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Retrovir (Zidovudine)
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Retrovir

Generic Retrovir is used for treating HIV infection when used along with other medicines. It is also used with other medicines to help prevent women from passing the HIV virus to the fetus during pregnancy.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Sustiva, Combivir, Epivir, Zerit

 

Also known as:  Zidovudine.

Description

Generic Retrovir is an antiviral. It works by blocking the reproduction of the HIV virus.

Generic name of Generic Retrovir is Zidovudine.

Retrovir is also known as Zidovudine, Azidothymidine, Zidovir, Retrovis.

Brand name of Generic Retrovir is Retrovir.

Dosage

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Retrovir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Retrovir are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Be careful with Generic Retrovir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Retrovir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you are allergic to Generic Retrovir components.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you have an enlarged liver, high lactic acid levels in the blood, or abnormal liver function tests.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you are taking doxorubicin, ribavirin, stavudine, or any medicine that contains zidovudine.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems, bone marrow problems, low white blood cell levels, kidney problems, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, or other liver problems.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you take zalcitabine because severe pancreas problems may occur, fluconazole, ganciclovir, interferon alfa, probenecid, valproic acid, or any medicine that contains zidovudine because they may increase the risk of Generic Retrovir 's side effects; doxorubicin, ribavirin, or stavudine because they may decrease Generic Retrovir 's effectiveness.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you are very overweight.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

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Abstracts of all trials identified were examined independently by two authors. We identified 15,922 references and examined 81 in detail. Data were abstracted independently using a standardized form.

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The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-newborn rhesus macaque model of AIDS can be used to study directly the virulence of viral mutants which are resistant to antiviral drugs. A viral mutant called SIVmac79A6.1, isolated from an SIV-infected macaque after prolonged zidovudine treatment, was found to have a double-base-pair change at codon 151 of reverse transcriptase, resulting in a glutamine to methionine substitution (Q151M). This mutation was associated with more than 100-fold increased resistance to zidovudine and low-level cross-resistance to other dideoxynucleoside analogs. To determine whether this Q151M mutation affects viral virulence, four newborn macaques were inoculated intravenously with a biological clone of this drug-resistant SIVmac79A6.1 mutant; two of these animals were also treated orally with zidovudine. All four animals showed persistent viremia, and two of the four animals developed fatal immunodeficiency at 3 and 8 months of age, respectively. The remaining two animals had CD4+ T-cell depletion and clinical symptoms of AIDS at 22 months. No phenotypic or genotypic reversion of virus to the wild type could be detected in any of the four animals. These results demonstrate that the Q151M mutation in SIV reverse transcriptase does not reduce viral virulence.

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The prognostic role of platelet (PLT) counts was evaluated in a cohort of 1,533 HIV-1-infected subjects followed for a median of 21 months. Thrombocytopenia (TCP), defined as a PLT count < or = 100 x 10(9)/L was present at enrollment in 11.2% of cases, with counts < or = 50 x 10(9)/L (severe TCP) in 5.3%. With the subjects with normal PLT counts (PLT >150 x 10(9)/L) as the reference group, the relative risk of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was 0.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5-1.3, p = 0.4] for subjects with severe TCP, 2.1 (95% CI 1.4-3.1, p = 0.002) for those with PLT counts ranging from 51 to 100 x 10(9)/L (moderate TCP), and 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.1, p = 0.0004) for those with borderline PLT values (PLT ranging from 101 to 150 x 10(9)/L). Most of the risk increase associated with moderate TCP and borderline PLT values was explained by a higher prevalence of subjects with an older age and lower CD4+ cell counts. However, at multivariable analysis considering age, sex, risk group, and zidovudine (ZDV) treatment, the risk for subjects with severe TCP remained significantly lower than that for subjects with moderate TCP and borderline values. These results suggest the existence of different types of HIV-1-associated TCP and also suggest that severe TCP (which often arises in the early phases of infection) is not related to disease progression.

