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Rulide (Roxythromycin)
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Rulide

Generic Rulide is used to treat infections in different parts of the body caused by bacteria (acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin).

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Dificid, Zmax, Biaxin XL, Zithromax

 

Also known as:  Roxythromycin.

Description

Generic Rulide belongs to macrolides group of antibiotics which are prescribed for treating serious bacterial infections such as acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin). It acts on the bacteria which causes the above mention bacterial infections caused by the bacteria. It kills completely or slows the growth of these sensitive bacteria in our body.

Generic name of Generic Rulide is Roxithromycin.

Rulide is also known as Roxithromycin, Roximycin, Biaxsig, Roxar, Surlid.

Brand name of Generic Rulide is Rulide.

Dosage

Take Generic Rulide by mouth with food.

If you have trouble swallowing the tablet whole, it may be crushed or chewed with a little water.

Swallow Generic Rulide tablets whole with a glass of water.

Generic Rulide should be taken at least 15 minutes before food or on an empty stomach (i.e. more than 3 hours after a meal).

Generic Rulide works best if you take it on an empty stomach.

For treating bacterial infections, Generic Rulide is usually taken for 5 to 10 days.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Rulide suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Rulide and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep in a tight, light-resistant container. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Rulide if you are allergic to Generic Rulide components.

Try to be careful with Generic Rulide if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Rulide taking suddenly.

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Roxithromycin does not influence the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin in such a way that dosage adjustment of lovastatin seems to be necessary during co-administration.

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We examined the in-vitro activities of various antibiotics against 25 strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 clinical isolates and 3 standard strains). In the 22 clinical isolates, the 90% minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC 90) of SCH27899, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, and minocycline were 16, 2, 2, 4, 0.0039, 0.0039, 0.016, 2, and 4 microg/ml, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC 90) of SCH27899, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, and minocycline were 64, 4, 2, 8, 0.0625, 0.0625, 0.125, 8, and 64 microg/ml, respectively. The low sensitivity of M. pneumoniae to SCH27899 may be a result of the impermeability of the bacteria to this molecule. The results of this study suggest that SCH27899 would not be a suitable antimicrobial agent to use in the alternative chemotherapy of M. pneumoniae infection.

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Majority of patients were prescribed drugs irrationally with misleading indications without confirming the bacteriological culture and sensitivity.

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The comparative safety of azithromycin was assessed in adult patients (> or =12 years) with community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Of 3229 patients evaluated, 1616 received azithromycin 500 mg once daily for 3 days and 1613 received standard regimens of amoxycillin, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor, clarithromycin, or roxithromycin. A similar incidence of treatment-related adverse events occurred with azithromycin (10.3%) and comparators (11.5%). Significantly fewer patients were withdrawn from azithromycin than comparator treatment (0.4 versus 2.1%; P=0.0001). Most adverse events were mild/moderate in intensity and affected the gastrointestinal system. Azithromycin was as well tolerated as other antibiotics commonly used for bacterial infections in adults.

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Roxithromycin (RXM) is a semi-synthetic fourteen-membered macrolide antibiotic that shows anti-angiogenic activity in solid tumors. In the present study, we conducted biopanning of T7 phage-displayed peptides either on a 96-well formatted microplate, a flow injection-type quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor, or a cuvette-type QCM. RXM-selected peptides of different sequence, length and number were obtained from each mode of screening. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis of the RXM-selected peptides consistently gave positive scores for the extracellular domain (E458-T596) of angiomotin (Amot), indicating that this may comprise a binding region for RXM. Bead pull down assay and QCM analysis confirmed that RXM directly interacts with Amot via the screen-guided region, which also corresponds to the binding site for the endogenous anti-angiogenic inhibitor angiostatin (Anst). Thus, multimodal biopanning of T7PD revealed that RXM binds to the extracellular domain on Amot as a common binding site with Anst, leading to inhibition of angiogenesis-dependent tumor growth and metastasis. These data might explain the molecular basis underlying the mechanism of action for the anti-angiogenic activity of RXM.

