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Precose

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Glucophage, Actos, Avandia, Amaryl, Glucovance, Micronase, Glycomet

 

Also known as:  Acarbose.

Description

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Generic Precose is a glucosidase inhibitor. It works by slowing down the enzyme that turns carbohydrates into glucose; it decreases blood sugar levels following a meal.

Precose is also known as Acarbose, Glucobay, Glucor, Rebose.

Generic name of Generic Precose is Acarbose.

Brand name of Generic Precose is Precose.

Dosage

Take Generic Precose by mouth with food.

If you also take charcoal or digestive enzyme preparations, do not take them within 2 to 4 hours before after taking Generic Precose.

Temporary insulin therapy may be necessary during stressful periods (such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery).

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Precose and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Precose are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Precose if you are allergic to Generic Precose components.

Be careful with Generic Precose if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have blockage of the stomach or intestine or are at risk for these problems.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have long-term (chronic) bowel inflammation, colon ulcers, or stomach or intestine problems that interfere with digestion or nutrient absorption.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have cirrhosis of the liver or unexplained abnormal liver function tests.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have diabetic ketoacidosis (high ketone levels) or severe kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have stomach or intestinal problems, liver problems, or kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) because the risk of their side effects, including bleeding, may be increased by Generic Precose; calcium channel blockers (eg, verapamil), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogen, isoniazid, nicotinic acid, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine), phenytoin, sympathomimetics (eg, pseudoephedrine), or thyroid hormone because they may increase or decrease Precose 's effectiveness; insulin or sulfonylureas (eg, glyburide) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Generic Precose; digoxin because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Precose.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

precose 25 mg

Native enzyme and a mutant containing an extra disulphide bridge of recombinant Saccharomycopsis fibuligera R64 α-amylase, designated as Sfamy01 and Sfamy02, respectively, have successfully been overexpressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris KM71H. The purified α-amylase variants demonstrated starch hydrolysis resulting in a mixture of maltose, maltotriose, and glucose, similar to the wild type enzyme. Introduction of the disulphide bridge shifted the melting temperature (TM) from 54.5 to 56 °C and nearly tripled the enzyme half-life time at 65 °C. The two variants have similar kcat/KM values. Similarly, inhibition by acarbose was only slightly affected, with the IC50 of Sfamy02 for acarbose being 40 ± 3.4 μM, while that of Sfamy01 was 31 ± 3.9 μM. On the other hand, the IC50 of Sfamy02 for EDTA was 0.45 mM, nearly two times lower than that of Sfamy01 at 0.77 mM. These results show that the introduction of a disulphide bridge had little effect on the enzyme activity, but made the enzyme more susceptible to calcium ion extraction. Altogether, the new disulphide bridge improved the enzyme stability without affecting its activity, although minor changes in the active site environment cannot be excluded.

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The taste of sugar elicits cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), which limits the rise in blood glucose associated with meals. Little is known, however, about the orosensory mechanisms that trigger CPIR. We asked whether oral stimulation with any of the following taste stimuli elicited CPIR in mice: glucose, sucrose, maltose, fructose, Polycose, saccharin, sucralose, AceK, SC45647 or a non-metabolizable sugar analog. The only taste stimuli that elicited CPIR were glucose and the glucose-containing saccharides (sucrose, maltose, Polycose). When we mixed an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose) with the latter three saccharides, the mice no longer exhibited CPIR. This revealed that the carbohydrates were hydrolyzed in the mouth, and that the liberated glucose triggered CPIR. We also found that increasing the intensity or duration of oral glucose stimulation caused a corresponding increase in CPIR magnitude. To identify the components of the glucose-specific taste-signaling pathway, we examined the necessity of Calhm1, P2X2+P2X3, SGLT1 and Sur1. Among these proteins, only Sur1 was necessary for CPIR. Sur1 was not necessary, however, for taste-mediated attraction to sugars. Given that Sur1 is a subunit of the KATP channel, and that this channel functions as a part of a glucose-sensing pathway in pancreatic beta cells, we asked whether the KATP channel serves an analogous role in taste cells. We discovered that oral stimulation with drugs known to increase (glyburide) or decrease (diazoxide) KATP signaling produced corresponding changes in glucose-stimulated CPIR. We propose that the KATP channel is part of a novel signaling pathway in taste cells that mediates glucose-induced CPIR.

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Sixty-six elderly patients with type 2 diabetes who had poor blood glucose control with insulin aspart injection were divided into two groups to have additional Vildagliptin (50 mg, twice daily, n=36, observation group) or Acarbose (50 mg, three times a day, n=30, control group). Blood glucose (including FBG and 2hPG), HbA1C, fasting c-peptide, postprandial c-peptide, BMI and GFR were observed after 12 weeks.

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The study was undertaken to assess the efficacy guargum, Acarbose and their combination in modifying the sucrose absorption in patients of non Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Fifty patients of NIDDM were randomly distributed in three groups. Group A had 20 patients who received 20 grams of guargum, Group B had 10 patients who received 100 mg of Acrabose, Group C had 20 patients who received 10 grams of guargum and 50 grams of Acrabose. All the patients underwent 50 grams sucrose tolerance test with and without the trial drugs. Blood glucose levels were determined at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after sucrose loading. With the drugs, there was a significant decrease in the blood glucose levels at all time intervals (p < 001) in all the three groups. In all the three groups the blood glucose levels with the trial drugs was significantly lower (p < 001) than without the drug. It was seen that acarbose alone and guargum alone did not differ significantly in reducing the blood sugar level whereas combination of two produced significantly greater reduction in blood glucose levels than either of the drug used alone. Thus both guargum and acarbose are equally effective in modifying the absorption of sucrose. When combined in half the dosage they have synergistic effect and the reduction in blood glucose level is greater than either of the drug used alone.

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To carry out prenatal diagnosis for a glycogen storage disease type II (GSD II ) affected family.

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Compounds 1-4 as the inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase were reported for the first time.

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To value the effectiveness of Acarbose in the metabolic control of 17 juvenile onset diabetes.

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Several epidemiological studies have revealed that subjects with postprandial hyperglycemia are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the impact of postprandial hyperglycemia and its treatment on endothelial function has not been clarified yet. In this study, Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese type 2 diabetes model, fed twice daily were used as a model of repetitive postprandial glucose spikes. We investigated the endothelial function in these rats treated or untreated with acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. Administration of acarbose for 12 weeks markedly improved postprandial hyperglycemia, postprandial insulin level, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid level in GK rats. Furthermore, acarbose efficiently reduced the number of monocytes adherent to aortic endothelial layer, improved acetylcholine-dependent vasodilatation, and reduced intimal thickening of the aorta. While it is generally regarded that repetitive postprandial hyperglycemia is associated with the onset of cardiovascular diseases, our data demonstrated that acarbose treatment efficiently ameliorated endothelial dysfunction and reduced intimal thickening, thus adding support to the protective effect of acarbose against the onset of cardiovascular disease.

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Differential excretion of intact disaccharide, expressed as ratios of lactulose to appropriate hydrolysable disaccharides in urine collected following combined ingestion, has been investigated in healthy volunteers with drug induced alpha-glucosidase inhibition, in subjects with primary hypolactasia, and patients with coeliac disease.

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Enzyme replacement therapy for Pompe disease, a neuromuscular disorder characterized by lysosomal glycogen storage due to acid α-glucosidase deficiency, has entered the clinic. There is more than ever a need for early and reliable diagnosis. The objective of this review is to present a critical review of the recent literature on laboratory procedures to diagnose Pompe disease by enzymatic assay and DNA analysis. The methods we used were Compilation and expert interpretation of recent and relevant publications. The introduction of new and the updating of existing laboratory procedures have facilitated the diagnosis of Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II; acid maltase deficiency; OMIM 232300). With regard to enzymatic analysis, the application of acarbose as inhibitor of maltase-glucoamylase has enabled the use of mixed leukocyte preparations as diagnostic material. The use of glycogen as a natural substrate in the reaction mixture adds to the selectivity of this procedure. Newborn screening is envisaged and facilitated by the introduction of high-throughput procedures. DNA analysis has become an integral part of the diagnostic procedure for confirmation and completion, for carrier detection, and for genetic counseling.

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Evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic potential of methanol and dichloromethane extracts of leaves and roots of the halophyte Polygonum maritimum L.

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Half maximal inhibitory concentration values indicated that JAT significantly reduced α-glucosidase activity, but weakly reduced α-amylase activity. Kinetic studies of rat small intestinal α-glucosidase activity revealed that the combination of JAT and the α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, showed a mixed-type inhibition. JAT had no effect on the uptake of 2'-deoxy-d-glucose by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and the uptake of α-methyl-d-glucose by sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1). In the oral sucrose tolerance test in GK rats, JAT reduced plasma glucose levels in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control group. The hypoglycemic action of JAT was also confirmed: JAT, in combination with acarbose, produced a synergistic inhibitory effect on plasma glucose levels in vivo. In contrast to the oral sucrose tolerance test, JAT showed no effect in the oral glucose tolerance test.

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After a 6-week screening period, 126 multiethnic Asian type 2 diabetic patients (64 men, 62 women; mean age +/- SD, 53.4 +/- 10 years) were randomized to receive acarbose (n = 63) or placebo (n = 63). The dosage was increased from 50 mg t.i.d. at week 0 to 100 mg t.i.d. at week 4. Patients were then followed up at weeks 10, 16, and 24. At each visit, body weight, blood pressure, and metabolic indexes were measured. At weeks 0 and 24, fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured before and 1 h after the administration of an individually tailored breakfast.

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The STOP-NIDDM trial was an international, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised study in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). They were treated with an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, to prevent diabetes; the overall number needed to treat (NNT) was 11. In a secondary analysis, we considered the impact of single traits and overall metabolic syndrome (MetS) respectively on risk of diabetes and NNT respectively. In all, there were 1,368 patients. They were followed up for 3.3 years, and the prevalence of MetS was 61%. Multivariate analysis revealed treatment group 2-hour (post-challenge) plasma glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C), triglycerides and leukocyte count as independent predictors. The annual incidence of diabetes in the placebo group with MetS was 18.7% vs. 11.2% in patients without MetS; the corresponding figures in the acarbose group were 13.5% and 9.4%, respectively. The NNT in patients was 5.8 in patients with MetS and 16.5 in those without MetS. In conclusion, most single traits and overall MetS label a very high-risk group in people with IGT. People with MetS reach a NNT to prevent development of new diabetes with acarbose of 5.8.