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To assess the prevalence of abnormal testosterone and gonadotropin values in HIV-infected men before and after 2 years of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

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A sensitive LC/MS/MS assay for determining zidovudine (ZDV) and lamivudine (3TC) in human plasma was validated to support antiretroviral pharmacology research programs. After addition of stable labeled isotopic zidovudine (ZDV-IS) and lamivudine (3TC-IS) as internal standard, a solid-phase extraction was performed with an Oasis HLB 1 cm(3) cartridge, with recoveries of 92.3% for ZDV and 93.9% for 3TC. A Phenomonex Synergi Hydro-RP (2.0 ×150 mm) reversed-phase analytical column was utilized for chromatographic separation. The mobile phase consisted of an aqueous solution of 15% acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid. Detection was accomplished by ESI/MS/MS in the positive ion mode, monitoring 268/127, 271/130, 230/112 and 233/115 transitions, for ZDV, ZDV-IS, 3TC and 3TC-IS, respectively. The method was linear from 1 to 3000 ng/mL with a minimum quantifiable limit of 1 ng/mL when 100 μL of plasma was analyzed. Validation results demonstrated high accuracy (≤8.3% deviation) and high precision (≤10% CV) for the quality control samples. The method was also shown to be specific and reproducible. The value of the high sensitivity was demonstrated by quantitation of approximately 100 existing samples that had ZDV below the limit of quantitation using a previously validated, less sensitive HPLC-UV method utilized in the laboratory.

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The methods of synthesis of conjugates of anti-HIV nucleosides with various compounds, such as protease inhibitors, peptides, polysaccharides, and bicyclames, are considered; they are designated for the combined therapy of HIV.

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New York City women (321) enrolled during 1986-1993 in an observational cohort study were analyzed retrospectively to determine the effectiveness of antenatal zidovudine in reducing perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in women with various CD4+ lymphocyte counts (< 200, 200-499, > 499/microL). When CD4+ lymphocyte level was controlled for, women prescribed zidovudine during pregnancy were less likely to transmit HIV-1 to their infants (adjusted odds ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.92). There was no conclusive evidence that efficacy of zidovudine depended on CD4+ lymphocyte level, suggesting that women with severe CD4+ cell depression, who are at highest risk of transmitting HIV-1, may also benefit from zidovudine. Antenatal zidovudine treatment alone may substantially lower the risk of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. These data are consistent with the results of AIDS Clinical Trial Group protocol 076 and suggest that a substantial portion of zidovudine's protective effect may occur when used during the antenatal period.

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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates resistant to zidovudine (ZDV) have previously been demonstrated to exhibit in vitro cross-resistance to other similar dideoxynucleoside agents which contain a 3'-azido group. However, cross-resistance to didanosine (ddI) or dideoxycytidine (ddC) has been less well documented. ZDV, ddI, and ddC susceptibility data have been collected from clinical HIV-1 isolates obtained by five clinical centers and their respective retrovirology laboratories. All subjects were treated only with ZDV. Clinical HIV-1 isolates were isolated, amplified, and assayed for drug susceptibility in standardized cultures of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from healthy seronegative donors. All five cohorts showed a correlation between decreased in vitro susceptibility to ZDV and decreased susceptibility to ddI and ddC. For each 10-fold decrease in ZDV susceptibility, an average corresponding decrease of 2.2-fold in ddI susceptibility was observed (129 isolates studied; P < 0.001, Fisher's test of combined significance). Similarly, susceptibility to ddC decreased 2.0-fold for each 10-fold decrease in ZDV susceptibility (82 isolates studied; P < 0.001, Fisher's test of combined significance). These data indicate that a correlation exists between HIV-1 susceptibilities to ZDV and ddI or ddC for clinical HIV-1 isolates.

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Utilization rates for antenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal ZDV increased from 41% to 70% during the 4-year period. Use of combination antiretrovirals increased from fewer than 2% of women in 1994 to 1995 to 35% in 1997 to 1998. Antenatal and neonatal ZDV use increased each year, but intrapartum ZDV use reached a plateau after 1996. Mother-infant pairs with the following characteristics were less likely to have received a complete 3-part ZDV regimen: older maternal age, CD4 count >500 cells/microl, preterm birth, cocaine or heroin use during pregnancy, positive newborn drug screen test result, and smoking or alcohol use during pregnancy. By multivariate logistic regression adjusted for hospital and year of birth, cocaine or heroin use during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-3.3), maternal CD4 count (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8; comparing <200 with >500 cells/microl), and preterm birth (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5) remained independently associated with not receiving the complete ZDV regimen.