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We report two cases of lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) in which oral tranilast was effective. In case 1, the patient was a 33-year-old woman who had developed pale red papules on her face, especially around her eyes and lower jaw, approximately 7 months previously. Examination of a skin biopsy specimen revealed epithelioid cell granulomas accompanied by caseous necrosis, and a diagnosis of LMDF was made. The patient was treated successively with azithromycin, roxithromycin and minocycline hydrochloride, but there was no improvement. When we tried oral tranilast therapy, flattening of the papules was observed 2 weeks after the start of treatment, and by 1 month the papules had almost disappeared. In case 2, the patient was a 39-year-old man who had broken out in erythematous papules on both upper and lower eyelids, with some accompanied by scaling, 2 years before the initial examination. Pathological specimen revealed epithelioid cell granulomas accompanied by caseous necrosis, and a diagnosis of LMDF was made. There was no improvement when treated orally with minocycline hydrochloride or doxycycline hydrochloride, and treatment was switched to oral tranilast therapy. After 1 month of treatment, the papules had almost disappeared. We concluded that oral tranilast therapy should be tried as a treatment for intractable LMDF.

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Preliminary studies showed that roxithromycin possessed significant in vitro activity against a variety of atypical mycobacteria such as the Mycobacterium avium complex, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. malmoense, M. xenopi, M. marinum, and M. kansasii and rare pathogens such as M. chelonae and M. fortuitum. In this investigation, radiometric MICs of roxithromycin, ethambutol, rifampin, amikacin, ofloxacin, and clofazimine for 10 clinical isolates of the M. avium complex (5 each from human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-positive and HIV-negative patients) were determined. Roxithromycin MICs against all the isolates were below the reported maximum concentration of drug in serum at the routine pH of 6.8, and the MICs were further lowered by 1 to 2 dilutions at a pH of 7.4. In vitro enhancement of roxithromycin activity against all strains was further investigated by the previously established Bactec 460-TB method by combining the drugs at sub-MIC levels. Antibacterial activity of roxithromycin was enhanced in all 10 strains by ethambutol, in 3 strains each by rifampin and clofazimine, in 2 strains by amikacin, and in 1 strain by ofloxacin. In vitro screening of three-drug combinations showed that combinations of roxithromycin, ethambutol, and a third potential anti-M. avium drug (rifampin, amikacin, ofloxacin, or clofazimine) resulted in further enhancement of activity in 13 out of 20 drug combinations screened.

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The effectiveness of newer macrolides in acute Q fever for 113 patients was recorded. The mean times to defervescence were 2.9 days for doxycycline and 3.3, 3.9, 3.9, and 6.4 days for clarithromycin, roxithromycin, erythromycin, and beta-lactams, respectively (P < 0.01 for macrolides versus beta-lactams). We conclude that macrolides may be an adequate empirical antibiotic therapy for acute Q fever.

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The effect of sub-MICs of azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin, as compared to erythromycin, on the production of coagulase, beta-hemolysin, lecithinase and deoxyribonuclease by Staphylococcus aureus was studied. All new macrolides completely inhibited coagulase and beta-hemolysin production and partially inhibited lecithinase and deoxyribonuclease. Such inhibition is not related either to growth inhibition or to inhibition of enzyme activity. Erythromycin, on the other hand, had no effect on coagulase or beta-hemolysin production but slightly suppressed the production of lecithinase and deoxyribonuclease. This inhibitory effect might have clinical significance if it was found to occur in vivo.

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The potential of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) for the oxidation of pharmaceuticals during water treatment was assessed by determining second-order rate constants for the reaction with selected environmentally relevant pharmaceuticals. Out of 9 pharmaceuticals only the 4 following compounds showed an appreciable reactivity with ClO2 (in brackets apparent second-order rate constants at pH 7 and T = 20 degrees C): the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (6.7 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin (2.2 x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1)), the estrogen 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (approximately 2 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), and the antiphlogistic diclofenac (1.05 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)). Experiments performed using natural water showed that ClO2 also reacted fast with other sulfonamides and macrolides, the natural hormones estrone and 17beta-estradiol as well as 3 pyrazolone derivatives (phenazone, propylphenazone, and dimethylaminophenazone). However, many compounds in the study were ClO2 refractive. Experiments with lake water and groundwater that were partly performed at microgram/L to nanogram/L levels proved that the rate constants determined in pure water could be applied to predict the oxidation of pharmaceuticals in natural waters. Compared to ozone, ClO2 reacted more slowly and with fewer compounds. However, it reacted faster with the investigated compounds than chlorine. Overall, the results indicate that ClO2 will only be effective to oxidize certain compound classes such as the investigated classes of sulfonamide and macrolide antibiotics, and estrogens.