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The X-ray structures of complexes of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 alpha-amylase 1 (TVAI) with an inhibitor acarbose and an inactive mutant TVAI with malto-hexaose and malto-tridecaose have been determined at 2.6, 2.0 and 1.8A resolution, and the structures have been refined to R-factors of 0.185 (R(free)=0.225), 0.184 (0.217) and 0.164 (0.200), respectively, with good chemical geometries. Acarbose binds to the catalytic site of TVAI, and interactions between acarbose and the enzyme are very similar to those found in other structure-solved alpha-amylase/acarbose complexes, supporting the proposed catalytic mechanism. Based on the structure of the TVAI/acarbose complex, the binding mode of pullulan containing alpha-(1,6) glucoside linkages could be deduced. Due to the structural difference caused by the replaced amino acid residue (Gln396 for Glu) in the catalytic site, malto-hexaose and malto-tridecaose partially bind to the catalytic site, giving a mimic of the enzyme/product complex. Besides the catalytic site, four sugar-binding sites on the molecular surface are found in these X-ray structures. Two sugar-binding sites in domain N hold the oligosaccharides with a regular helical structure of amylose, which suggests that the domain N is a starch-binding domain acting as an anchor to starch in the catalytic reaction of the enzyme. An assay of hydrolyzing activity for the raw starches confirmed that TVAI can efficiently hydrolyze raw starch.

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Atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) was first employed to generate mutants of Actinomyces JN537 for improving acarbose production. To obtain higher acarbose producing strains, the method of screening the strains for susceptibility to penicillin was used after treatment with ARTP. The rationale for the strategy was that mutants showing penicillin susceptibility were likely to be high acarbose producers, as their ability to synthesize cell walls was weak which might enhance metabolic flux to the pathway of acarbose biosynthesis. Acarbose yield of the mutant strain M37 increased by 62.5 % than that of the original strain. The contents of monosaccharides and amino acids of the cell wall of M37 were lower than that of the original strain. The acarbose production ability in mutant strain remained relatively stable after 10 generations. This work provides a promising strategy for obtaining high acarbose-yield strains by combination of ARTP mutation method and efficient screening technique.

precose dosage

To clarify these issues we analysed data from the Stop non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (STOP-NIDDM) trial - a prospective interventional study for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in people with prediabetes using the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose. Hypertension was already present at study entry in 702 (51.3%) of 1368 patients who were eligible for intention-to-treat analysis.

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Carbohydrate absorption was assessed during acarbose administration to investigate the actions of this drug. In 7 healthy volunteers, breath hydrogen concentration was measured at 15-min intervals after administration of 6 g of lactulose, and continued until 4 h after the breath hydrogen level exceeded its pretreatment value by > or =10 ppm, then the amount of undigested carbohydrate was calculated following administration of various doses of acarbose and Ensure Liquid. Breath hydrogen data were also obtained before and after administration of acarbose to 8 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus for 2 and 4 months. After administration of 50 mg of acarbose with 250 ml or 500 ml of Ensure, the mean amount of unabsorbed carbohydrate was 5.3 g and 7.7 g, respectively, while unabsorbed carbohydrate increased to 10.8 g after 100 mg of acarbose with 500 ml of Ensure. In the diabetic patients, breath hydrogen excretion decreased to 31.6% of baseline after 2 months of acarbose administration, indicating decreased carbohydrate malabsorption. Despite this, the haemoglobin A1c level remained stable after 5 months. In conclusion, the extent of carbohydrate malabsorption depended on the acarbose dose and the carbohydrate load. Although carbohydrate malabsorption decreased with continued acarbose administration, the improvement of glycaemic control was maintained.

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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-arabinose on intestinal alpha-glucosidase activities in vitro and to evaluate its effects on postprandial glycemic responses in vivo. L-Arabinose inhibited the sucrase activity of intestinal mucosa in an uncompetitive manner (Ki, 2 mmol/L). Neither the optical isomer D-arabinose nor the disaccharide L-arabinobiose inhibited sucrase activity, whereas D-xylose was as potent as L-arabinose in inhibiting this activity. L-Arabinose and D-xylose showed no inhibitory effect on the activities of intestinal maltase, isomaltase, trehalase, lactase, and glucoamylase, or pancreatic amylase. In contrast, a known alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, competitively inhibited (Ki, 1.1 mumol/L) sucrase activity and also inhibited intestinal maltase, glucoamylase, and pancreatic amylase. L-Arabinose suppressed the increase of blood glucose after sucrose loading dose-dependently in mice (ED50, 35 mg/kg), but showed no effect after starch loading. The suppressive effect of D-xylose on the increase of blood glucose after sucrose loading was 2.4 times less than that of L-arabinose, probably due to intestinal absorption of the former. Acarbose strongly suppressed glycemic responses in both sucrose loading (ED50, 1.1 mg/kg) and starch loading (ED50, 1.7 mg/kg) in mice. L-Arabinose suppressed the increase of plasma glucose and insulin in rats after sucrose loading, the suppression of the former being uninterruptedly observed in mice for 3 weeks. Thus, the results demonstrated that L-arabinose selectively inhibits intestinal sucrase activity in an uncompetitive manner and suppresses the glycemic response after sucrose ingestion by inhibition of sucrase activity.

