplasia can be reduced by treatment with antiplatelet agents.

persantine 50 mg

We have investigated the role played by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (EC in the control of T-lymphocyte response to mitogenic agents by their ability to influence the cellular level of cAMP. The importance of this messenger as a negative regulator in this cell type is well established. Multiple isoenzymes of phosphodiesterase were fractionated from the cytosol of rat thymic lymphocytes by high performance liquid chromatography on an anion exchange column. In addition to the type II, III, IV isoforms that we have already described [Valette et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 169:864-872 (1990)], a phosphodiesterase fraction sharing several of the characteristics of type V, cGMP-binding phosphodiesterase, was detected. Non-isoform-selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase such as dipyridamole, papaverine, and methyl-isobutylxanthine were able to totally prevent the proliferative response of thymocytes to stimulation by the mitogenic lectin concanavalin A. In contrast, the selective inhibitor of type IV phosphodiesterases rolipram induced a rather moderate inhibition of proliferation, not exceeding 60%; and the selective inhibitors of type III and type V phosphodiesterases, milrinone and M&B 22,948, respectively, displayed only marginal inhibitory effects. The association of the type III and IV phosphodiesterase inhibitors produced synergistic inhibition of proliferation, which could then be almost totally suppressed. These inhibitory effects on cell multiplication were reflected at the level of the cell cAMP content; only rolipram was able to induce a significant (approximately 50%) increase in cAMP, and this increase was potentiated by the presence of milrinone, reaching almost 100%. The type V phosphodiesterase selective inhibitor M&B 22,948 displayed similar properties to those of milrinone, which suggests that it indirectly inhibited the type III, cGMP-inhibitable isoenzyme, by inducing a cGMP rise. This hypothesis was supported by evidence of a significant raising effect of M&B 22,948 on cGMP level, and by the ability of a cGMP-elevating agent, sodium nitroprusside, to mimic the synergistic effects of milrinone associated with rolipram. Furthermore, 8-bromo-cGMP, a potent activator of cGMP-dependent protein kinase, which showed only weak inhibitory effects on thymic type III phosphodiesterase, failed to alter the effects of rolipram on the cell proliferation. These results allow us to delineate a role for types III, IV, and V phosphodiesterase in the control of cAMP level during the proliferative response of thymic lymphocytes. They also suggest that endogenously formed cGMP might participate in the regulation of cAMP level in the cells by means of the inhibition of the type III phosphodiesterase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

persantine dose

A case of Bjork-Shiley mitral valve dysfunction is presented. The patient has not responded to anticoagulant therapy and had hypotension, dyspnea, chest pain, and a pulse deficit but normal sinus rhythm. Simultaneous echocardiogram, ECG, and arterial pulse tracing were used as noninvasive means of monitoring. Nonsurgical correction of a clinical emergency restored the patient to prior normal baseline cardiovascular function. This case illustrates the possibility of restoring normal prosthetic function by supporting the patient medically while undertaking diagnostic testing and arranging surgical intervention. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a malfunctioning Bjork-Shiley mitral valve corrected without surgery.

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Two-day 99mTc-MIBI MPS after stress and rest were obtained for 507 patients subdivided according to the type of stress used, sTPD values, and ΔLVEF. Subsequent cardiac events were determined through a standardized questionnaire applied 1, 2, and 6 years after MPS. Independent of the type of stress used, the 6-year event rate with progressive perfusion and functional abnormalities combined was significant for total events, all-cause death, cardiac death, and revascularization but not for myocardial infarct. When ΔLVEF decreased by more than -10%, only those individuals with sTPD of 5% or less had increased 6-year total event rates [5.9% vs 15% for those submitted to treadmill test (P < 0.001) and 8.3% vs 19% when submitted to pharmacological stress (P = 0.001)]. An sTPD greater than 5% was the only variable predictive of total events when multivariate analysis was applied (P < 0.001 for treadmill exercise and P = 0.033 for dipyridamole).