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There are limited numbers of drugs that are available in formulations that are appropriate for neonates and few studies assessing resistance among infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women.

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Amsterdam.

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We report here the results of studies examining the ability of zidovudine (AZT) to influence the establishment and maintenance of long-term marrow cultures (LTMC) using marrow from murine immunodeficient mice (MAIDS). Normal C57BL6 mice were infected with LP-BM5 (MuLV) immunodeficiency virus (10 micrograms total protein) intraperitoneally. Five weeks after viral infection, mice were sacrificed and marrow was harvested from normal non-virus-infected and virus-infected animals. LTMC were established in the presence or absence of dose escalation of AZT, that is, 10(-6), 5 x 10(-7), and 10(-7) M in vitro. Compared with controls prepared from normal bone marrow, LTMC using MAIDS-infected marrow failed to establish and subsequently release supernatant-derived mononuclear cells. The addition of AZT was ineffective in either establishing LTMC or consistently producing mononuclear cells. Measurements of erythroid (BFU-E), myeloid (CFU-GM), and megakaryocyte (CFU-Meg) precursors were all depressed and none were observed after 5 weeks of culture. Treatment with AZT failed to reverse this depression of stem cell progenitors. Microscopic examination of cultures at 10 weeks demonstrated a failure of MAIDS-LTMC to establish an adequate stromal layer compared to LTMC prepared form non-virus-infected controls. This data indicate that LP-BM5 MuLV infection alters the establishment of a normal functioning hematopoietic microenvironment or stroma. Acknowledging that important differences between MAIDS and human AIDS exist, the implications of these findings concerning the establishment of the immunodeficiency disease state in human immunodeficiency virus infection is discussed.

retrovir dosing

Membrane-interactive phospholipids (PLs), previously evaluated for activity against HIV-1 in vitro, are known to affect late steps in viral replication. Studies were done to determine the effects of PL analogs on post-translational processing of HIV-1 proteins, binding of viral surface gp160/gp120 to CD4 receptor, and HIV-1-induced cell fusion. Results of this investigation indicated that PL alone (1-octadecanamido-2-ethoxypropyl-rac-3-phosphocholine, CP-51) and PL-AZT conjugate (1-octadecanamido-2-ethoxypropyl-rac-3-phospho-3'- azido-3'-deoxythymidine, CP-92) have no effect on HIV-1-induced syntheses or processing of gp160/gp120, pr51, p24, or p17 (including myristoylation) in infected cells. Progeny HIV-1 particles made in CP-92-treated H9IIIB cells contained gp120, pr51, and p24; however, these virus particles had reduced capacity to bind to CD4+ cells. Both CP-51 and CP-92 inhibited syncytium (cell fusion) formation between treated HIV-1-infected cells and uninfected CD4+ cells, and, they reduced HIV-1 gp160/gp120 binding to CD4+ cells and monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that anti-HIV-1 activity of PL compounds involves alteration of cell surface membranes and viral envelopes. Phospholipid compounds are a novel class of membrane interactive compounds with potential use in blocking the spread of HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis in AIDS.

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Prolonged treatment of AIDS patients with azidothymidine results in the development of resistance to the drug which correlates with the appearance of point mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) coding region within the HIV-1 pol gene. Kinetic studies of interactions of wild type RT and its mutants harbouring the above mutations with substrates and azidothymidine 5'-triphosphate (AZTTP) have been carried out. The complete mutant containing all the above described mutations possess the highest resistance on all the templates tested. Significant increases in resistance for mutants 67,70,215 and 67,215 on all the templates have also been observed. Inhibition of mutant enzymes by AZTTP depends on the template used.

retrovir dosage

In the absence of randomized and prospective clinical studies to guide decision making, this analysis indicates that induction chemotherapy may be a reasonable option for selected HIV-infected patients with AML and adequate immune function.