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Pentoxifylline modulates multiple activities of stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), including the respiratory burst response and membrane transport of certain substances (e.g., nucleosides). We found that several weakly basic antibiotics are highly concentrated by human PMNs and that these drugs also inhibit the respiratory burst response (by a mechanism different from that of pentoxifylline). Since both pentoxifylline and antibiotics will be administered to some patients with serious infections, we have evaluated several types of interactions between these drugs and human PMNs and have attempted to identify the mechanisms that produce alterations in cellular function. Roxithromycin, dirithromycin, and clindamycin were avidly concentrated by PMNs. Pentoxifylline and two derivatives (HWA-448 [torbafylline] and HWA-138 [albifylline]) increased the uptake of these antibiotics by PMNs, both in the resting state and during phagocytosis. Pentoxifylline, HWA-448, HWA-138, and the highly concentrated antibiotics each exerted an inhibitory effect on the stimulated respiratory burst response in PMNs. The combination of both pentoxifylline and a modulatory antibiotic (roxithromycin or clindamycin) inhibited superoxide production to a greater extent than either agent alone. This additive effect might be expected, since pentoxifylline and the modulatory antibiotics influence the respiratory burst activation pathway at different sites. The ability of pentoxifylline to augment the entry of antibiotics into neutrophils has important therapeutic implications. The consequences of this phenomenon might include improved intracellular bactericidal activity as well as efficient antibiotic delivery and release at sites of infection.

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A selective HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of roxithromycin (ROX) in human plasma was described. After solid-phase extraction (SPE), ROX and erythromycin (internal standard, I.S.) were derivatized by treatment with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl). Optimal resolution of fluorescence derivatives of ROX and I.S. was obtained during one analytical run using reversed phase, C(18) column. The mobile phase was composed of potassium dihydrogenphosphate solution, pH 7.5 and acetonitrile. Fluorescence of the compounds was measured at the maximum excitation, 255 nm and emission, 313 nm, of ROX derivatives. Validation parameters of the method were also established. After SPE, differences in recoveries of ROX and erythromycin from human plasma were observed. The linear range of the standard curve of ROX in plasma was 0.5-10.0 mg/l. The validated method was successfully applied for pharmacokinetic studies of ROX after administration of a single tablet of ROX.

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Although chloramphenicol and doxycycline have been used for the treatment of scrub typhus, a difficulty exists in determining which drug to use in treating children because of such potential complications as aplastic anemia or tooth discoloration. We evaluated the effect of roxithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, on scrub typhus in children.

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Prophylactic ciprofloxacin plus roxithromycin during CDE chemotherapy reduced the incidence of FL, the number of infections, the use of therapeutic antibiotics and hospitalizations due to FL by approximately 50%, with reduced number of infectious deaths. For patients with similar risk for FL, the prophylactic use of antibiotics should be considered.

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In cycle 1, 20 patients (24%) in the antibiotics group developed FN compared with nine patients (10%) in the antibiotics plus G-CSF group (P = .01). In cycles 2 to 5, the incidences of FN were practically the same in both groups (17% v 11%). Only the treatment parameters (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.78) and age (1.067 per year; 95% CI, 1.013 to 1.0124) were related to the probability of FN in cycle 1.

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Roxithromycin induced apoptosis of ASMCs derived from a rat model of asthma in a dose-dependent manner via a caspase-3- and caspase-9-dependent mitochondrial pathway, involving the up-regulation of P27.

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We report the case of a 58 year old patient who, after 2 days of treatment with roxithromycin and betamethasone, manifested acute pancreatitis. Other causes of the disease were ruled out. No re-occurrence of pancreatitis was observed in a 16 month follow-up.