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Quantitative MCE is feasible for the diagnosis of CAD with dipyridamole/exercise stress. Dipyridamole prolongs postexercise hyperemia, augmenting the degree of hyperemia at the time of imaging.

persantine 75 mg

Copper-62 (II)-pyruvaldehyde bis(N(4)-methyl-thiosemicarbazone) (PTSM) has been proposed for cardiac imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). This study evaluated the agreement between Cu-62-PTSM and coronary angiography in the detection of occlusive coronary artery disease. The normalcy rate for Cu-62-PTSM PET in a group of healthy volunteers was also assessed.

persantine 25mg tabs

Effects of beraprost sodium, a chemically stable prostacyclin analogue, on renal dysfunction in an experimental rat model of glomerulonephritis were investigated. Beraprost sodium (30, 100 and 300 microg/kg) was orally given twice daily from the late stage of nephritis in which renal dysfunction was already developed. Beraprost sodium treatment inhibited the increase in urinary protein, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, and the decrease in creatinine clearance. The elevation of serum creatinine was also inhibited by predonisolone (1 mg/kg). However, captopril (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and dipyridamole (20 and 60 mg/kg) failed to inhibit the elevation of serum creatinine. In the beraprost sodium-treated nephritic rats, the increase in mRNA levels for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and collagen in the kidney was inhibited. These results suggest that beraprost sodium ameliorates developed renal dysfunction and is possibly an effective agent for the treatment of human glomerulonephritis.

persantine drug classification

Various drugs are associated with adverse respiratory disorders (ARDs) ranging in severity from mild, moderate to severe and even fatal. Cardioselective and nonselective beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and dipyridamole can induce asthma. ACE inhibitors are mainly associated with cough. Amiodarone is related to a form of interstitial pneumonitis (IP) which can be fatal, tocainidine and flecainidine to a form of IP, and hydrochlorothiazide to a form of IP and pulmonary oedema. Antiasthmatic drugs can be associated with a paradoxical bronchospasm, while leukotriene antagonists are linked to the development of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) may induce asthma. Gold is mainly related to IP, penicillamine to IP, systemic lupus erythematosus, bronchiolitis obliterans, and Goodpasture's syndrome. Acute respiratory reactions to nitrofurantoin include dyspnoea, cough, IP, and pleural effusion while IP and fibrosis are common in chronic reactions. Other antibacterials mainly evoke pneumonitis, pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia, and bronchiolitis obliterans. ARDs are similar for most categories of cytotoxic agents, with chronic pneumonitis and fibrosis being the most common. Noncardiogenic pulmonary oedema occurs as the most common respiratory complication in opioid agonist addiction. Psychotropic drugs such as phenothiazides, butyrophenones and tricyclic antidepressants can also induce pulmonary oedema. Oral contraceptives may produce asthma exacerbation, while long term use and/or high doses of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy increase the risk of asthma. Bromocriptine is mainly associated with pleural effusion, while methysergide is usually associated with pleural effusion and fibrosis. Some anorectic agents have been linked to the development of primary pulmonary hypertension. The possibility of the occurrence of ARDs should be taken into account in each individual patient. Although in most cases the adverse effects are unpredictable, they can be reduced to a minimum or prevented if some drugs are avoided or stopped in time.

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Dipyridamole therapy produces protection against post-resuscitation myocardial injury in rats.

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In 14 patients (10 men and 4 women) with arterial hypertension and 8 normotensive subjects, minimal coronary resistance and vasodilator reserve (dipyridamole: 0.5 mg/kg body wt, gas chromatographic argon method) were determined after the angiographic exclusion of relevant coronary artery disease. Coronary reserve was depressed in hypertensive patients (2.7 +/- 2.3 vs 4.6 +/- 1.3, P < or = .05) due to increased minimal coronary resistance (0.64 +/- 30 vs 0.24 +/- 0.055 mm Hg.min.100 g.mL-1, p < or = 0.002). In right septal biopsies, mean external arteriolar diameter (21.6 +/- 2.3 vs 17.2 +/- 2.5 microns, P < or = .001), mean arteriolar wall area (271 +/- 61 vs 172 +/- 62 microns 2, P < or = .01), percent medial wall area (69.9 +/- 4.0 vs 66.0 +/- 3.2%W, P < or = .05), mean periarteriolar fibrosis area (216 +/- 122 vs 104 +/- 68 microns 2, P < or = .05), and volume density of total interstitial fibrosis (3.6 +/- 1.8 vs 1.9 +/- 0.5Vv% fibrosis, P < or = .05) were increased in hypertensive patients compared with normotensive subjects. Minimal coronary resistance correlated with %W (r = .6, P < or = .003) and Vv% fibrosis (r = .62, P < or = .002). Left ventricular mass index (111 +/- 21 vs 97 +/- 17 g/m2, P = NS) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (12 +/- 6 vs 8 +/- 3 mm Hg, P = NS) did not correlate significantly with minimal coronary resistance. In multivariate analysis, both %W and Vv% fibrosis explained half of the variability of minimal coronary resistance (r2 = .5, P < or = .002).

