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Roxithromycin does not influence the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin in such a way that dosage adjustment of lovastatin seems to be necessary during co-administration.
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We examined the in-vitro activities of various antibiotics against 25 strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 clinical isolates and 3 standard strains). In the 22 clinical isolates, the 90% minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC 90) of SCH27899, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, and minocycline were 16, 2, 2, 4, 0.0039, 0.0039, 0.016, 2, and 4 microg/ml, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC 90) of SCH27899, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, and minocycline were 64, 4, 2, 8, 0.0625, 0.0625, 0.125, 8, and 64 microg/ml, respectively. The low sensitivity of M. pneumoniae to SCH27899 may be a result of the impermeability of the bacteria to this molecule. The results of this study suggest that SCH27899 would not be a suitable antimicrobial agent to use in the alternative chemotherapy of M. pneumoniae infection.
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Majority of patients were prescribed drugs irrationally with misleading indications without confirming the bacteriological culture and sensitivity.
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The comparative safety of azithromycin was assessed in adult patients (> or =12 years) with community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Of 3229 patients evaluated, 1616 received azithromycin 500 mg once daily for 3 days and 1613 received standard regimens of amoxycillin, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor, clarithromycin, or roxithromycin. A similar incidence of treatment-related adverse events occurred with azithromycin (10.3%) and comparators (11.5%). Significantly fewer patients were withdrawn from azithromycin than comparator treatment (0.4 versus 2.1%; P=0.0001). Most adverse events were mild/moderate in intensity and affected the gastrointestinal system. Azithromycin was as well tolerated as other antibiotics commonly used for bacterial infections in adults.
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Roxithromycin (RXM) is a semi-synthetic fourteen-membered macrolide antibiotic that shows anti-angiogenic activity in solid tumors. In the present study, we conducted biopanning of T7 phage-displayed peptides either on a 96-well formatted microplate, a flow injection-type quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor, or a cuvette-type QCM. RXM-selected peptides of different sequence, length and number were obtained from each mode of screening. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis of the RXM-selected peptides consistently gave positive scores for the extracellular domain (E458-T596) of angiomotin (Amot), indicating that this may comprise a binding region for RXM. Bead pull down assay and QCM analysis confirmed that RXM directly interacts with Amot via the screen-guided region, which also corresponds to the binding site for the endogenous anti-angiogenic inhibitor angiostatin (Anst). Thus, multimodal biopanning of T7PD revealed that RXM binds to the extracellular domain on Amot as a common binding site with Anst, leading to inhibition of angiogenesis-dependent tumor growth and metastasis. These data might explain the molecular basis underlying the mechanism of action for the anti-angiogenic activity of RXM.
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We report two cases of lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) in which oral tranilast was effective. In case 1, the patient was a 33-year-old woman who had developed pale red papules on her face, especially around her eyes and lower jaw, approximately 7 months previously. Examination of a skin biopsy specimen revealed epithelioid cell granulomas accompanied by caseous necrosis, and a diagnosis of LMDF was made. The patient was treated successively with azithromycin, roxithromycin and minocycline hydrochloride, but there was no improvement. When we tried oral tranilast therapy, flattening of the papules was observed 2 weeks after the start of treatment, and by 1 month the papules had almost disappeared. In case 2, the patient was a 39-year-old man who had broken out in erythematous papules on both upper and lower eyelids, with some accompanied by scaling, 2 years before the initial examination. Pathological specimen revealed epithelioid cell granulomas accompanied by caseous necrosis, and a diagnosis of LMDF was made. There was no improvement when treated orally with minocycline hydrochloride or doxycycline hydrochloride, and treatment was switched to oral tranilast therapy. After 1 month of treatment, the papules had almost disappeared. We concluded that oral tranilast therapy should be tried as a treatment for intractable LMDF.
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Preliminary studies showed that roxithromycin possessed significant in vitro activity against a variety of atypical mycobacteria such as the Mycobacterium avium complex, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. malmoense, M. xenopi, M. marinum, and M. kansasii and rare pathogens such as M. chelonae and M. fortuitum. In this investigation, radiometric MICs of roxithromycin, ethambutol, rifampin, amikacin, ofloxacin, and clofazimine for 10 clinical isolates of the M. avium complex (5 each from human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-positive and HIV-negative patients) were determined. Roxithromycin MICs against all the isolates were below the reported maximum concentration of drug in serum at the routine pH of 6.8, and the MICs were further lowered by 1 to 2 dilutions at a pH of 7.4. In vitro enhancement of roxithromycin activity against all strains was further investigated by the previously established Bactec 460-TB method by combining the drugs at sub-MIC levels. Antibacterial activity of roxithromycin was enhanced in all 10 strains by ethambutol, in 3 strains each by rifampin and clofazimine, in 2 strains by amikacin, and in 1 strain by ofloxacin. In vitro screening of three-drug combinations showed that combinations of roxithromycin, ethambutol, and a third potential anti-M. avium drug (rifampin, amikacin, ofloxacin, or clofazimine) resulted in further enhancement of activity in 13 out of 20 drug combinations screened.