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In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 56 patients with recent-onset ReA [enteroarthritis, n = 47 (84%); uroarthritis, n = 9 (16%)] were randomly assigned to receive 200 mg ofloxacin and 150 mg roxithromycin twice daily (Combi, n = 26) or placebo (n = 30) for 3 months. Patients were assessed at entry, at 2 weeks, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months. The primary outcome measure was recovery from arthritis at 6 months, and secondary outcome measures were swollen and tender joint counts, Ritchie index, serum CRP level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and joint pain on a visual analogue scale at 6 months. After 6 months, 20 patients [77% (95% CI 56-91)] in Combi and 20 patients [67% (95% CI 47-83)] in placebo group had recovered from arthritis (p = 0.55), and all clinical and laboratory variables showed improvement with no statistically significant difference between groups. Adverse events were reported by 62% of the patients in the Combi versus 40% in the placebo group. In conclusion, outcome of ReA was good in both treatment groups. Three-month treatment with the combination of ofloxacin and roxithromycin had no advantage over placebo in patients with recent-onset ReA.

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The antiproliferative effect of roxithromycin (RXM) was studied using human myeloid leukemia HL60 cells. RXM inhibited the growth of HL60 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and significantly inhibited growth at concentrations above 75 microM. This growth inhibition was not associated with specific cell cycle arrest and DNA synthesis was not impaired. In addition, the number of viable cells remained almost unchanged in the presence of 100 microM RXM. RXM induced growth inhibition at least partly by the formation of multinucleate cells. Both flowcytometric and morphological examination revealed that more than 40% of the RXM-treated cells were binucleate. These findings demonstrate that RXM is a potent new modulator of cell cycle progression in HL60 cells and suggest that the inhibition of cytokinesis by this drug may provide a new model for studying mitosis.

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The effects of roxithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, on neutrophil activities were investigated in six seriously handicapped patients with severe mental retardation. Neutrophil activities were evaluated by flow cytometry using a heparinized blood analysis method. All six patients showed decreased levels of neutrophil phagocytosis, intracellular killing, and CD11b expression. Treatment with roxithromycin in vitro selectively restored the decreased phagocytic and bactericidal activities of neutrophils in these patients. There was no significant restorative effect with cefaclor, ofloxacin, or aztreonam. These results suggest the need to consider therapeutic effects of antibiotics on neutrophil functions in patients at increased risk for bacterial infections due to decreased neutrophil activities.

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Seven trials involving 1558 participants were included in this review; 457 were involved in four trials of antibiotic medication, and 1101 were involved in three trials of beta-blocker medication. Five of the studies were rated at a high risk of bias.Individually, all of the included trials reported non-significant differences in AAA expansion rates between their intervention and control groups.The two major drug groups were then analysed separately. For AAA expansion it was only possible to combine two of the antibiotic trials in a meta-analysis. This demonstrated that roxithromycin had a small but significant protective effect (MD -0.86 mm; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.57 to -0.14). When referral to AAA surgery was compared (including all four antibiotic trials in the meta-analysis), non-significantly fewer patients were referred in the intervention groups (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.59 to 1.57) than the control groups. When only the trials reporting actual elective surgery were included in a subgroup analysis, the result remained statistically non-significant (OR 1.17; 95% CI 0.57 to 2.42).For the beta-blocker trials, when all were combined in a meta-analysis, there was a very small, non-significant protective effect for propranolol on AAA expansion (MD -0.08 mm; 95% CI -0.25 to 0.10), and non-significantly fewer patients were referred to AAA surgery in the propranolol group (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.52 to 1.05). Bronchospasm and shortness of breath were the main adverse effects from the beta-blockers. In one trial the adverse effects were reportedly so severe that the trial was stopped early after two years.

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To assess the impact of two interventions on computer-generated prescriptions for antibiotics--(i) an educational intervention to reduce automatic computerised ordering of repeat antibiotic prescriptions, and (ii) a legislative change prohibiting the "no brand substitution" box being checked as a default setting in prescribing software--and to compare these findings with those of a similar survey we conducted in 2000.