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The sensitivity of nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging in detecting coronary artery disease is high. However, false-negative results may be encountered if all the myocardial territories were uniformly affected. Ischemic stunning after dipyridamole-stress on gated SPECT may be an indicator of severe and extensive coronary artery disease, and can help the interpretation of borderline perfusion images and the elimination of false-negatives secondary to relatively balanced lesions in three-vessel disease.

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Recently developed unstable angina clinical practice guidelines have recommended risk stratification with dipyridamole thallium-201 myocardial imaging in patients at "intermediate" pretest clinical risk who cannot exercise maximally. The prognostic value of predischarge dipyridamole technetium 99m sestamibi (MIBI) tomography has not been assessed in this clinical setting. To this end, 128 medically treated patients with unstable angina at intermediate pretest clinical risk underwent follow-up for 16 +/- 11 (mean +/- SD) months after predischarge intravenous dipyridamole MIBI tomography. An abnormal MIBI scan result was present in 99 patients (77%), of whom 47 had one or more reversible and 76 had one or more fixed perfusion defects. Cardiac events occurred in 68 (53%) patients after dipyridamole testing: recurrent unstable angina (n = 36), nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (n = 6), or death (n = 26). A cardiac event occurred in 10% of patients with normal MIBI tomography results compared with 69% of those with abnormal results (p < 0.01). Event rates associated with specific perfusion defects were similar (reversible = 68%; fixed = 71%) and were greater than rates in patients without defects (both p < 0.05). Clinical variables associated with increased risk of cardiac events by univariate analysis included a history of congestive heart failure, prior myocardial infarction, and diabetes mellitus (all p < 0.05). Independent multivariable predictors (Cox proportional hazards model) of any cardiac event were an abnormal result of MIBI scan (relative risk [RR] = 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5 to 12.0) and a reversible (RR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.9) or a fixed perfusion defect (RR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.6 to 5.4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Pure qualitative assessment of 3 T MRI had acceptable performance in detecting severe CAD. There is no overall benefit of incorporating semi-quantitative data; however a higher sensitivity can be obtained by adding MPRI, especially in the detection of LCx lesions.

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A frequent clinical problem is to document the elusive entity of electrocardiographically silent myocardial ischemia. Since echocardiography offers a practical tool to detect reversible mechanical changes due to ischemia, 32 patients with angina on effort, and coronary artery disease, and 15 patients with angina at rest were studied. In all 47 patients electrocardiographic changes during effort or rest pain were inconclusive. Combined 12 lead electrocardiographic and 2-Dimensional echocardiographic monitoring were performed: during ergonovine testing in the 15 patients with angina at rest; during dipyridamole testing in the 32 patients with effort angina and a non diagnostic stress test. Interpretable echocardiograms were obtained in all the patients studied. Positivity of both the Ergonovine-Echocardiographic test and the Dipyridamole-Echocardiographic test was based upon the detection of regional transient asynergy. Of the 15 patients who had chest pain at rest in the absence of diagnostic electrocardiographic changes, Ergonovine-Echocardiographic test was positive in 6 (40%). Of the 32 patients who had chest pain in absence of diagnostic electrocardiographic changes during exercise stress testing, the Dipyridamole-Echocardiographic test was positive in 18 (56%). Echocardiographic monitoring in combination with provocative testing (ergonovine and dipyridamole) may be a practical, non invasive, inexpensive tool which is feasible in all patients with good basal echocardiograms and is able to unmask electrocardiographically silent myocardial ischemia by providing objective mechanical evidence of the ischemic event.

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persantine medication 2016-10-16

1. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the nucleoside transporter inhibitor, draflazine, on the force of contraction in human myocardium and the affinity of the compound for the nucleoside transporter. Nucleoside transport inhibitors, like draflazine, are of potential importance for cardiopreservation of donor hearts for heart transplantation. 2. Functional experiments were performed in isolated electrically driven (1 Hz, 1.8 mmol l-1 Ca2+) human atrial trabeculae and ventricular papillary muscle strips. The affinity of draflazine for the myocardial nucleoside transporter was studied in isolated membranes from human ventricular myocardium and human erythrocytes in radioligand binding experiments using [3H]-nitrobenzylthioinosine ([3H]-NBTI). Dipyridamole was studied for comparison. buy persantine 3. In membranes from human myocardium and erythrocytes, [3H]-NTBI labelled 1.18 pmol mg-1 protein and 23.0 pmol mg-1 protein, respectively, nucleoside transporter molecules with a KD value of 0.8 nmol l-1. Draflazine concentration-dependently inhibited binding of [3H]-NBTI to myocardial and erythrocyte membranes with a K(i)-value of 4.5 nmol l-1. The potency as judged from the K(i) values was ten times greater than that of dipyridamole in both myocardial and erythrocyte membranes. 4. Draflazine, at concentrations up to 100 mumol l-1, did not produce negative inotropic effects in atrial and ventricular myocardium. (-)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) and carbachol did not reduce force of contraction in ventricular myocardium, but exerted concentration-dependent direct negative inotropic effects in atrial myocardium. 5. The data provide evidence that draflazine specifically binds to the nucleoside transporter of the human heart and erythrocytes with high affinity. The compound does not produce negative inotropic effects at concentrations as high as 100 micromol 1-1.6. Draflazine could be a useful agent for cardio preservation because it does not produce cardio depressant effects. Thus, it may be possible to perfuse explanted hearts directly with this agent without the hazard of cardiodepression.

persantine 25 mg 2017-10-22

A lower detection rate of coronary artery disease (CAD) has been reported for SPECT imaging in women, despite the fact that similar numbers of women and buy persantine men die each year of heart disease. Ruling out instrumentation as a possible source of this low detection rate for CAD in women could be important in determining the root cause of this difference.

persantine 50 mg 2017-12-02

Effects of dipyridamole (DP) on Band 3-mediated HCO3(-)-Cl- exchange were investigated in human red cells at 37 degrees C. The kinetics of net HCO3(-)-Cl- exchange were monitored using a stopped-flow rapid reaction apparatus, under conditions in which HCO3(-)-Cl- exchange was rate-limiting for pH equilibration across the red cell membrane. DP was found to be a rapidly acting, potent inhibitor of HCO3(-)-Cl- exchange, with an apparent I50 of 4 microM. DP produced a mixed competitive-noncompetitive inhibition of HCO3-Cl- exchange. Greater than 50% of the inhibitory effect occurred within 20 msec of DP-red cell interaction, consistent with DP binding to an outward- buy persantine facing site on the cell membrane. Interaction of red cells with DP was associated with a pH-dependent decrement in the equilibrium Donnan H+ ratio. Because HCO3(-)-Cl- exchange is crucial in vivo for ensuing rapid pH equilibration across the red cell membrane, these effects of DP may have important implications, particularly in the development of high-dose DP regimes for use as an adjunctive agent in cancer chemotherapy.

persantine brand name 2016-05-22

The costs per MI and cardiac death averted suggest a decline in cost-effectiveness of screening with DMS over time, assuming improving cardioprotective strategies of patient buy persantine care. Clinical risk factors were minimally useful in the prediction of perioperative MI, heart-related death, or need for myocardial revascularization. The PPV of DMS is low, and the majority of MIs may be clinically insignificant. The cost-effectiveness of cardiac screening with DMS may not be justifiable given current trends of health care reform.

persantine generic 2015-12-13

Dipyridamole has been proposed as an ideal agent to evaluate coronary vascular reserve because it produces selective coronary vasodilation without systemic hemodynamic effect. The actions of intracoronary (IC) and intravenous (IV) dipyridamole on coronary blood flow and systemic hemodynamics were compared in 15 patients with chest pain syndrome and normal coronary arteries. They received IC dipyridamole, followed 10 minutes later by 0.5 mg/kg of IV dipyridamole. IC dipyridamole produced a 73% increase in coronary sinus flow without hemodynamic changes, except for a slight increase in pulmonary systolic and diastolic pressures. IV dipyridamole administration produced an additional 88% increase in coronary sinus flow, reaching 172% over baseline; it was also associated with a significant (p less than 0.01) increase in heart rate (78 +/- 14 vs 102 +/- 19 beats/min), cardiac index (4 +/- 0.7 vs 6.3 +/- 1.7 liters/min/m2), and pulmonary artery systolic (27 +/- 5 vs 34 +/- 7 mm Hg) and diastolic pressures (12 +/- 4 vs 19 +/- 7 mm Hg). These data suggest buy persantine that the coronary vasodilatory effect seen after IV dipyridamole administration is related to mechanisms other than direct coronary vasodilation.

persantine 25mg tabs 2017-01-27

The effect of dipyridamole on the local antithrombotic activities of endothelium has been evaluated. Human whole blood was allowed to flow over an endothelial cell-derived extracellular matrix partially covered by human endothelial cells. Half-maximal suppression of platelet aggregate formation occurred with approximately 5 microM dipyridamole. Similarly, a pronounced inhibition of thrombus formation was observed by in vivo microscopy and computer-assisted morphometric analysis, after oral treatment of non-anesthetized hamsters with dipyridamole, 5 mg/kg. This strong suppression of thrombus formation was maintained in animals on a long-term cholesterol-supplemented diet. The antithrombotic buy persantine potential of dipyridamole has been clearly demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo using these more complex approaches employing quantitative microscopy.

persantine tablets 2016-05-01

Baseline buy persantine MAP was not associated with poor ischemic stroke outcome. However, variables describing the course of BP over the first 2.5 days have a marked and independent relationship with 1- and 3-month outcome.

persantine generic names 2016-04-07

A novel type of somatic mutation that causes the expression of a high affinity purine base permease has been inserted into murine S49 lymphoma cells that are deficient in nucleoside transport. Two classes of mutants expressing this nucleobase permease were generated. The first, as exemplified by the AE1HADPAB2 cell line, possesses an augmented capacity to transport low concentrations of the three purine bases, hypoxanthine, buy persantine guanine, and adenine. The second class of mutants, as typified by the AE1HADPAB5 clone, possesses an augmented capability to translocate low levels of hypoxanthine and guanine, but not adenine. Neither the AE1HADPAB2 nor the AE1HADPAB5 cells can transport nucleosides suggesting that the expression of the high affinity base transporter did not revert the mutation in the nucleoside transport system. Fusion of the AE1HADPAB2 and AE1HADPAB5 cell lines with wild type cells indicated that the expression of the high affinity base transporter behaved in a dominant fashion, while the nucleoside transport deficiency was a recessive trait. These data suggest that the high affinity purine base transporter of mutant cells and the nucleoside transport function of wild type cells are products of different genes and that expression of the former probably requires the unmasking or alteration of a specific genetic locus that is silent or different in wild type cells.

persantine dose 2017-07-27

We examined the value of dipyridamole thallium-201 (201Tl) scintigraphy as a preoperative screening test for perioperative myocardial buy persantine ischemia and infarction.

persantine dosing chart 2017-12-12

Inhibitors of adenosine uptake or transport have been used clinically for some time in certain cardiovascular diseases. More recently, some of them have also been investigated for possible clinical use in combination with antimetabolites based on the observed heterogeneity of nucleoside transport in mammalian tumor cells. Such a heterogeneity of adenosine uptake and uptake sites has now also been suggested in the mammalian CNS. The aim of this article is, therefore, buy persantine to review the present status of our knowledge of adenosine uptake in the mammalian CNS, compare it with our far more advanced knowledge of nucleoside transport in other mammalian cells and suggest direction of future research. The possible implications for the development of adenosine uptake inhibitors as adenosinergic neuropharmaceuticals will be discussed based on our knowledge of the physiological function of adenosine in the CNS.

persantine dosage chart 2015-02-14

In this study, the antiarrhythmic effects of adenosine on ventricular fibrillation during global (low buy persantine flow) ischemia were evaluated in isolated guinea pig hearts perfused by the method of Langendorff.

persantine medication classification 2016-10-06

Adenosine and a majority of adenine mononucleotides have a radioprotective action; adenine and 2'-deoxyadenosine have no radioprotective effect, buy persantine and that of 3',5'-cAMP only approaches the detectable level. Ribo- and deoxyribonucleosides and nucleotides of guanine, uracil, thymine, and cytosine have no protective action. Dipyridamole increases and alkylxanthines block the radioprotective effect of adenosine. So it follows that the radioprotective effect is realized via A-receptors of the plasmatic membrane external surface.

persantine overdose 2017-05-09

Dobutamine, a pharmacologic stressor, is useful for myocardial perfusion imaging in patients who cannot exercise. Patients with asthma or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who are at risk for adverse effects from either dipyridamole or adenosine are prime candidates for dobutamine perfusion studies. Dobutamine is a predominant beta-1 agonist that increases heart rate, myocardial contractility and buy persantine systolic blood pressure. The sensitivity and specificity of dobutamine myocardial perfusion imaging are comparable, for the most part, to those from perfusion studies using exercise, dipyridamole or adenosine.