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Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated adults participating in an international HIV trial with haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) measurements at entry were categorized by presence of anaemia (haemoglobin ≤14 g/dl in men and ≤12 g/dl in women) and, for those with anaemia, by type [microcytic (MCV < 80 fl), normocytic (80-100 fl), macrocytic (>100 fl)]. We analysed the association between inflammation (IL-6 and hsCRP) and coagulation (D-dimer) and haemoglobin, controlling for demographics (age, race and sex), BMI, HIV plasma RNA levels, CD4⁺ T-cell counts (nadir and baseline), Karnofsky score, previous AIDS diagnosis, hepatitis B/C coinfection and use of zidovudine.

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The overall prevalence of anemia was 23.1%. The prevalence of anemia in HAART naïve and HAART experienced persons was 29.9% and 16.2%, respectively (P = 0.014). Presence of opportunistic infections (P = 0.004, 95% CI = 1.69-15.46), CD4 count <200 cells/µl (P = 0.001, 95% CI = 2.57-36.89) and rural residence (P = 0.03, 95% CI = 1.12-10.39) were found to be predictors of anemia for HAART naïve participants. On the other hand, HAART regimen (ZDV/3TC/NVP) (P = 0.019, 95% CI = 0.01-1.24) and the duration of HAART (P = 0.007, 95% CI = 0.003-0.40.24) were found to be predictors of anemia for HAART experienced groups.

retrovir dose

Filoviruses, consisting of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most lethal infectious threats to mankind. Infections by these viruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans and nonhuman primates with high mortality rates. Since there is currently no vaccine or antiviral therapy approved for humans, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic options for use during filoviral outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. One of the ideal targets against filoviral infection and diseases is at the entry step, which is mediated by the filoviral glycoprotein (GP). In this report, we screened a chemical library of small molecules and identified numerous inhibitors, which are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs, including histamine receptors, 5-HT (serotonin) receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, and adrenergic receptor. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of both infectious EBOV and MARV, indicating a broad antiviral activity of the GPCR antagonists. The time-of-addition experiment and microscopic studies suggest that GPCR antagonists block filoviral entry at a step following the initial attachment but prior to viral/cell membrane fusion. These results strongly suggest that GPCRs play a critical role in filoviral entry and GPCR antagonists can be developed as an effective anti-EBOV/MARV therapy.

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Although the treatment of pregnant women and their infants with zidovudine (ZDV) has been remarkably effective in preventing the perinatal transmission of human HIV-1, many potentially preventable infections still occur. To examine whether the risk of perinatal infection is increased among women who carry ZDV-resistant HIV-1, the role of genotypic ZDV resistance in perinatal transmission was evaluated.

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Increasing geometric mean levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA were associated with increasing rates of transmission: the rate was 0 percent among women with less than 1000 copies per milliliter (0 of 57), 16.6 percent among women with 1000 to 10,000 copies per milliliter (32 of 193), 21.3 percent among women with 10,001 to 50,000 copies per milliliter (39 of 183), 30.9 percent among women with 50,001 to 100,000 copies per milliliter (17 of 55), and 40.6 percent among women with more than 100,000 copies per milliliter (26 of 64) (P<0.001). The treatment status of one woman was unknown. The highest rate of transmission was among women whose plasma HIV-1 RNA levels exceeded 100,000 copies per milliliter and who had not received zidovudine (19 of 30 women, 63.3 percent). Neither higher HIV-1 RNA levels early in pregnancy nor higher levels late in pregnancy were associated with the timing of infection in the infants.

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To determine the associations between HIV encephalitis and other central nervous system (CNS) pathology, viral burden, cognitive impairment, zidovudine therapy and risk group in AIDS patients.

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To assess the antiviral efficacy, safety, and adherence in subjects who switched to Trizivir following long-term HIV-1 RNA suppression.