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Sixteen (1.5%) of the 1,043 clinical macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected and analyzed in the 1999-2000 PROTEKT (Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithromycin) study have resistance mechanisms other than rRNA methylation or efflux. We have determined the macrolide resistance mechanisms in all 16 isolates by sequencing the L4 and L22 riboprotein genes, plus relevant segments of the four genes for 23S rRNA, and the expression of mutant rRNAs was analyzed by primer extension. Isolates from Canada (n = 4), Japan (n = 3), and Australia (n = 1) were found to have an A2059G mutation in all four 23S rRNA alleles. The Japanese isolates additionally had a G95D mutation in riboprotein L22; all of these originated from the same collection center and were clonal. Three of the Canadian isolates were also clonal; the rest were not genetically related. Four German isolates had A2059G in one, two, and three 23S rRNA alleles and A2058G in two 23S rRNA alleles, respectively. An isolate from the United States had C2611G in three 23S rRNA alleles, one isolate from Poland had A2058G in three 23S rRNA alleles, one isolate from Turkey had A2058G in four 23S rRNA alleles, and one isolate from Canada had A2059G in two 23S rRNA alleles. Erythromycin and clindamycin resistance gradually increased with the number of A2059G alleles, whereas going from one to two mutant alleles caused sharp rises in the azithromycin, roxithromycin, and rokitamycin MICs. Comparisons of mutation dosage with rRNA expression indicates that not all alleles are equally expressed. Despite their high levels of macrolide resistance, all 16 isolates remained susceptible to the ketolide telithromycin (MICs, 0.015 to 0.25 microg/ml).

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Until the recent experience with azithromycin and clarithromycin, macrolides were not considered to be important agents against mycobacteria. Clinical evidence is now growing that the newer 14 and 15 membered macrolide compounds have therapeutic activity against Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium leprae. Several years ago, when evaluating the activity of roxithromycin using one of the more virulent M. avium in our collection, the authors found that roxithromycin exerted a bacteriostatic effect in cultured human macrophages. However, in combination with tumour necrosis factor, which induces macrophage activation, roxithromycin caused enhanced intracellular killing. The significance of this finding is that tumour necrosis factor can be elaborated by activated macrophages during the course of infection. The roxithromycin doses that were chosen for these studies were less than achievable blood levels. More recently, the in vitro effect of roxithromycin against a panel of isolates from AIDS patients has been assessed and it was found that some (but not all) of the inhibitory concentrations, by the T-100 method of Inderlied, are within achievable serum levels. This, however, may not be the basis for anticipating in vivo activity since macrolide compounds are known to be concentrated within cells and particularly within phagolysosomes. Demonstration of effect in an in vitro test system is encouraging, but should be considered only as a preliminary step to careful assessments in experimental animals, such as the beige mouse, and studies in humans.

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In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of erythromycin (EM), roxithromycin (RXM), and azithromycin (AZM) in rat plasma with amperometric detection under a standardized common condition using clarithromycin (CAM) as an internal standard. This method was also proved to be applicable for the determination of CAM by employing RXM as an internal standard. Each drug was extracted from 150 microl of plasma sample spiked with internal standard under an alkaline condition with tert.-butyl methyl ether. The detector cell potential for the oxidation of the drugs was set at +950 mV. The linearity of the calibration curves were preserved over the concentration ranges of 0.1-10 microg/ml for EM and RXM, and 0.03-3.0 microg/ml for CAM and AZM. Coefficients of variation and relative error were less than 9% and +/-7%, respectively. The analytical method presented here was proved to be useful for the investigation of the pharmacokinetic characteristics of EM, CAM, RXM, and AZM in rats.

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Analytical methods were developed for atorvastatin, novobiocin and roxithromycin using microbore liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (microbore LC/ESI-MS/MS) in positive and negative voltage switching mode. Atorvastatin and roxithromycin require the positive-ion mode, whereas the negative-ion mode is required for the determination of novobiocin. Using the positive and negative voltage switching function, the three analytes were determined with one injection, and the time required was half that required using separately run positive- and negative-ion modes, without any reduction in sensitivity. A microbore LC column (100 x 1.0 mm i.d.) was chosen for chromatographic separation with mobile phase solvents acetonitrile and 10 mM aqueous ammonium acetate. The flow-rate was 0.1 ml min(-1) and the injection volume was 1 micro l. The analytes were quantified in the multiple reaction monitoring mode with external standards. By switching the positive and negative voltage, the three analytes were determined with a 4 min chromatographic run and with instrumental detection limits of 1-3 pg. This analytical method, using a microbore LC column combined with solid-phase extraction, was applied successfully to the determination of trace levels of the above pharmaceuticals in aqueous samples. Atorvastatin was detected in a sewage treatment plant final effluent.