persantine oral dose 2015-05-01

Ca-antagonistic drugs increase cardiac oxygen buy persantine supply by a coronary vasodilator action whilst they simultaneously lower myocardial oxygen demand. The latter drug effect is due to a decrease in cardiac contractile energy expenditure both directly (restriction of myocardial contractility) and indirectly (reduction of arterial blood pressure resulting from systemic vasodilation). In coronary disease all these factors can contribute to an improvement of the disturbed myocardial energy balance. As to the coronary vasodilator action of Ca-antagonistic drugs in particular, it is important to note that they readily relax the smooth musculature of the major extramural stem arteries where most of the occlusive atherosclerotic intima processes (about 95%) are located. In contrast, other coronary vasodilators such as adenosine, dipyridamole, chromonar, lidoflazine, theophylline, which lack Ca-antagonistic properties, are primarily acting on the small intramural resistance vessels of the heart whereas vascular smooth musculature originating from the major extramural arteries is less affected. Therefore, in elderly atherosclerotic patients the possible risk of glycoside-induced vasoconstriction in extramural coronary stem arteries (and also in arteries of systemic circulation) can be sufficiently eliminated only with the help of Ca-antagonists.

persantine drugs 2015-06-21

The aim of our study was to compare the prognostic value of stress echocardiography and exercise electrocardiography after uncomplicated non-Q-wave acute myocardial infarction in a series of 89 female patients. Our data show that stress echocardiography has independent predictive value in a female Imitrex Reviews patient population recovering from uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction.

persantine dose calculation 2015-05-18

We compared the severity of cardiac allograft vascular disease in rats treated with cyclosporine or FK506 and Viagra Pill Picture studied the effect of antithrombotic agents on cardiac allograft vascular disease.

persantine drug classification 2015-04-07

The high-dose dipyridamole echocardiography test was performed in 52 patients with severe aortic stenosis; all patients also underwent coronary angiography, independent of Zanaflex 6mg Generic test results, before cardiac operation.

persantine and alcohol 2016-10-26

We describe an unusual uptake pattern in a thallium SPECT study performed after dipyridamole infusion in a patient with a documented history of prior inferior infarction and recent typical chest pain. The stress study exhibited maximum uptake in the inferior wall. The delayed study showed an inferior defect more consistent with the notion of inferior necrosis, with a maximum uptake in the anterior wall. The authors propose a pathophysiologic interpretation consistent with coronary angiography findings, based on the assumption of coronary steal suggested by the occurrence of chest pain at the end of the dipyridamole infusion. The problem of Cleocin Gel Dosage selecting myocardial normal reference area(s) necessary to normalization prior to quantitative comparison stress and delayed studies is discussed.

persantine drug class 2016-07-26

We studied the toxicity and efficacy of adding to epirubicin five resistance modulators in the treatment of resistant solid tumors. Additional drugs were added in successive cohorts of patients, such that cohort 1 patients received two drugs along with their epirubicin, while cohort 4 patients received five modulators along with their epirubicin. Metronidazole, tamoxifen (cohort 1), dipyridamole (cohort 2), ketoconazole (cohort 3) and cyclosporin (cohort 4) were administered with epirubicin. A total of 22 patients were treated. Nausea and vomiting was usually mild to moderate. There was an unexpectedly high incidence of possible cardiac toxicity associated with treatment, although in some patients it was uncertain whether or not observed cardiac events were related to treatment. Granulocytopenia was significant in all four cohorts, but it was unclear whether it was increased by the modulators. There were two febrile neutropenic events in cohorts 1 and 2 successfully treated with antibiotics, and three septic deaths (one Famvir Pediatric Dose in each of cohorts 1, 2 and 4). It was elected to discontinue enrollment on the study prematurely in light of cardiac and other toxicity seen in the first two patients accrued in cohort 4. A single response was observed. While this approach is feasible, the observed toxicity and the difficulty patients experienced in ingesting the large number of prescribed pills will make further exploration of this approach difficult.

persantine generic name 2015-03-21

Multiple forms of phosphodiesterase have been reported in many tissues. Phosphodiesterase 6, a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, is described as a photoreceptor cell-specific phosphodiesterase. Phosphodiesterase 6 is known to play a crucial role in visual function. A novel phosphodiesterase inhibitor, GF248 (5["(propoxy),7'(4-morpholino)-phenacyl],[1-methyl-3 propyl]pyrazolo Cymbalta Decrease Dosage [4,3d]pyrimidin-7-one), has been described to be a very potent cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor. In the present study, we compared the potency of GF248 and other known cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitors on phosphodiesterase 5 and phosphodiesterase 6. GF248 displayed an IC50 of 2 and 5 nM for phosphodiesterase 5 and phosphodiesterase 6, respectively. Thereafter, we assessed the effect of GF248 on retinal function, using an ex vivo model of isolated retina electroretinogram recording. Exposure of retina to GF248 resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in electroretinogram amplitude (PIII and b-waves), with no marked modification of PIII and b-wave implicit time. Among other phosphodiesterase inhibitors, DMPPO (1,3-dimethyl-6-(2-propoxy-5-methanesulfonylamidophenyl)pyrazol ol[3,4d]-pyrimidin-4-(5H)-one) and dipyridamole, cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and IBMQ (1-isobutyl-3-methylimidazol[1,5a]quinoxalin-4-(5H)one), a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, altered retinal function but less potently than GF248, consistent with their in vitro phosphodiesterase 6 inhibition. Phosphodiesterase 3- and phosphodiesterase 4-selective inhibitors, cilostamide and rolipram, respectively, did not affect retinal function at 10 micromol l(-1). Our conclusion from these data is that GF248, a potent phosphodiesterase 6 inhibitor, could interfere with visual transduction by cGMP accumulation.

persantine dosage 2015-06-11

In a prospective randomized trial the effect of prolonged antithrombotic treatment with anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs (50 mg aspirin + 400 mg dipyridamole daily) on late bypass-graft occlusion was studied. After 3 months active treatment was replaced by placebo in half of the patients. Between the Diamox Drug Class angiographic checkups 2 weeks and 12 months postoperatively, 28/330 (8%) new graft occlusions had occurred on continued therapy, versus 44/319 (14%) on placebo (p = 0.03). This difference was most pronounced in individual grafts (6% vs 12%, p = 0.01), so that fewer patients with 12 months' active therapy had at least one occluded graft (22% versus 32%, p = 0.08). These findings suggest that antithrombotic treatment should not be halted 3 months after CABG surgery but should be continued for at least one year and possibly longer.

persantine drug 2015-04-17

Preanalytical variables, including the anticoagulants and stabilizing agents, time, storage temperature, and methods of DNA extraction applied to blood samples, may affect quality and quantity of isolated nucleic acids for future genomic applications. Considering the large number of collected samples, standard operating procedure optimization for whole blood preservation before DNA extraction is a crucial step in a biological repository. Moreover, the future application of the biological material may not be known subsequent to its extraction. To define standard operating procedures for whole blood preservation before DNA extraction, we aimed to determine whether different combinations of anticoagulants, blood storage temperatures, and time intervals before storage at -80°C might have an impact on quality and quantity of subsequent extracted DNA. After spectrophotometer quantification, the quality and integrity of DNA were assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, and real-time polymerase chain reaction methods. We observed that decrease in DNA recovery during blood Persantine Generic Name storage time was more pronounced at room temperature than at 4°C. Based on our experience, we recommend as anticoagulants of choice sodium citrate and ethylenediaminetetraacetate, whereas sodium citrate theophylline adenosine dipyridamole could represent an alternative choice, excluding a priori lithium heparin and Fluoride-Oxalate. Based on the overall evaluation criteria, we conclude that the procedures necessary to preserve the whole blood before the DNA extraction may have a significant impact on downstream molecular biological applications.

persantine drug interactions 2015-01-10

Randomized controlled trial.

persantine 10 mg 2016-06-04

Tiazofurine is a selective inhibitor of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, and exhibits potent antitumor activity. Considering the potential side effects on the heart, [3H] tiazofurine uptake into the cardiomyocytes, as well as the mechanism of transport, were studied in the isolated perfused guinea pig heart, using the rapid single circulation, paired-tracer technique. The maximal cellular uptake (Umax) of [3H] tiazofurine ranged from 19% to 25% of the injected dose, with total cellular uptake (Utot) ranging 12.1-15.6%. The addition of unlabeled tiazofurine caused inhibition of [3H] tiazofurine uptake, with a Umax value of 9.06 +/- 4.6%. Therefore, the uptake of tiazofurine into cardiomyocytes could be considered a saturable process. The inhibition of [3H] tiazofurine uptake caused by adenosine and dipyridamole was of the same degree as the inhibition by unlabeled tiazofurine. Thus, it can be assumed that nucleosides' transport system(s) are involved in transport of tiazofurine into myocardial cells.