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Randomised trials comparing any intervention aimed at decreasing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection compared with placebo or no treatment, or any two or more interventions aimed at decreasing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection.

retrovir pediatric dosing

Postexposure prophylaxis represents an advance in the management of percutaneous exposure to HIV in the workplace, but its efficacy in other settings needs further study. Three types of occupational exposure, percutaneous, mucous membrane, skin contact or loss of skin integrity, the postexposure prophylaxis to be used or offered, and the risk data and assessment for HIV acquisition are examined. Analysis of HIV transmission through percutaneous exposure reveals that occupational risk for health care workers is increased by deep injury to the exposed worker, visible blood on the injuring device, exposure of the device to source patients' vein or artery, and source patient's death from AIDS within 60 days of the accident. Prophylaxis for percutaneous exposure, if indicated, should be initiated within 1 to 2 hours to be effective. HIV antibody titers should be measured immediately and at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months after exposure. AZT prophylaxis following percutaneous occupational exposure has dramatically decreased transmission in this setting and multiple drug regimens have become the standard of care to further increase efficacy. Sexual contact is the most frequent means of transmitting HIV infection and reducing exposure is the mainstay of public health efforts. Prophylaxis after non-occupational exposures such as sexual intercourse or sharing needles could potentially decrease transmission, although efficacy has not yet been demonstrated. Routine prophylaxis after sexual exposure may be an ineffective strategy.

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The association between postnatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after infant extended antiretroviral prophylaxis was assessed.

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We randomly assigned 400 HIV-infected pregnant women who sought care at two public-sector primary health facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. One was excluded, 200 were assigned to receive a single oral dose of 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with 200 mg emtricitabine under direct observation, and 199 to receive no study drug. Short-course zidovudine and intrapartum nevirapine were offered to all HIV-infected women, according to the local standard of care. Women who met national criteria for antiretroviral therapy were referred for care and not enrolled. Our primary study outcome was resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors at 6 weeks after delivery. We used standard population sequencing to determine HIV genotypes. Analysis was per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00204308.

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retrovir dose 2017-02-19

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes a progressive disruption of immune function in cats. The neuroendocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally buy retrovir , mediated by cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF), several interleukins (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10), and through signals induced by the ratio of IL-10 to IL-12. FIV can affect both pituitary adrenal and thyroid axis function. Twenty FIV-infected cats in similar stages of the disease were evaluated for six months. A cross-sectional study in which the twenty cats were divided into two groups was performed. Ten were treated with Zidovudine (ZDV: 5mg/kg/d, PO, q12h, for six months) and 10 were untreated. Plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, T4, FT4, T3, IL-10, IL-12 and viral load (VL) were evaluated after six months. ACTH was found in significantly lower concentrations (p<0.0001) in the treated group whereas cortisol did not show significant differences between the two groups. Both T4 and FT4 had high values in untreated individuals (p<0.001) compared with Zidovudine treated cats. T3 did not show significant differences between the two groups. Both IL-10 and IL-12 were found in significantly higher concentrations in ZDV treated cats (p<0.001). By contrast, the IL10/IL-12 ratio values were significantly lower in untreated cats. Viral load was significantly lower in the treated cats after six months of therapy, compared with values detected pre-treatment (p<0.002). Untreated cats showed a significant increase of VL (p<0.04) compared with the values at the beginning of the study. In treated cats, VL showed lower numbers of viral copies than in untreated cats (p<0.01). In summary, Zidovudine treatment appeared to contribute to the normalization of both the adrenal and thyroid axes. This effect could be attributed to the decrease observed in VL, resulting in a change in cytokine patterns.

retrovir dosage 2015-03-03

The relationship between serum concentration of different components of the nerve growth factor/tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, including soluble APO-1/Fas (sAPO-1/Fas) and progression of HIV infection, was analyzed in a case-control study of individuals selected from a cohort of HIV-seropositive patients who were progressing or not progressing to AIDS while buy retrovir being treated with nucleoside analogs. HIV-seronegative healthy controls were also analyzed. The results showed that, despite close matching for immunologic (CD4 cell count, beta2-microglobulin concentration) and virologic (p24 antigen, detection of HIV syncytium-inducing phenotype, plasma HIV viremia) parameters, the baseline serum concentrations of TNF-beta and sAPO-1/Fas were statistically different between progressing and nonprogressing patients. In addition, serum concentrations of TNF-beta and sAPO-1/Fas showed the strongest independent predictive power for progression to AIDS in a multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Because TNF-beta and Fas were suggested to be mediators of antigen-induced cell death (AICD) in HIV infection and sAPO-1/Fas was hypothesized to protect lymphocyte against AICD, these data suggest an important pathogenetic role for AICD in the progression of HIV infection.

retrovir generic name 2017-01-19

No difference in response to a D4T-containing regimen between ZDV-experienced and naive patients was found over a 1-year period. In contrast to previous trials, most patients in this study buy retrovir also received a protease inhibitor. These findings may be more relevant in the current era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

buy retrovir 2016-10-30

: Nonblind, single buy retrovir -center, open-label pharmacokinetic (PK) study in 14 subjects receiving ZDV plus 3TC.

retrovir drug name 2016-03-05

Preclinical and clinical studies with an azidothymidine (AZT)/interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) combination resulted in a marked and synergistic antiretroviral activity. The administration of the two drugs in HIV-seropositive patients affected with Kaposi's sarcoma, however, induced neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and, in some cases, anemia. A possible means to improve the therapeutic index of AZT and/or IFN-alpha in AIDS patients could be the addition of hematopoietic growth factors. In vitro activity of cytokines on the hematotoxicity of the AZT-IFN-alpha association has not yet been studied. We have performed an in vitro study to evaluate the toxicity of AZT, IFN-alpha, or both on peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitors (CFU-GM and BFU-E) and to assess the activity of interleukin 1 (IL-1), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), or both in modifying AZT-IFN-alpha hematotoxicity. Results indicate that AZT, IFN-alpha, and combinations of the two have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the in vitro growth of peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitors. Combinations of AZT and IFN-alpha inhibited CFU-GM and BFU-E proliferation in an additive manner. Neither IL-1 nor GM-CSF alone was able to induce a significant reduction of AZT-induced damage. Only the addition to the cultures of buy retrovir both cytokines partially curbed the antiproliferative activity of AZT at low dosages.

retrovir pediatric dosing 2016-01-31

A number of AIDS clinical trials group studies are investigating the prevention of perinatal HIV transmission (PHT) using triple regimens. Each study generally requires that pregnant women begin prophylactic regimens during the latter part of their pregnancy. Dosing during delivery will involve intravenous infusions of AZT and continued oral doses of two other agents (except indinavir will be discontinued at the first sign of labor). Four studies (ACTG 353, 354, 357, 358) will combine a protease inhibitor, either nelfinavir, ritonavir, 1592U89, or indinavir, with AZT and 3TC. Other studies (ACTG 332, 316, 324, 076) will investigate simpler regimens in response to the problems associated with multiple drug antiretroviral regimens such as increased risk of buy retrovir side effects, high cost, and complicated dosing schedules.

retrovir tablets 2015-10-01

Intracellular d4T-TP was found in all ZDV-treated patients. d4T-TP concentrations ranged between 3 and 38.5 fmol/1 x 10 cells and represented between 0.03 and 0.37 of the corresponding ZDV-TP concentrations. These d4T-TP concentrations are in the lower range of those measured in d4T-treated patients. The intracellular transformation of ZDV into d4T-TP was also observed during experiments in cells cultured in the presence of ZDV buy retrovir . d4T-TP was never detected in PBMC from patients treated with neither ZDV nor d4T.

retrovir cost 2015-04-15

We report on a cross-sectional study of virological and immunological surrogate markers of HIV infection in 115 patients for whom a determination of the pol 215 and pol 41 zidovudine (ZDV) resistance mutations had been described between January 1995 and buy retrovir February 1996. The patients received ZDV alone or a combination of ZDV and zalcitabine or didanosine. A total of 55, 15 and 45 patients exhibited a wild (W), a mixed (MIX) or a mutant (M) genotype at codon pol 215, respectively; 85, 10 and 20 patients exhibited a W, a MIX or a M genotype at codon pol 41, respectively. Patients exhibiting the pol 215 M genotype had lower CD4 cells, higher plasma viral load and higher proviral burden than patients exhibiting the pol 215 W genotype. Patients who had variants exhibiting both pol 215 M and pol 41 M or MIX genotypes had significantly worsened surrogate marker values than patients having variants only carrying the pol 215 M genotype. These observations demonstrate that the two mutations additively associate with pejorative surrogate markers.