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One new cyanoside, rhobupcyanoside B (1), together with 7 known ones, was isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of the roots and rhizomes of Rhodiola bupleuroides. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR techniques. Compound 1 was evaluated for its inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with IC50 value of 278.28 ± 0.55 μM by comparing with the positive control (acarbose) at 210.40 ± 0.32 μM.

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This study was designed to investigate whether phlorofucofuroeckol A inhibited α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities and alleviated postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Phlorofucofuroeckol A that was isolated from Ecklonia cava (brown algae) demonstrated prominent inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities. The IC50 values of phlorofucofuroeckol A against α-glucosidase and α-amylase were 19.52 and 6.34μM, respectively. These inhibitory activities of phlorofucofuroeckol A were higher than those of acarbose, which was used as a positive control. Increases in postprandial blood glucose levels were significantly more suppressed in the group administered phlorofucofuroeckol A compared to the control group in both diabetic and normal mice. Moreover, the area under the curve was significantly lower after phlorofucofuroeckol A administration (2296 versus 2690mmolmin/l) in the diabetic mice. These results suggested that phlorofucofuroeckol A is a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor and can alleviate the postprandial hyperglycemia that is caused by starch.

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The results demonstrated that the extracts and compounds from Anoda cristata were effective for reducing blood glucose levels in healthy and NA-STZ-hyperglycemic mice when compared with vehicle groups (p<0.05). The FM-AE exerted also positive effect over different biochemical parameters altered in rats with metabolic syndrome induced by a fructose diet. FM-AE has also antioxidant action effectively trapping ONOO(-) and ROO(•) radicals. The major flavonoids isolated from the plant, namely acacetin (1) and diosmetin (2), caused significant hypoglycemic effect and possessed antioxidant activity.

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A retrospective cohort study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database was conducted to examine the risks of HHF among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients who initiated glinide, sulfonylurea, or acarbose therapy during 2006-2012. The outcome of interest was hospitalization due to heart failure after treatment initiation, defined by ICD-9-CM code. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using acarbose as the reference group.

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin deficiency but in particular by insulin resistance. Patients where it is not possible to achieve positive results within 4-12 weeks by optimalization of the lifestyle are candidates for treatment with oral antidiabetics. At present the following main groups of oral antidiabetics are discussed: insulin secretagogues (SU derivatives and methiglinide derivatives), biguanides (Metformin), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol) and insulin sensitizers (thiazolindiones). Traditional SU therapy improves the insulin plasma levels by releasing insulin from the pancreas. This implies further stress on the b-cells and the function of these cells declines reversibly. Biguanides, such as metformin, are effective substances reducing the blood sugar level, they are however associated with the problem of tolerability and are contraindicated in some diabetics. A new approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes are thiasolinediones, insulin-sensitizing substances, the molecular basis of their action being via activation of PPAR gamma-nuclear receptors with subsequent change in expression of genes participating in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

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precose online 2017-07-28

The effects of alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins on the amylose and maltopentaose hydrolysis catalysed by porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) were investigated. The results of the statistical analysis performed on the kinetic data using the general initial velocity equation of a one-substrate reaction in the presence of one inhibitor indicate that the type of inhibition involved depends on the substrate used: the inhibition of amylose hydrolysis by alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin is of the competitive type, while the inhibition of maltopentaose hydrolysis is of the mixed noncompetitive type. Consistently, the Lineweaver-Burk plots intersect on the vertical axis when amylose is used as the substrate, while in the case of maltopentaose, the intersection occurs at a point located in the second quadrant. The inhibition of the hydrolysis therefore involves only one abortive complex, PPA-cyclodextrin, when amylose is used as the substrate, while two abortive complexes, PPA-cyclodextrin and PPA-maltopentaose-cyclodextrin, are involved with maltopentaose. The mixed noncompetitive inhibition thus shows the existence of one accessory binding site. In any case, only one molecule of inhibitor binds to PPA. In line with these findings, the difference spectra of PPA produced by alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin indicate that binding occurs at a tryptophan and a tyrosine residue. The corresponding dissociation constants and the inhibition constants obtained using the kinetic approach are in the same range (1.2-7 mM). The results obtained here on the inhibition of maltopentaose hydrolysis by cyclodextrin are similar to those previously obtained with acarbose as the inhibitor [Alkazaz, M., Desseaux, V., Marchis-Mouren, G., Prodanov, E. & Santimone, M. (1998) Eur. J. Biochem. 252, 100-107], but differ from those obtained with amylose as the substrate and acarbose as inhibitor [Alkazaz, M., Desseaux, V., buy precose Marchis-Mouren, G., Payan, F., Forest, E. & Santimone, M. (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 241, 787-796]. It is concluded that the hydrolysis of both long and short chain substrates requires at least one secondary binding site, including a tryptophan residue.