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Entry of antibiotics into phagocytes is necessary for activity against intracellular organisms. Therefore, we examined the uptake of five of the newer antibiotics--roxithromycin (RU 965), imipenem, cefotaxime, trimethoprim, and metronidazole--by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Antibiotic uptake by PMN was determined by a velocity gradient centrifugation technique and expressed as the ratio of the cellular concentration of antibiotic to the extracellular concentration (C/E). Cefotaxime, like other beta-lactam antibiotics, was taken up poorly by phagocytes (C/E less than or equal to 0.3). The metronidazole concentration within PMN was similar to the extracellular level. Imipenem bound rapidly to phagocytes (C/E = 3), but cell-associated drug progressively declined during the incubation period. Trimethoprim was well concentrated by PMN (C/E = 9 to 13), and uptake was unexpectedly greater at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. The most striking finding was that roxithromycin was more avidly concentrated by PMN (C/E = 34) than any other antibiotic we studied. Entry of roxithromycin into phagocytes was an active process and displayed saturation kinetics characteristic of a carrier-mediated membrane transport system. Ingestion of microbial particles by PMN slightly decreased the ability of these cells to accumulate roxithromycin (C/E = 24 to 31). These studies identified two antibiotics, trimethoprim and especially roxithromycin, which are markedly concentrated within human PMN and may prove useful in treatment of infections caused by susceptible intracellular organisms.

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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the activity of erythromycin, roxithromycin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim and rifampin against 32 strains of Legionella spp. under different testing conditions. METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the E-test (Ab Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) and agar dilution reference technique (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), 1990) on two different media, buffered charcoal yeast extract agar (BCYE-alpha) and buffered yeast extract agar (BYE-alpha), under 48- and 72-h incubation, without CO2. RESULTS: All the antimicrobial agents were inhibited by BCYE-alpha agar. The MIC90 values on BYE-alpha were lower than those on BCYE-alpha but the variation factor was not the same: ciprofloxacin and rifampin, followed by erythromycin, suffered the greatest inhibition by the charcoal in the culture medium. Except for ciprofloxacin and rifampin, the 72-h MIC90 readings were always higher than the 48-h results whenever the agar dilution method was used. The E-test results showed slight variations with some, but not all, antibiotics. The most active agents against the 32 Legionella strains tested were rifampin and ciprofloxacin. CONCLUSIONS: BCYE-alpha is not suitable for susceptibility testing of Legionella spp. The E-test method on BYE-alpha agar with 48-h incubation is recommended.

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The presence of Campylobacter pyloridis in the gastric mucosa was recently linked to peptic ulcer disease. This study compared the inhibitory activity of three macrolide compounds (erythromycin, roxithromycin [RU 28965], and CP 62,993) and rifampin against 10 clinical isolates of C. pyloridis. The macrolides were equally effective against the test strains, with MICs ranging from 0.06 to 0.5 microgram/ml; rifampin was less active, with MICs ranging from 0.25 to greater than 1 microgram/ml. Erythromycin and the two new macrolide derivatives are potentially useful agents in the treatment of infections caused by C. pyloridis.

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To compare the efficacy of 2 weeks of dual therapy of Lansoprazole and Amoxycilline with triple therapy of Lansoprazole, Amoxycilline and Roxythromycin for H. pylori eradication.

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rulide 300mg tablets 2017-08-22

Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) infection has been associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. There are controversial results regarding the beneficial effects of antibiotic therapy on future cardiovascular end buy rulide points.

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Mucus hypersecretion in rat airways was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS. Rats treated with or without LPS were administered roxithromycin (1-10 mg/kg), josamycin (10 mg/kg) or amoxicillin (40 mg/kg), orally for 4 days. Expression buy rulide of Muc5ac, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases p38 and ERK1/2 in bronchial epithelium were detected by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry or western blotting. Mucins, IL-1beta, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in BAL fluid were assayed by enzyme-linked lectin assay and ELISA.