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The effectiveness of newer macrolides in acute Q fever for 113 patients was recorded. The mean times to defervescence were 2.9 days for doxycycline and 3.3, 3.9, 3.9, and 6.4 days for clarithromycin, roxithromycin, erythromycin, and beta-lactams, respectively (P < 0.01 for macrolides versus beta-lactams). We conclude that macrolides may be an adequate empirical antibiotic therapy for acute Q fever.
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The effect of sub-MICs of azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin, as compared to erythromycin, on the production of coagulase, beta-hemolysin, lecithinase and deoxyribonuclease by Staphylococcus aureus was studied. All new macrolides completely inhibited coagulase and beta-hemolysin production and partially inhibited lecithinase and deoxyribonuclease. Such inhibition is not related either to growth inhibition or to inhibition of enzyme activity. Erythromycin, on the other hand, had no effect on coagulase or beta-hemolysin production but slightly suppressed the production of lecithinase and deoxyribonuclease. This inhibitory effect might have clinical significance if it was found to occur in vivo.
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The potential of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) for the oxidation of pharmaceuticals during water treatment was assessed by determining second-order rate constants for the reaction with selected environmentally relevant pharmaceuticals. Out of 9 pharmaceuticals only the 4 following compounds showed an appreciable reactivity with ClO2 (in brackets apparent second-order rate constants at pH 7 and T = 20 degrees C): the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (6.7 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin (2.2 x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1)), the estrogen 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (approximately 2 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), and the antiphlogistic diclofenac (1.05 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)). Experiments performed using natural water showed that ClO2 also reacted fast with other sulfonamides and macrolides, the natural hormones estrone and 17beta-estradiol as well as 3 pyrazolone derivatives (phenazone, propylphenazone, and dimethylaminophenazone). However, many compounds in the study were ClO2 refractive. Experiments with lake water and groundwater that were partly performed at microgram/L to nanogram/L levels proved that the rate constants determined in pure water could be applied to predict the oxidation of pharmaceuticals in natural waters. Compared to ozone, ClO2 reacted more slowly and with fewer compounds. However, it reacted faster with the investigated compounds than chlorine. Overall, the results indicate that ClO2 will only be effective to oxidize certain compound classes such as the investigated classes of sulfonamide and macrolide antibiotics, and estrogens.
Pentoxifylline modulates multiple activities of stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), including the respiratory burst response and membrane transport of certain substances (e.g., nucleosides). We found that several weakly basic antibiotics are highly concentrated by human PMNs and that these drugs also inhibit the respiratory burst response (by a mechanism different from that of pentoxifylline). Since both pentoxifylline and antibiotics will be administered to some patients with serious infections, we have evaluated several types of interactions between these drugs and human PMNs and have attempted to identify the mechanisms that produce alterations in cellular function. Roxithromycin, dirithromycin, and clindamycin were avidly concentrated by PMNs. Pentoxifylline and two derivatives (HWA-448 [torbafylline] and HWA-138 [albifylline]) increased the uptake of these antibiotics by PMNs, both in the resting state and during phagocytosis. Pentoxifylline, HWA-448, HWA-138, and the highly concentrated antibiotics each exerted an inhibitory effect on the stimulated respiratory burst response in PMNs. The combination of both pentoxifylline and a modulatory antibiotic (roxithromycin or clindamycin) inhibited superoxide production to a greater extent than either agent alone. This additive effect might be expected, since pentoxifylline and the modulatory antibiotics influence the respiratory burst activation pathway at different sites. The ability of pentoxifylline to augment the entry of antibiotics into neutrophils has important therapeutic implications. The consequences of this phenomenon might include improved intracellular bactericidal activity as well as efficient antibiotic delivery and release at sites of infection.
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A selective HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of roxithromycin (ROX) in human plasma was described. After solid-phase extraction (SPE), ROX and erythromycin (internal standard, I.S.) were derivatized by treatment with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl). Optimal resolution of fluorescence derivatives of ROX and I.S. was obtained during one analytical run using reversed phase, C(18) column. The mobile phase was composed of potassium dihydrogenphosphate solution, pH 7.5 and acetonitrile. Fluorescence of the compounds was measured at the maximum excitation, 255 nm and emission, 313 nm, of ROX derivatives. Validation parameters of the method were also established. After SPE, differences in recoveries of ROX and erythromycin from human plasma were observed. The linear range of the standard curve of ROX in plasma was 0.5-10.0 mg/l. The validated method was successfully applied for pharmacokinetic studies of ROX after administration of a single tablet of ROX.
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Although chloramphenicol and doxycycline have been used for the treatment of scrub typhus, a difficulty exists in determining which drug to use in treating children because of such potential complications as aplastic anemia or tooth discoloration. We evaluated the effect of roxithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, on scrub typhus in children.
Prophylactic ciprofloxacin plus roxithromycin during CDE chemotherapy reduced the incidence of FL, the number of infections, the use of therapeutic antibiotics and hospitalizations due to FL by approximately 50%, with reduced number of infectious deaths. For patients with similar risk for FL, the prophylactic use of antibiotics should be considered.
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In cycle 1, 20 patients (24%) in the antibiotics group developed FN compared with nine patients (10%) in the antibiotics plus G-CSF group (P = .01). In cycles 2 to 5, the incidences of FN were practically the same in both groups (17% v 11%). Only the treatment parameters (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.78) and age (1.067 per year; 95% CI, 1.013 to 1.0124) were related to the probability of FN in cycle 1.
Roxithromycin induced apoptosis of ASMCs derived from a rat model of asthma in a dose-dependent manner via a caspase-3- and caspase-9-dependent mitochondrial pathway, involving the up-regulation of P27.
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We report the case of a 58 year old patient who, after 2 days of treatment with roxithromycin and betamethasone, manifested acute pancreatitis. Other causes of the disease were ruled out. No re-occurrence of pancreatitis was observed in a 16 month follow-up.
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In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 56 patients with recent-onset ReA [enteroarthritis, n = 47 (84%); uroarthritis, n = 9 (16%)] were randomly assigned to receive 200 mg ofloxacin and 150 mg roxithromycin twice daily (Combi, n = 26) or placebo (n = 30) for 3 months. Patients were assessed at entry, at 2 weeks, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months. The primary outcome measure was recovery from arthritis at 6 months, and secondary outcome measures were swollen and tender joint counts, Ritchie index, serum CRP level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and joint pain on a visual analogue scale at 6 months. After 6 months, 20 patients [77% (95% CI 56-91)] in Combi and 20 patients [67% (95% CI 47-83)] in placebo group had recovered from arthritis (p = 0.55), and all clinical and laboratory variables showed improvement with no statistically significant difference between groups. Adverse events were reported by 62% of the patients in the Combi versus 40% in the placebo group. In conclusion, outcome of ReA was good in both treatment groups. Three-month treatment with the combination of ofloxacin and roxithromycin had no advantage over placebo in patients with recent-onset ReA.
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The antiproliferative effect of roxithromycin (RXM) was studied using human myeloid leukemia HL60 cells. RXM inhibited the growth of HL60 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and significantly inhibited growth at concentrations above 75 microM. This growth inhibition was not associated with specific cell cycle arrest and DNA synthesis was not impaired. In addition, the number of viable cells remained almost unchanged in the presence of 100 microM RXM. RXM induced growth inhibition at least partly by the formation of multinucleate cells. Both flowcytometric and morphological examination revealed that more than 40% of the RXM-treated cells were binucleate. These findings demonstrate that RXM is a potent new modulator of cell cycle progression in HL60 cells and suggest that the inhibition of cytokinesis by this drug may provide a new model for studying mitosis.
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The effects of roxithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, on neutrophil activities were investigated in six seriously handicapped patients with severe mental retardation. Neutrophil activities were evaluated by flow cytometry using a heparinized blood analysis method. All six patients showed decreased levels of neutrophil phagocytosis, intracellular killing, and CD11b expression. Treatment with roxithromycin in vitro selectively restored the decreased phagocytic and bactericidal activities of neutrophils in these patients. There was no significant restorative effect with cefaclor, ofloxacin, or aztreonam. These results suggest the need to consider therapeutic effects of antibiotics on neutrophil functions in patients at increased risk for bacterial infections due to decreased neutrophil activities.