precose 50 mg 2017-07-14

The effect of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on retinal capillary basement membrane thickening was examined in the spontaneously diabetic BB/W-rat. Four months of diabetes resulted in significant thickening of the basement membranes of both the superficial and deep capillary nets of the retina. This characteristic change of the retinal microvasculature in diabetes was completely prevented by acarbose treatment that substantially reduced postprandial hyperglycemia. A similar but less pronounced effect was seen on the age-related increase in basement membrane thickening in acarbose-treated non-diabetic control rats who demonstrated decreased glycated hemoglobin levels compared to non-treated control rats. Significant positive correlations between basement membrane thickness and glycated hemoglobin area suggest that diabetic retinal microangiopathy may be prevented by lowering the cumulative glucose exposure to the microvasculature, and that age-related basement membrane thickening is mediated by long- buy precose term exposure to normal glucose levels.

precose drugs 2016-11-04

Metformin, troglitazone, acarbose, and orlistat have been shown to decrease the risk of progression to diabetes in patients at risk for developing diabetes. Other questions that address issues such as identifying buy precose target populations, cost-effectiveness, and screening strategies must be answered to more fully define the place of pharmacologic therapy to prevent or delay diabetes.

precose dosage 2016-07-27

Adult female rats, each fitted with a gastric fistula, were tested for their "normal-feeding" (fistula closed) and "sham-feeding" (fistula open) response to saccharin and sugar solutions under a variety of conditions. When hungry, rats consumed no more of a 0.2% saccharin solution with their fistula open than they did with their fistula closed. Increasing or decreasing the saccharin concentration did not increase the amount of solution sham fed, but adding a small amount of glucose (3%) to the saccharin solution did increase the amount sham fed. Thirsty rats, unlike hungry, significantly increased their 0.2% saccharin solution intake when tested with an open fistula. When tested with a 32% glucose solution, hungry rats consumed up to six times more solution with their fistula open than with their fistula closed. The hungry rats also sham fed significantly more of the 32% glucose solution than of the 0.2% saccharin solution or 0.2% saccharin + 3% glucose solution. Sham-feeding of a 32% sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels, but blocking this effect by adding acarbose, a buy precose drug that inhibits sucrose digestion, did not reduce the amount of solution sham fed. Several possible explanations for the differential sham-feeding response to saccharin and sugar solutions are discussed.

precose dose 2015-06-23

To investigate the chemical constituents of 70% aqueous ethanol extract from the whole plant of Crossostephium chinense for inhibitory activity against buy precose alpha-glucosidase.

precose medication 2016-08-02

To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of acarbose buy precose versus placebo during a 24-week treatment period in Asian type 2 diabetic patients with dietary failure.

buy precose online 2015-01-19

The study was undertaken to assess the efficacy guargum, Acarbose and their combination in modifying the sucrose absorption in patients of non Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Fifty patients of NIDDM were randomly distributed in three groups. Group A had 20 patients who received 20 grams of guargum, Group B had 10 patients who received 100 mg of Acrabose, Group C had 20 patients who received 10 grams of guargum and 50 grams of Acrabose. All the patients underwent 50 grams sucrose tolerance test with and without the trial drugs. Blood glucose levels were determined at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after sucrose loading. With the drugs, there was a significant decrease in the blood glucose levels at all time intervals (p < 001) in all the three groups. In all the three groups the blood glucose levels with the trial drugs was significantly lower (p < 001) than without the drug. It was seen that acarbose alone and guargum alone did not differ significantly in reducing the blood sugar level whereas combination of two produced significantly greater reduction in blood glucose levels than either of the drug used alone. Thus both guargum and acarbose are equally effective in modifying the absorption of sucrose. When combined in half the dosage they have synergistic effect and the reduction buy precose in blood glucose level is greater than either of the drug used alone.

precose reviews 2017-03-30

T2DM has major quality of life and cost implications. Therefore, buy precose more research is needed to establish safe and cost effective ways to prevent this modern epidemic.

precose patient review 2015-03-29

The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose is beneficial in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. To determine whether it attenuates buy precose the commonly associated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), we used an experimental NASH model. Rats were fed ad libitum a nutritionally adequate high fat diet (71% of calories as fat) with or without acarbose (200 mg/1000 calories) for 3 weeks. All rats given the high fat diet only developed typical NASH whereas acarbose attenuated several of the characteristic hepatic alterations of NASH: there was less steatosis and inflammation, with a significant reduction in the mRNA of the hepatic inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and of its protein. There was also a decrease in the CYP2E1 mRNA and in collagen, with similar trends for CYP2E1 protein and procollagen mRNA. Because acarbose attenuates many of the hepatic alterations associated with experimental NASH, it is now indicated to determine whether it exerts similar beneficial effects in patients afflicted by this disease.