rulide with alcohol 2015-01-07

The in vitro susceptibilities of 33 isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci to a new quinolone drug, garenoxacin (BMS-284756), in comparison with levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin and roxithromycin, were determined. Garenoxacin was the most buy rulide active of the quinolone drugs tested, with identical MIC and MBC, which ranged from 0.007 to 0.03 mg/L. The MIC and MBC of the other two quinolones tested, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, were also identical, ranging from 0.25 to 2 mg/L. The MICs and MBCs of doxycycline, erythromycin and roxithromycin were also determined.

rulide tablets 2017-03-15

The morphologic changes from bacillary to coccoid forms of Helicobacter pylori were studied. These form changes were analyzed by bacterial growth in Brucella broth plus buy rulide 2% fetal calf serum. The coccoid forms were observed at five days of incubation and a rapid decrease of CFU/ml was recorded. At two weeks of microaerophilic incubation, all coccoid forms observed were not culturable in vitro. The coccoid morphology was observed earlier when the culture of H. pylori was incubated in aerobic conditions and with subinhibitory concentrations of omeprazole and roxithromycin. To evaluate the possibility of resistance of coccal forms, before plating, the cultures were heated to 80 C for 10 min and sonicated. In the absence of these treatments the cultures did not show growth in vitro. The proteic patterns of the same strains of two different morphologies were studied revealing significant differences.

dose of rulide 2015-12-22

Two hundred and forty-six cervical secretion samples (125 female outpatients as the patient group, 121 healthy female subjects as the control group) were first collected and analyzed for U. urealyticum using the Mycoplasma Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; then polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to identify the biovars and serovars of U buy rulide . urealyticum-positive samples.

rulide paediatric dose 2015-09-05

Acute renal failure (ARF) following Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia is rarely reported in adults. We present an observation in a 10-year-old child, who had C. pneumoniae pneumonia treated with roxithromycin for a period of 10 days, without any other nephrotoxic drug, in particular nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. At the end of antibiotic treatment, he presented with asthenia, polyuria, polydipsia, buy rulide increased plasma creatinine, metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and markers of tubular damage. The etiological investigations showed positive C. pneumoniae antibodies, increased serum concentrations of C3 and C4 complement, IgA, and IgG. No uveitis was noted. The diagnosis was tubulointerstitial nephropathy after C. pneumoniae pneumonia. C. pneumoniae pneumonia should be considered a differential diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, especially in cases of poor response to conventional antibiotic therapy. It may be associated with tubulointerstitial nephropathy and/or rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis whose severity varies in children as in adults. Early and effective treatment of C. pneumoniae infection with macrolide antibiotics usually provides favorable progression of renal function.

rulide review 2015-01-19

One hundred isolates of Haemophilus influenzae including 50 beta-lactamase producing, five ampicillin-resistant non-beta-lactamase producing and five beta-lactam tolerant strains were tested for susceptibility (MICs and MBCs) to ampicillin, aztreonam, carumonam, cefixime, cefaclor, cefamandole, cefotaxime, imipenem, enoxacin, ciprofloxacin, roxithromycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole, by a microdilution broth method. Cefotaxime, enoxacin and buy rulide ciprofloxacin with MIC90 and MBC90 of less than 0.03 mg/l) were the most active antimicrobial agents tested. Cefixime, carumonam, aztreonam, and co-trimoxazole (MIC90 and MBC90 less than 0.25 mg/l) showed good activity against most strains. Roxithromycin and erythromycin had limited antibacterial activity (MIC90, 8 and 4 mg/l respectively). There were no chloramphenicol-resistant strains. Five beta-lactamase-negative strains were resistant to ampicillin, cefaclor and cefamandole but susceptible to other beta-lactams tested. Different patterns of tolerance were observed: four of five tolerant strains were tolerant to ampicillin and cefamandole, three to cefixime, cefaclor and cefotaxime, one to aztreonam. One tolerant strain was a beta-lactamase producer. Two other strains were tolerant only to co-trimoxazole.

rulide contraceptive pill 2016-12-10

Results of the buy rulide study confirm the suitability of the rapid broth micro dilution (MIC) method as a simple yet reliable method to assay for the drug susceptibility of nontuberculosis mycobacterium.

rulide medication ingredients 2015-11-04

Susceptibility pattern and resistance phenotype were determined by disk diffusion method and double disk test. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were obtained by the agar dilution method and evaluated according to the recommendations of the 'