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Native enzyme and a mutant containing an extra disulphide bridge of recombinant Saccharomycopsis fibuligera R64 α-amylase, designated as Sfamy01 and Sfamy02, respectively, have successfully been overexpressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris KM71H. The purified α-amylase variants demonstrated starch hydrolysis resulting in a mixture of maltose, maltotriose, and glucose, similar to the wild type enzyme. Introduction of the disulphide bridge shifted the melting temperature (TM) from 54.5 to 56 °C and nearly tripled the enzyme half-life time at 65 °C. The two variants have similar kcat/KM values. Similarly, inhibition by acarbose was only slightly affected, with the IC50 of Sfamy02 for acarbose being 40 ± 3.4 μM, while that of Sfamy01 was 31 ± 3.9 μM. On the other hand, the IC50 of Sfamy02 for EDTA was 0.45 mM, nearly two times lower than that of Sfamy01 at 0.77 mM. These results show that the introduction of a disulphide bridge had little effect on the enzyme activity, but made the enzyme more susceptible to calcium ion extraction. Altogether, the new disulphide bridge improved the enzyme stability without affecting its activity, although minor changes in the active site environment cannot be excluded.
The taste of sugar elicits cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), which limits the rise in blood glucose associated with meals. Little is known, however, about the orosensory mechanisms that trigger CPIR. We asked whether oral stimulation with any of the following taste stimuli elicited CPIR in mice: glucose, sucrose, maltose, fructose, Polycose, saccharin, sucralose, AceK, SC45647 or a non-metabolizable sugar analog. The only taste stimuli that elicited CPIR were glucose and the glucose-containing saccharides (sucrose, maltose, Polycose). When we mixed an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose) with the latter three saccharides, the mice no longer exhibited CPIR. This revealed that the carbohydrates were hydrolyzed in the mouth, and that the liberated glucose triggered CPIR. We also found that increasing the intensity or duration of oral glucose stimulation caused a corresponding increase in CPIR magnitude. To identify the components of the glucose-specific taste-signaling pathway, we examined the necessity of Calhm1, P2X2+P2X3, SGLT1 and Sur1. Among these proteins, only Sur1 was necessary for CPIR. Sur1 was not necessary, however, for taste-mediated attraction to sugars. Given that Sur1 is a subunit of the KATP channel, and that this channel functions as a part of a glucose-sensing pathway in pancreatic beta cells, we asked whether the KATP channel serves an analogous role in taste cells. We discovered that oral stimulation with drugs known to increase (glyburide) or decrease (diazoxide) KATP signaling produced corresponding changes in glucose-stimulated CPIR. We propose that the KATP channel is part of a novel signaling pathway in taste cells that mediates glucose-induced CPIR.
Sixty-six elderly patients with type 2 diabetes who had poor blood glucose control with insulin aspart injection were divided into two groups to have additional Vildagliptin (50 mg, twice daily, n=36, observation group) or Acarbose (50 mg, three times a day, n=30, control group). Blood glucose (including FBG and 2hPG), HbA1C, fasting c-peptide, postprandial c-peptide, BMI and GFR were observed after 12 weeks.
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The study was undertaken to assess the efficacy guargum, Acarbose and their combination in modifying the sucrose absorption in patients of non Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Fifty patients of NIDDM were randomly distributed in three groups. Group A had 20 patients who received 20 grams of guargum, Group B had 10 patients who received 100 mg of Acrabose, Group C had 20 patients who received 10 grams of guargum and 50 grams of Acrabose. All the patients underwent 50 grams sucrose tolerance test with and without the trial drugs. Blood glucose levels were determined at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after sucrose loading. With the drugs, there was a significant decrease in the blood glucose levels at all time intervals (p < 001) in all the three groups. In all the three groups the blood glucose levels with the trial drugs was significantly lower (p < 001) than without the drug. It was seen that acarbose alone and guargum alone did not differ significantly in reducing the blood sugar level whereas combination of two produced significantly greater reduction in blood glucose levels than either of the drug used alone. Thus both guargum and acarbose are equally effective in modifying the absorption of sucrose. When combined in half the dosage they have synergistic effect and the reduction in blood glucose level is greater than either of the drug used alone.
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To carry out prenatal diagnosis for a glycogen storage disease type II (GSD II ) affected family.
Compounds 1-4 as the inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase were reported for the first time.
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To value the effectiveness of Acarbose in the metabolic control of 17 juvenile onset diabetes.
Several epidemiological studies have revealed that subjects with postprandial hyperglycemia are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the impact of postprandial hyperglycemia and its treatment on endothelial function has not been clarified yet. In this study, Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese type 2 diabetes model, fed twice daily were used as a model of repetitive postprandial glucose spikes. We investigated the endothelial function in these rats treated or untreated with acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. Administration of acarbose for 12 weeks markedly improved postprandial hyperglycemia, postprandial insulin level, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid level in GK rats. Furthermore, acarbose efficiently reduced the number of monocytes adherent to aortic endothelial layer, improved acetylcholine-dependent vasodilatation, and reduced intimal thickening of the aorta. While it is generally regarded that repetitive postprandial hyperglycemia is associated with the onset of cardiovascular diseases, our data demonstrated that acarbose treatment efficiently ameliorated endothelial dysfunction and reduced intimal thickening, thus adding support to the protective effect of acarbose against the onset of cardiovascular disease.
Differential excretion of intact disaccharide, expressed as ratios of lactulose to appropriate hydrolysable disaccharides in urine collected following combined ingestion, has been investigated in healthy volunteers with drug induced alpha-glucosidase inhibition, in subjects with primary hypolactasia, and patients with coeliac disease.
Enzyme replacement therapy for Pompe disease, a neuromuscular disorder characterized by lysosomal glycogen storage due to acid α-glucosidase deficiency, has entered the clinic. There is more than ever a need for early and reliable diagnosis. The objective of this review is to present a critical review of the recent literature on laboratory procedures to diagnose Pompe disease by enzymatic assay and DNA analysis. The methods we used were Compilation and expert interpretation of recent and relevant publications. The introduction of new and the updating of existing laboratory procedures have facilitated the diagnosis of Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II; acid maltase deficiency; OMIM 232300). With regard to enzymatic analysis, the application of acarbose as inhibitor of maltase-glucoamylase has enabled the use of mixed leukocyte preparations as diagnostic material. The use of glycogen as a natural substrate in the reaction mixture adds to the selectivity of this procedure. Newborn screening is envisaged and facilitated by the introduction of high-throughput procedures. DNA analysis has become an integral part of the diagnostic procedure for confirmation and completion, for carrier detection, and for genetic counseling.
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Evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic potential of methanol and dichloromethane extracts of leaves and roots of the halophyte Polygonum maritimum L.
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Half maximal inhibitory concentration values indicated that JAT significantly reduced α-glucosidase activity, but weakly reduced α-amylase activity. Kinetic studies of rat small intestinal α-glucosidase activity revealed that the combination of JAT and the α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, showed a mixed-type inhibition. JAT had no effect on the uptake of 2'-deoxy-d-glucose by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and the uptake of α-methyl-d-glucose by sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1). In the oral sucrose tolerance test in GK rats, JAT reduced plasma glucose levels in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control group. The hypoglycemic action of JAT was also confirmed: JAT, in combination with acarbose, produced a synergistic inhibitory effect on plasma glucose levels in vivo. In contrast to the oral sucrose tolerance test, JAT showed no effect in the oral glucose tolerance test.
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After a 6-week screening period, 126 multiethnic Asian type 2 diabetic patients (64 men, 62 women; mean age +/- SD, 53.4 +/- 10 years) were randomized to receive acarbose (n = 63) or placebo (n = 63). The dosage was increased from 50 mg t.i.d. at week 0 to 100 mg t.i.d. at week 4. Patients were then followed up at weeks 10, 16, and 24. At each visit, body weight, blood pressure, and metabolic indexes were measured. At weeks 0 and 24, fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured before and 1 h after the administration of an individually tailored breakfast.
The STOP-NIDDM trial was an international, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised study in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). They were treated with an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, to prevent diabetes; the overall number needed to treat (NNT) was 11. In a secondary analysis, we considered the impact of single traits and overall metabolic syndrome (MetS) respectively on risk of diabetes and NNT respectively. In all, there were 1,368 patients. They were followed up for 3.3 years, and the prevalence of MetS was 61%. Multivariate analysis revealed treatment group 2-hour (post-challenge) plasma glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C), triglycerides and leukocyte count as independent predictors. The annual incidence of diabetes in the placebo group with MetS was 18.7% vs. 11.2% in patients without MetS; the corresponding figures in the acarbose group were 13.5% and 9.4%, respectively. The NNT in patients was 5.8 in patients with MetS and 16.5 in those without MetS. In conclusion, most single traits and overall MetS label a very high-risk group in people with IGT. People with MetS reach a NNT to prevent development of new diabetes with acarbose of 5.8.