precose buy 2016-04-25

In the United States (US), diabetes mellitus is a serious and costly public health problem, affecting more than 16 million people. Its incidence will continue to grow, as indicated by high rates of impaired fasting glucose levels, increased buy precose rates of obesity, and the trend toward more sedentary lifestyles. The prevalence of diabetes increases with age and varies by gender, race, and ethnicity. Diabetes also presents an enormous economic burden in the US. In 1996, total health care costs were 1 trillion dollars, 120 million dollars of which was for diabetes. A large proportion of the per-person costs associated with diabetes is for treating diabetic complications. Morbidity and mortality rates are higher in patients with diabetes than in patients without diabetes. There has been some recent improvement in type 2 diabetes treatment with the availability of newer medications, including secretagogues, metformin, acarbose, and the 'glitazones'. More patients are now using oral combination therapy, and fewer patients are using insulin. Unfortunately, many patients with type 2 diabetes are delaying the use of insulin, even when it is indicated for their treatment. Moreover, even with the new classes of oral antidiabetic agents, glycemic control remains suboptimal and patients still are not reaching the recommended target values for HbA(1c) (<7%). Primary medical care for diabetes patients is also less than optimal and must be improved. On an arbitrary gradient scale of 1 to 4 (with 1 being primitive and 4 being comprehensive), the US is only at stage 2 for diabetes care systems, indicating a pressing need for improvement in diabetes care.

precose 25 mg 2015-06-16

Excessive postprandial (pp) glucose excursion in people with IGT and type 2 diabetes is associated with a cascade of proatherogenic events. Acarbose, a potent competitive inhibitor of alpha-glucosidases of the small intestine specifically reduces pp hyperglycemia with an average reduction of HbA1c by 0.8% in Cochrane metaanalysis. This is associated with buy precose pleiotropic effects on a broad spectrum of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors: reduction of overweight, lowering of blood pressure, triglycerides, hsCRP, fibrinogen and other biomarkers of low grade inflammation.

precose dosing 2016-02-13

To systematically review the current literature on the pharmacological treatment of postmeal reductions in blood pressure ( buy precose BP).

precose tablet 2017-02-09

Two hundred eleven subjects in the acarbose-treated group and 130 in the placebo group discontinued treatment prematurely; however, they underwent follow-up for assessment of end points. Acarbose treatment resulted in a 25% relative risk reduction in the development of type 2 diabetes (hazards ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 0.90; P = 0.0015), in a 34% buy precose risk reduction in the development of new cases of hypertension (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.89; P = 0.0059), and in a 49% risk reduction in the development of cardiovascular events (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.95; P = 0.03). A post hoc cost-effectiveness analysis done from the Swedish perspective showed that acarbose treatment was likely to be cost-effective in the management of subjects with IGT.

precose drug class 2017-07-17

Patients in this randomised, controlled, double-blind clinical trial were enrolled, evaluated and followed up at three Italian centres. We evaluated 107 patients (53 males and 54 females) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) as determined by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). All Priligy Online Buy patients took a fixed dose of acarbose 150 mg/day for 3 months, after which they were titrated up to 300 mg/day for the next 3 months. In addition, patients were randomised to either placebo (53 patients: 27 males and 26 females, aged 50 +/- 4 [mean +/- SD] years) or doxazosin 4 mg/day (54 patients: 26 males and 28 females, aged 51 +/- 5 years) for the entire 6-month treatment period. Parameters evaluated during the 6-month treatment period included body mass index (BMI), glycaemic control (glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA(1c)], fasting plasma [FPG] and post-prandial plasma [PPG] glucose, fasting plasma [FPI] and post-prandial plasma [PPI] insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]-index [insulin resistance]), lipid profile (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and triglycerides [TG]), and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure.

precose generic name 2017-06-28

Articles were selected from MEDLINE searches (key words: postprandial glucose, postprandial hyperglycemia, and cardiovascular disease) and Zithromax Online from our personal reference files, with emphasis on the contribution of postprandial hyperglycemia to overall glycemic load or cardiovascular (CV) risk.

precose tabs 2015-05-03

The question whether antidiabetes drugs can cause acute pancreatitis dates back to the 1970s. Recently, old concerns have re-emerged following claims that use of incretins, a new class of drugs for type 2 diabetes, might increase the relative risk of acute pancreatitis up to 30-fold. Given that diabetes is per se a potent risk factor for acute pancreatitis and that drug-related acute pancreatitis is rare and difficult to diagnose, we searched the medical databases for information linking acute pancreatitis and type 2 diabetes drugs. Among the biguanides, both phenformin and metformin (the latter in patients with renal insufficiency) have been cited in case reports as a potential cause of acute pancreatitis. Sulphonylureas, as both entire class and single compound (glibenclamide), have also been found in cohort studies to increase its risk. No direct link was found between pancreatic damage and therapy with metaglinide, acarbose, pramlintide or SGLT-2 inhibitors. In animal models, thiazolinediones have demonstrated proprieties to attenuate pancreatic damage, opening perspectives Paxil Missed Dose for their use in treating acute pancreatitis in humans. Several case reports and the US Food and Drug Administration pharmacovigilance database indicate an association between acute pancreatitis and incretins, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists. To date, however, a clear-cut odds ratio for this association has been reported in only one of eight pharmacoepidemiological studies. Finally, none of the intervention trials investigating these compounds, including two large randomized controlled trials with cardiovascular endpoints, confirmed the purportedly increased risk of acute pancreatitis with incretin use.

precose drug interactions 2016-03-14

The influence of hydrolysis on the assimilation rate of important nutritional carbohydrates was studied in healthy subjects and patients with intestinal diseases, mainly by means of 13CO2 breath test techniques. All substrates were "naturally enriched" with carbon-13. The studies showed that hydrolysis is the rate limiting step for the assimilation of lactose, starch and even maltose, but not for the assimilation of sucrose. The degree of gelatinisation and the degree of side-branching of starch molecules were two important parameters, influencing starch hydrolysis in normal subjects. Addition of wheat bran had no influence on the digestion rate of starch. A comparative study between normal subjects and patients with 700 Mg Lamictal pancreatic disease, showed that starch digestion may be impaired in patients with pancreatic disease. However, this occurs only if amylase output is extremely low. The effect of lactase deficiency on lactose absorption was studied in patients with a history suggestive of lactase deficiency. For this purpose a lactose 13CO2 and H2 breath test were compared with lactase activity in a jejunal biopsy. The results showed that the relation between lactase activity in the biopsy and lactose assimilation takes the form of a saturation curve. The 13CO2 breath test was found to be a reliable test for the diagnosis of lactase deficiency. Finally, the effect of acarbose on starch digestion was studied in normal subjects, ileostomy patients, and a fecal incubation system. These experiments showed that acarbose may induce an important degree of starch malabsorption. If administered in high doses, the effect is not only related to inhibition of brush border enzymes, but also to the inhibition of alpha-amylase.

precose tablets 2017-05-24

α-Glucosidase inhibitors are important agents for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia. The current study examined the inhibitory effects of octaphlorethol A (OPA) isolated from Ishige foliacea, a brown alga, on α-glucosidase, and analyzed the inhibitor's binding modes using the crystal structure of α-glucosidase. The effects of OPA on postprandial blood glucose levels after meals were also investigated. The IC50 value of OPA against α-glucosidase was 0.11 mM, which is higher than that Artane Tab of the commercial inhibitor acarbose. For further insights, we predicted the 3D structure of α-glucosidase and used a docking algorithm to simulate binding between α-glucosidase and OPA. These molecular modeling studies were successful, and indicated that OPA interacts with Phe575, His600, Arg526, Met444, Asp542, Tyr605, Ser448, Asp203, Lys480, and Phe450. Furthermore, increases in postprandial blood glucose levels were significantly suppressed in the OPA-treated group compared with those in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic or normal mice. Additionally, the area under the curve was significantly reduced following OPA administration (907 versus 1034 mg h dL(-1)) in the diabetic mice, along with a delay in the absorption of dietary carbohydrates. Collectively, these results indicated that OPA is a potent inhibitor of α-glucosidase, and shows potential to be used as an anti-diabetic agent.

precose user reviews 2016-07-07

The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris, is a generalist predator of insects and has been used in biological control. However, information on the digestion of food in this insect is lacking. Therefore, we have studied the digestive system in P. maculiventris, and further characterized carbohydrases in the digestive tract. The midgut of all developmental stages was composed of anterior, median, and posterior regions. The volumes of the anterior midgut decreased and the median midgut increased in older instars and adults, suggesting a Lanoxin Drug Information more important role of the median midgut in food digestion. However, carbohydrase activities were predominant in the anterior midgut. In comparing the specific activity of carbohydrases, α-amylase activity was more in the salivary glands (with two distinct activity bands in zymograms), and glucosidase and galactosidase activities were more in the midgut. Salivary α-amylases were detected in the prey hemolymph, demonstrating the role of these enzymes in extra-oral digestion. However, the catalytic efficiency of midgut α-amylase activity was approximately twofold more than that of the salivary gland enzymes, and was more efficient in digesting soluble starch than glycogen. Midgut α-amylases were developmentally regulated, as one isoform was found in first instar compared to three isoforms in fifth instar nymphs. Starvation significantly affected carbohydrase activities in the midgut, and acarbose inhibited α-amylases from both the salivary glands and midgut in vitro and in vivo. The structural diversity and developmental regulation of carbohydrases in the digestive system of P. maculiventris demonstrate the importance of these enzymes in extra-oral and intra-tract digestion, and may explain the capability of the hemipteran to utilize diverse food sources.

precose cost 2017-05-26

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common disease Zoloft Increase Dosage that is associated with an increased risk of vascular complications. The incidence of T2DM is also increasing. It follows that T2DM prevention is important.