retrovir dosage forms 2017-08-14

Cases had a median CD4 cell count of 690 cells per microliter. Mean (±SD) age and 10-year Framingham coronary risk scores were similar for cases and controls (45.2 ± 9.7 years versus 46.9 ± 11.6 years and 3.97% ± 3.9% versus 3.72% ± 3.5%, respectively). W/OW was significantly increased in cases compared with controls (36.7% versus 32.5%, P < 0.0001); this was more marked in HIV-infected females. HIV status was significantly associated with increased W/OW after adjusting for age (P < 0.0001). No significant association between antiretroviral type and W/OW was buy retrovir found-W/OW lowered comparing abacavir to zidovudine (P = 0.038), but statistical model fits poorly.

retrovir medication 2015-08-12

The effects of 1 year of zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir treatment on immune reconstitution were evaluated in 34 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. After 48 weeks of therapy, 20 ( buy retrovir 59%) subjects had <100 copies HIV RNA/mL. CD4+ T cells increased from a median of 192/mm3 at baseline to 362/mm3 at week 48. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to Candida normalized within 12 weeks, but responses to HIV and tetanus remained depressed throughout therapy. Alloantigen responses increased within 12 weeks and then declined to baseline levels. Recovery of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses occurred after 12 weeks for Candida and after 48 weeks for mumps. The magnitude of virologic suppression was correlated with numeric increases in CD4+ T cells, but not with measures of functional immune reconstitution. Plasma virus suppression <100 copies/mL was not significantly correlated with increases in CD4+ T cells or functional immune reconstitution.

retrovir brand name 2015-09-07

Protocol 019 of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine; formerly AZT) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected asymptomatic individuals. The initial results in the stratum of subjects entering with CD4+ cell counts of buy retrovir 0.50 x 10(9)/L or less have been reported, but without a detailed analysis of toxic effects.

retrovir 250 mg 2017-12-04

Cohort study with a median 18-month follow-up. buy retrovir

retrovir syrup zidovudine 2015-12-06

25 HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive adults were included in a 24-week study to evaluate the efficacy and the tolerability of a zidovudine/didanosine combination therapy in which didanosine was administered once daily (200 mg if weight < 60 kg, 300 mg if weight > 60 kg) and zidovudine twice daily (500 mg/day if weight < 90 kg, 600 mg/day if weight > 90 kg). 5 patients discontinued their treatment early: 3 had poor compliance and 2 presented adverse events. Evaluation of treatment efficacy was based on CD4+ T cell enumeration and HIV RNA level quantitation in plasma (NASBA). Baseline values were 278 CD4+/mm3 and 5.42 log RNA copies/ml. Mean changes from baseline were +102 CD4+/mm3 and -2.14 log RNA copies/ml at week 8 and +156 CD4+/mm3 and -2.07 log RNA copies/ml at week 24. HIV RNA in plasma was lower than the detection limit (2.60 log RNA copies/ml) in 55% of patients at week 8 and in 30% at week 24. No major adverse events such as neuropathy or pancreatitis were observed. Once-daily administration of didanosine in combination with twice-daily administration of zidovudine is a well buy retrovir tolerated regimen that appears to be as effective ad the conventional zidovudine/didanosine combination regimen.

retrovir 200 mg 2015-05-13

A post hoc analysis of safety data from study protocol NZT40012 assessed the incidence of conditions defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 86 zidovudine-naïve, antiretroviral-experienced patients with HIV-1 infection who responded poorly (plasma HIV-1 RNA > 1000 copies/mL) despite at least 4 months' treatment with stavudine-containing regimens. Peripheral neuropathy occurred in 21%; other conditions were seen less frequently (candidiasis [13%], herpes zoster [12%], diarrhea lasting > 1 month [9%], Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia [9%], and wasting syndrome [8%]). The incidence of peripheral neuropathy rose buy retrovir significantly with the number of drugs comprising treatment regimens (> or = 4 vs 1-3; P = .013) and tended to be higher in patients with longer exposure to stavudine (29% with > or = 24 months' exposure vs 13% with < 24 months). Because peripheral neuropathy was observed with such high frequency, vigilance for signs and symptoms of this condition appears warranted if stavudine-containing regimens are to be continued.