persantine cost 2015-11-20

We tested the practicability of dipyridamole myocardial nitrogen-13 ammonia positron emission tomography (dipyridamole (13)NH(3 )PET) for the perioperative risk assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) in a cohort of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). Twenty consecutive LVRS candidates, 13 men and 7 women (mean age 57+/-2 years), without symptoms of CAD were prospectively studied by dipyridamole (13)NH(3 )PET. Side-effects and overall tolerance were assessed by a questionnaire and visual analogue scale. Repeated pulmonary function tests were performed before and 4, 12, 16 and 30 minutes after dipyridamole injection. All dipyridamole (13)NH(3 )PET studies were negative for CAD. Seventeen patients underwent LVRS without cardiac complications; three patients did not undergo LVRS for other reasons. Nine patients suffered intolerable dyspnoea requiring i.v. aminophylline. Mean FEV(1) decreased significantly after dipyridamole infusion: in nine patients the reduction in FEV(1)exceeded 15% from baseline. We found that dipyridamole is not well tolerated and causes significant bronchoconstriction in patients with severe COPD. Although all dipyridamole-induced side effects can be promptly reversed by aminophylline, dipyridamole cannot be recommended as a pharmacological stress in this setting.

persantine 75 mg 2016-05-14

The study considered a consecutive series of patients with significant CA (stenosis > or = 50%), studied with echo-B mode and Doppler velocity scans chosen from all patients in the diagnostic vascular cerebral laboratory, between May 1992 and January 1994, for a non invasive study of neck arteries. The protocol of the multidisciplinary study included: history of risk factors (RF); neurologic evaluation; peripheral vascular evaluation with Doppler velocity scans; cardiac evaluation, and patients without clinical history of MI underwent a maximal stress test (ST). If there was bilateral carotid occlusion or non-evaluated ST the patients underwent echo-stress with dipyridamole (ED) or myocardial scintigraphy stress test (MS); haematologic tests, CT in patients with symptoms of cerebral ischemia; arteriography of epi-aortic arteries in patients with indication for carotid enderterectomy.

cost of persantine 2015-04-24

Effects on platelet aggregation were examined of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), indomethacin and a number of other agents including dipyridamole, phenylbutazone and sulfinpyrazone under standardized conditions. The Born turbidometric method of measuring platelet aggregation was used with collagen as the stimulus for aggregation. ASA and indomethacin were shown to be among the most potent inhibitors of aggregation, being active at minimal effective concentrations of 1-3 mug/ml using a 10 min time of pre-incubation with the platelet-rich plasma (degree of aggregation inhibition was time dependent). Most of the other agents tested were also active in vitro and both prostaglandin E1 and adenosine were more potent than ASA or indomethacin. However, these agents were shown not to exert significant inhibitory effects when administered orally to rats (dose 10 and 30 mg/kg). ASA proved to be effective in doses as low as 3 mg/kg, and indomethacin in doses as low as 1 mg/kg orally. The inhibitory effects of ASA on aggregation remained for several days after a single oral dose, whereas the effects of indomethacin disappeared within 24 h.

persantine medication 2016-02-09

The subjects were randomly assigned to receive or not, one of the following antiplatelet drugs: ditazole (3 patients), ticlopidine (3 patients) or aspirin plus dipyridamole (3 patients). Cardiac index (CI) by echo-Doppler, total peripheral resistance (TPR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined at baseline 10 and 20 weeks following the initiation of rHuEpo therapy. rHuEpo therapy was administered subcutaneously at the same dose (40 U/kg thrice weekly) during the first 10 weeks. Ten uraemic patients on haemodialysis who had never received rHuEpo therapy served as the control group.

persantine 25 mg 2017-07-26

The sensitivity and specificity of non-invasive methods--specifically single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) dipyridamole-thallium myocardial perfusion--for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with severe aortic stenosis remains unclear. Occasionally, these patients present with atypical angina. Therefore, a CAD diagnosis must be excluded to prevent unnecessary cardiac catheterization.

persantine 50 mg 2016-06-11

Several large epidemiological outcome studies did not demonstrate a benefit of combined estrogen-progestin replacement treatment (HRT) on cardiovascular events in elderly postmenopausal women. Whether progestin antagonism is responsible for these negative results or the natural estrogen 17ss-estradial (E2) itself is not effective in the coronary circulation is unknown.