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Seven trials involving 1558 participants were included in this review; 457 were involved in four trials of antibiotic medication, and 1101 were involved in three trials of beta-blocker medication. Five of the studies were rated at a high risk of bias.Individually, all of the included trials reported non-significant differences in AAA expansion rates between their intervention and control groups.The two major drug groups were then analysed separately. For AAA expansion it was only possible to combine two of the antibiotic trials in a meta-analysis. This demonstrated that roxithromycin had a small but significant protective effect (MD -0.86 mm; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.57 to -0.14). When referral to AAA surgery was compared (including all four antibiotic trials in the meta-analysis), non-significantly fewer patients were referred in the intervention groups (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.59 to 1.57) than the control groups. When only the trials reporting actual elective surgery were included in a subgroup analysis, the result remained statistically non-significant (OR 1.17; 95% CI 0.57 to 2.42).For the beta-blocker trials, when all were combined in a meta-analysis, there was a very small, non-significant protective effect for propranolol on AAA expansion (MD -0.08 mm; 95% CI -0.25 to 0.10), and non-significantly fewer patients were referred to AAA surgery in the propranolol group (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.52 to 1.05). Bronchospasm and shortness of breath were the main adverse effects from the beta-blockers. In one trial the adverse effects were reportedly so severe that the trial was stopped early after two years.
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To assess the impact of two interventions on computer-generated prescriptions for antibiotics--(i) an educational intervention to reduce automatic computerised ordering of repeat antibiotic prescriptions, and (ii) a legislative change prohibiting the "no brand substitution" box being checked as a default setting in prescribing software--and to compare these findings with those of a similar survey we conducted in 2000.
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Sixteen (1.5%) of the 1,043 clinical macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected and analyzed in the 1999-2000 PROTEKT (Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithromycin) study have resistance mechanisms other than rRNA methylation or efflux. We have determined the macrolide resistance mechanisms in all 16 isolates by sequencing the L4 and L22 riboprotein genes, plus relevant segments of the four genes for 23S rRNA, and the expression of mutant rRNAs was analyzed by primer extension. Isolates from Canada (n = 4), Japan (n = 3), and Australia (n = 1) were found to have an A2059G mutation in all four 23S rRNA alleles. The Japanese isolates additionally had a G95D mutation in riboprotein L22; all of these originated from the same collection center and were clonal. Three of the Canadian isolates were also clonal; the rest were not genetically related. Four German isolates had A2059G in one, two, and three 23S rRNA alleles and A2058G in two 23S rRNA alleles, respectively. An isolate from the United States had C2611G in three 23S rRNA alleles, one isolate from Poland had A2058G in three 23S rRNA alleles, one isolate from Turkey had A2058G in four 23S rRNA alleles, and one isolate from Canada had A2059G in two 23S rRNA alleles. Erythromycin and clindamycin resistance gradually increased with the number of A2059G alleles, whereas going from one to two mutant alleles caused sharp rises in the azithromycin, roxithromycin, and rokitamycin MICs. Comparisons of mutation dosage with rRNA expression indicates that not all alleles are equally expressed. Despite their high levels of macrolide resistance, all 16 isolates remained susceptible to the ketolide telithromycin (MICs, 0.015 to 0.25 microg/ml).
Until the recent experience with azithromycin and clarithromycin, macrolides were not considered to be important agents against mycobacteria. Clinical evidence is now growing that the newer 14 and 15 membered macrolide compounds have therapeutic activity against Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium leprae. Several years ago, when evaluating the activity of roxithromycin using one of the more virulent M. avium in our collection, the authors found that roxithromycin exerted a bacteriostatic effect in cultured human macrophages. However, in combination with tumour necrosis factor, which induces macrophage activation, roxithromycin caused enhanced intracellular killing. The significance of this finding is that tumour necrosis factor can be elaborated by activated macrophages during the course of infection. The roxithromycin doses that were chosen for these studies were less than achievable blood levels. More recently, the in vitro effect of roxithromycin against a panel of isolates from AIDS patients has been assessed and it was found that some (but not all) of the inhibitory concentrations, by the T-100 method of Inderlied, are within achievable serum levels. This, however, may not be the basis for anticipating in vivo activity since macrolide compounds are known to be concentrated within cells and particularly within phagolysosomes. Demonstration of effect in an in vitro test system is encouraging, but should be considered only as a preliminary step to careful assessments in experimental animals, such as the beige mouse, and studies in humans.
In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of erythromycin (EM), roxithromycin (RXM), and azithromycin (AZM) in rat plasma with amperometric detection under a standardized common condition using clarithromycin (CAM) as an internal standard. This method was also proved to be applicable for the determination of CAM by employing RXM as an internal standard. Each drug was extracted from 150 microl of plasma sample spiked with internal standard under an alkaline condition with tert.-butyl methyl ether. The detector cell potential for the oxidation of the drugs was set at +950 mV. The linearity of the calibration curves were preserved over the concentration ranges of 0.1-10 microg/ml for EM and RXM, and 0.03-3.0 microg/ml for CAM and AZM. Coefficients of variation and relative error were less than 9% and +/-7%, respectively. The analytical method presented here was proved to be useful for the investigation of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of EM, CAM, RXM, and AZM in rats.
Analytical methods were developed for atorvastatin, novobiocin and roxithromycin using microbore liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (microbore LC/ESI-MS/MS) in positive and negative voltage switching mode. Atorvastatin and roxithromycin require the positive-ion mode, whereas the negative-ion mode is required for the determination of novobiocin. Using the positive and negative voltage switching function, the three analytes were determined with one injection, and the time required was half that required using separately run positive- and negative-ion modes, without any reduction in sensitivity. A microbore LC column (100 x 1.0 mm i.d.) was chosen for chromatographic separation with mobile phase solvents acetonitrile and 10 mM aqueous ammonium acetate. The flow-rate was 0.1 ml min(-1) and the injection volume was 1 micro l. The analytes were quantified in the multiple reaction monitoring mode with external standards. By switching the positive and negative voltage, the three analytes were determined with a 4 min chromatographic run and with instrumental detection limits of 1-3 pg. This analytical method, using a microbore LC column combined with solid-phase extraction, was applied successfully to the determination of trace levels of the above pharmaceuticals in aqueous samples. Atorvastatin was detected in a sewage treatment plant final effluent.
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Entry of antibiotics into phagocytes is necessary for activity against intracellular organisms. Therefore, we examined the uptake of five of the newer antibiotics--roxithromycin (RU 965), imipenem, cefotaxime, trimethoprim, and metronidazole--by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Antibiotic uptake by PMN was determined by a velocity gradient centrifugation technique and expressed as the ratio of the cellular concentration of antibiotic to the extracellular concentration (C/E). Cefotaxime, like other beta-lactam antibiotics, was taken up poorly by phagocytes (C/E less than or equal to 0.3). The metronidazole concentration within PMN was similar to the extracellular level. Imipenem bound rapidly to phagocytes (C/E = 3), but cell-associated drug progressively declined during the incubation period. Trimethoprim was well concentrated by PMN (C/E = 9 to 13), and uptake was unexpectedly greater at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. The most striking finding was that roxithromycin was more avidly concentrated by PMN (C/E = 34) than any other antibiotic we studied. Entry of roxithromycin into phagocytes was an active process and displayed saturation kinetics characteristic of a carrier-mediated membrane transport system. Ingestion of microbial particles by PMN slightly decreased the ability of these cells to accumulate roxithromycin (C/E = 24 to 31). These studies identified two antibiotics, trimethoprim and especially roxithromycin, which are markedly concentrated within human PMN and may prove useful in treatment of infections caused by susceptible intracellular organisms.
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the activity of erythromycin, roxithromycin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim and rifampin against 32 strains of Legionella spp. under different testing conditions. METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the E-test (Ab Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) and agar dilution reference technique (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), 1990) on two different media, buffered charcoal yeast extract agar (BCYE-alpha) and buffered yeast extract agar (BYE-alpha), under 48- and 72-h incubation, without CO2. RESULTS: All the antimicrobial agents were inhibited by BCYE-alpha agar. The MIC90 values on BYE-alpha were lower than those on BCYE-alpha but the variation factor was not the same: ciprofloxacin and rifampin, followed by erythromycin, suffered the greatest inhibition by the charcoal in the culture medium. Except for ciprofloxacin and rifampin, the 72-h MIC90 readings were always higher than the 48-h results whenever the agar dilution method was used. The E-test results showed slight variations with some, but not all, antibiotics. The most active agents against the 32 Legionella strains tested were rifampin and ciprofloxacin. CONCLUSIONS: BCYE-alpha is not suitable for susceptibility testing of Legionella spp. The E-test method on BYE-alpha agar with 48-h incubation is recommended.
The presence of Campylobacter pyloridis in the gastric mucosa was recently linked to peptic ulcer disease. This study compared the inhibitory activity of three macrolide compounds (erythromycin, roxithromycin [RU 28965], and CP 62,993) and rifampin against 10 clinical isolates of C. pyloridis. The macrolides were equally effective against the test strains, with MICs ranging from 0.06 to 0.5 microgram/ml; rifampin was less active, with MICs ranging from 0.25 to greater than 1 microgram/ml. Erythromycin and the two new macrolide derivatives are potentially useful agents in the treatment of infections caused by C. pyloridis.
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To compare the efficacy of 2 weeks of dual therapy of Lansoprazole and Amoxycilline with triple therapy of Lansoprazole, Amoxycilline and Roxythromycin for H. pylori eradication.