The X-ray structures of complexes of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 alpha-amylase 1 (TVAI) with an inhibitor acarbose and an inactive mutant TVAI with malto-hexaose and malto-tridecaose have been determined at 2.6, 2.0 and 1.8A resolution, and the structures have been refined to R-factors of 0.185 (R(free)=0.225), 0.184 (0.217) and 0.164 (0.200), respectively, with good chemical geometries. Acarbose binds to the catalytic site of TVAI, and interactions between acarbose and the enzyme are very similar to those found in other structure-solved alpha-amylase/acarbose complexes, supporting the proposed catalytic mechanism. Based on the structure of the TVAI/acarbose complex, the binding mode of pullulan containing alpha-(1,6) glucoside linkages could be deduced. Due to the structural difference caused by the replaced amino acid residue (Gln396 for Glu) in the catalytic site, malto-hexaose and malto-tridecaose partially bind to the catalytic site, giving a mimic of the enzyme/product complex. Besides the catalytic site, four sugar-binding sites on the molecular surface are found in these X-ray structures. Two sugar-binding sites in domain N hold the oligosaccharides with a regular helical structure of amylose, which suggests that the domain N is a starch-binding domain acting as an anchor to starch in the catalytic reaction of the enzyme. An assay of hydrolyzing activity for the raw starches confirmed that TVAI can efficiently hydrolyze raw starch.
Atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) was first employed to generate mutants of Actinomyces JN537 for improving acarbose production. To obtain higher acarbose producing strains, the method of screening the strains for susceptibility to penicillin was used after treatment with ARTP. The rationale for the strategy was that mutants showing penicillin susceptibility were likely to be high acarbose producers, as their ability to synthesize cell walls was weak which might enhance metabolic flux to the pathway of acarbose biosynthesis. Acarbose yield of the mutant strain M37 increased by 62.5 % than that of the original strain. The contents of monosaccharides and amino acids of the cell wall of M37 were lower than that of the original strain. The acarbose production ability in mutant strain remained relatively stable after 10 generations. This work provides a promising strategy for obtaining high acarbose-yield strains by combination of ARTP mutation method and efficient screening technique.
To clarify these issues we analysed data from the Stop non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (STOP-NIDDM) trial - a prospective interventional study for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in people with prediabetes using the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose. Hypertension was already present at study entry in 702 (51.3%) of 1368 patients who were eligible for intention-to-treat analysis.
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Carbohydrate absorption was assessed during acarbose administration to investigate the actions of this drug. In 7 healthy volunteers, breath hydrogen concentration was measured at 15-min intervals after administration of 6 g of lactulose, and continued until 4 h after the breath hydrogen level exceeded its pretreatment value by > or =10 ppm, then the amount of undigested carbohydrate was calculated following administration of various doses of acarbose and Ensure Liquid. Breath hydrogen data were also obtained before and after administration of acarbose to 8 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus for 2 and 4 months. After administration of 50 mg of acarbose with 250 ml or 500 ml of Ensure, the mean amount of unabsorbed carbohydrate was 5.3 g and 7.7 g, respectively, while unabsorbed carbohydrate increased to 10.8 g after 100 mg of acarbose with 500 ml of Ensure. In the diabetic patients, breath hydrogen excretion decreased to 31.6% of baseline after 2 months of acarbose administration, indicating decreased carbohydrate malabsorption. Despite this, the haemoglobin A1c level remained stable after 5 months. In conclusion, the extent of carbohydrate malabsorption depended on the acarbose dose and the carbohydrate load. Although carbohydrate malabsorption decreased with continued acarbose administration, the improvement of glycaemic control was maintained.
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-arabinose on intestinal alpha-glucosidase activities in vitro and to evaluate its effects on postprandial glycemic responses in vivo. L-Arabinose inhibited the sucrase activity of intestinal mucosa in an uncompetitive manner (Ki, 2 mmol/L). Neither the optical isomer D-arabinose nor the disaccharide L-arabinobiose inhibited sucrase activity, whereas D-xylose was as potent as L-arabinose in inhibiting this activity. L-Arabinose and D-xylose showed no inhibitory effect on the activities of intestinal maltase, isomaltase, trehalase, lactase, and glucoamylase, or pancreatic amylase. In contrast, a known alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, competitively inhibited (Ki, 1.1 mumol/L) sucrase activity and also inhibited intestinal maltase, glucoamylase, and pancreatic amylase. L-Arabinose suppressed the increase of blood glucose after sucrose loading dose-dependently in mice (ED50, 35 mg/kg), but showed no effect after starch loading. The suppressive effect of D-xylose on the increase of blood glucose after sucrose loading was 2.4 times less than that of L-arabinose, probably due to intestinal absorption of the former. Acarbose strongly suppressed glycemic responses in both sucrose loading (ED50, 1.1 mg/kg) and starch loading (ED50, 1.7 mg/kg) in mice. L-Arabinose suppressed the increase of plasma glucose and insulin in rats after sucrose loading, the suppression of the former being uninterruptedly observed in mice for 3 weeks. Thus, the results demonstrated that L-arabinose selectively inhibits intestinal sucrase activity in an uncompetitive manner and suppresses the glycemic response after sucrose ingestion by inhibition of sucrase activity.
One new cyanoside, rhobupcyanoside B (1), together with 7 known ones, was isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of the roots and rhizomes of Rhodiola bupleuroides. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR techniques. Compound 1 was evaluated for its inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with IC50 value of 278.28 ± 0.55 μM by comparing with the positive control (acarbose) at 210.40 ± 0.32 μM.
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This study was designed to investigate whether phlorofucofuroeckol A inhibited α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities and alleviated postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Phlorofucofuroeckol A that was isolated from Ecklonia cava (brown algae) demonstrated prominent inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities. The IC50 values of phlorofucofuroeckol A against α-glucosidase and α-amylase were 19.52 and 6.34μM, respectively. These inhibitory activities of phlorofucofuroeckol A were higher than those of acarbose, which was used as a positive control. Increases in postprandial blood glucose levels were significantly more suppressed in the group administered phlorofucofuroeckol A compared to the control group in both diabetic and normal mice. Moreover, the area under the curve was significantly lower after phlorofucofuroeckol A administration (2296 versus 2690mmolmin/l) in the diabetic mice. These results suggested that phlorofucofuroeckol A is a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor and can alleviate the postprandial hyperglycemia that is caused by starch.
The results demonstrated that the extracts and compounds from Anoda cristata were effective for reducing blood glucose levels in healthy and NA-STZ-hyperglycemic mice when compared with vehicle groups (p<0.05). The FM-AE exerted also positive effect over different biochemical parameters altered in rats with metabolic syndrome induced by a fructose diet. FM-AE has also antioxidant action effectively trapping ONOO(-) and ROO(•) radicals. The major flavonoids isolated from the plant, namely acacetin (1) and diosmetin (2), caused significant hypoglycemic effect and possessed antioxidant activity.
A retrospective cohort study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database was conducted to examine the risks of HHF among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients who initiated glinide, sulfonylurea, or acarbose therapy during 2006-2012. The outcome of interest was hospitalization due to heart failure after treatment initiation, defined by ICD-9-CM code. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using acarbose as the reference group.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin deficiency but in particular by insulin resistance. Patients where it is not possible to achieve positive results within 4-12 weeks by optimalization of the lifestyle are candidates for treatment with oral antidiabetics. At present the following main groups of oral antidiabetics are discussed: insulin secretagogues (SU derivatives and methiglinide derivatives), biguanides (Metformin), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol) and insulin sensitizers (thiazolindiones). Traditional SU therapy improves the insulin plasma levels by releasing insulin from the pancreas. This implies further stress on the b-cells and the function of these cells declines reversibly. Biguanides, such as metformin, are effective substances reducing the blood sugar level, they are however associated with the problem of tolerability and are contraindicated in some diabetics. A new approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes are thiasolinediones, insulin-sensitizing substances, the molecular basis of their action being via activation of PPAR gamma-nuclear receptors with subsequent change in expression of genes participating in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.