retrovir tablets spc 2016-01-22

Activation of the anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compound 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) is dependent on its 5'-phosphorylation by cellular nucleoside and nucleotide kinases. Azidothymidine Amoxil Suspension Oral 5'-triphosphate (AZTTP) is considered to be the metabolite responsible for both the anti-HIV effect of AZT, via inhibition of reverse transcriptase, and cytoxicity by interference with cellular DNA polymerases. During the characterization of AZT metabolism in cultured human T-lymphoblastoid CEM cells, a spontaneously occurring variant cell line, CEM/Ag-1, was found that showed approximately 10-fold resistance to AZT growth inhibition as compared to wild type (wt) cells (EC50 = 2 mM as compared to 350 microM for wt cells). CEM/Ag-1 cells had a 3-fold reduced capacity to accumulate azidothymidine monophosphate (AZTMP) compared to wt cells whereas similar levels of AZTTP were found in both cell lines. The intracellular half-life of AZTMP was approximately 70 min in both wt and CEM/Ag-1 cells. A 3-fold lower specific activity of cytoplasmic thymidine kinase was observed in CEM/Ag-1 extracts as compared to wt. The reduced thymidine kinase activity was not correlated to a decreased level of thymidine kinase mRNA. Syncytium formation of CEM/Ag-1 cells infected with HIV-2 as well as HIV-1 antigen production was inhibited at the same concentrations of AZT (approx. 0.01 microM) as were HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected wt cells. Thus, minor decreases in cellular thymidine kinase levels may markedly affect the cytoxicity of AZT but have no major effect on the antiviral activity of AZT. Our results strongly suggest that AZTMP is responsible for a major part of the growth inhibitor effects, while AZTTP mainly mediates the antiviral activity of AZT.

retrovir drug 2015-03-07

Over the past few years, reports of emergence and transmission of drug-resistant strains of HIV have increased, especially in western countries. Noroxin Dose In the context of increased widespread use of zidovudine- and lamivudine-based combinations in India, coupled with the genetic diversity of HIV, it is essential to generate preliminary data on the frequency of zidovudine- and lamivudine-resistant variants of HIV-1 in North India.

retrovir capsules 2016-01-03

332 reports from 323 health care workers were received, giving an overall incidence of 6.1 per 100 full time equivalent (FTE) years. Nursing staff (9.4/100 FTE years) and medical staff (9.0/100 FTE years) reported exposure more frequently than housekeeping staff (2.5/100 FTE years) or paramedical staff (2.3/100 FTE years) (P < 0.001). The rate of exposure to HIV antibody positive patients was only 0.24/100 FTE years. Needlestick Glucotrol Generic or other blood contaminated sharps injuries accounted for 83.4% (277/332) of reports and failure to observe universal precautions for 34.0% of reports. Insertion and operation of parenteral lines (24%) and performing operations (15.4%) were the activities most often associated with occupational exposure. No occupationally acquired infections were observed. Despite the immediate availability of zidovudine, acceptance by health care workers with high risk occupational exposure was low (18.8%).

retrovir drug interactions 2016-03-04

Thymidine analogue-associated mutations at baseline did not influence the Geodon 80 Mg response to subsequent therapy involving d4T. Individuals who were sensitive or resistant to SQV by genotyping or virtual phenotyping responded to SQV-enhancing regimens, but the virological response was greater in those who were sensitive.

retrovir 300 mg 2015-08-25

3TC added significantly to the Benicar 20mg Medication virologic effects of d4T, but not ddl, in treatment-naive patients. 3TC plus d4T produced virologic changes comparable to those of 3TC plus ZDV. These results support the use of 3TC with either ZDV or d4 as a component of initial combination antiretroviral therapy.

retrovir drug class 2015-05-04

All clinical events and laboratory abnormalities in pregnant women on RTI with or without protease inhibitors and in their newborns were collected through an observational Crestor Prescription Cost study.