precose generic 2015-03-03

Intestinal pneumatosis is a rare entity of unclear etiopathogenesis characterized by the presence of gaseous cystic or linear collections within the intestinal wall. Intestinal pneumatosis may be primary and idiopathic in origin or, more frequently, it accompanies various clinical conditions. Rarely, the development of intestinal pneumatosis is attributed to the pharmacotherapy with different drugs. This is a case report of cystic pneumatosis limited to the large intestine with predominant clinical presentation of chronic watery diarrhea in a 64-year-old man suffering from diabetes mellitus treated with metformin and acarbose. The patient had been referred to the outpatient gastroenterology clinic for further investigation of numerous polyp-like lesions found on colonoscopy. There was no history of cigarette smoking, drug abuse or extraintestinal complaints. The patient was in a good general condition and his laboratory tests were normal. No relevant abnormalities were found on chest X-ray, esophagogastroduodenoscopy or abdominal ultrasound, but computed tomography showed intramural gas-filled bubbles in the cecum and splenic flexure without signs of perforation or any other significant pathology in the abdominal cavity. The final diagnosis of pneumatosis cystoides coli (PCC), possibly related to treatment with acarbose, was established. On a follow-up visit after discontinuation of acarbose the patient reported no complaints and remained asymptomatic for the next 12 months. To conclude, drug-related PCC should be considered in a differential diagnosis of Topamax Generic Topiramate gastrointestinal symptoms and/or polyp-like lesions disclosed on colonoscopy in diabetic patients treated with acarbose.

precose medicine 2017-08-27

Context 3β-Acetoxyurs-11-en-13β,28-olide (I), a triterpenoid, is found in most plant species. Pharmacologically triterpenes are very effective compounds with potent anticancer, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Objectives Microbial transformation of 3β-acetoxyurs-11-en-13β,28-olide (I) was performed in order to obtain derivatives with improved pharmacological potential. Materials and methods Compound (I, 100 mg) was incubated with Aspergillus niger culture for 12 d. The metabolite formed was purified through column chromatography. Structure elucidation was performed through extensive spectroscopy (IR, MS and NMR). In vitro α- and β-glucosidase inhibitory, and antiglycation potentials of both substrate and metabolite were evaluated. Results Structure of metabolite II was characterized as 3β-acetoxyurs-11,12-epoxy-13β,28-olide (II). Metabolite II Zoloft Drug Interactions was found to be an oxidized product of compound I. In vitro α- and β-glucosidases revealed that metabolite II was a potent and selective inhibitor of α-glucosidase (IC50 value = 3.56 ± 0.38 μM), showing that the inhibitory effect of metabolite II was far better than compound I (IC50 value = 14.7 ± 1.3 μM) as well as acarbose (IC50 value = 545 ± 7.9 μM). Antiglycation potential of compound II was also high with 82.51 ± 1.2% inhibition. Thus, through oxidation, the biological potential of the substrate molecule can be enhanced. Conclusion Biotransformation can be used as a potential tool for the production of biologically potent molecules.

precose drug 2017-03-05

This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was 36 weeks in duration. The trial consisted of a 6-week pretreatment period, a 24-week double-blind treatment period, and a 6-week post-treatment follow-up period. The primary efficacy variables were the mean change from baseline in HbA1c levels and the mean percentage change from baseline in total daily insulin dose. Deltasone Medicine

acarbose precose medication 2016-12-30

In this article we discuss the available data on the effects of combined therapy of ezetimibe with agents affecting lipid metabolism other than statins. We consider studies evaluating the effects of combined therapy of ezetimibe with bile acid sequestrants, fenofibrate, niacin, n-3 fatty acids, plant sterols, orlistat, metformin, acarbose and glitazones. Combination of ezetimibe with bile acid sequestrants (especially colesevelam) was shown to have additional effects on lipid parameters in patients with hyperlipidemia. Combination of ezetimibe with fenofibrate may be a good approach to improve the overall lipid profile of patients with mixed hyperlipidemia. The addition of ezetimibe to niacin-based therapy can be useful for high-risk patients with dyslipidemia who are not achieving their assigned treatment goals. For patients who cannot tolerate statins there are useful combinations of ezetimibe with other drugs affecting lipid metabolism. These combinations improve many metabolic parameters, but more trials should be carried out to reach more robust conclusions about their effects on cardiovascular disease prevention.

precose 100 mg 2016-07-13

The investigation done reveals that PLO has significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity.

precose acarbose tablets 2015-08-16

Two new bergamotane sesquiterpene lactones, named expansolides C and D (1 and 2), together with two known compounds expansolides A and B (3 and 4), were isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus Penicillium expansum ACCC37275. The structures of the new compounds were established by detailed analyses of the spectroscopic data, especially 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. In an in vitro bioassay, the epimeric mixture of expansolides C and D (1 and 2) (in a ratio of 2:1 at the temprature of the bioassay) exhibited more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 =0.50 ± 0.02 mm) as compared with the positive control acarbose (IC50 = 1.90 ± 0.05 mm). To the best of our knowledge, it was the first report on the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of bergamotane sesquiterpenes.

precose online 2015-11-03

Ficus racemosa bark (FRB) exhibited significantly higher (P < or = 0.01) glucose-binding capacity than wheat bran (WB) and acarbose (ACB) consequently showed significantly higher (P < or = 0.01) retardation of glucose diffusion compared to WB and ACB. In case of amylolysis kinetics the liberation of glucose was greatly inhibited by FRB, as reflected by a significantly lower (P < or = 0.01) glucose diffusion rate in the system containing FRB compared to the control and acarbose. Furthermore, FRB significantly increased (P < or = 0.01) the rate of glucose transport across the yeast cell membrane and also in isolated rat hemi-diaphragm.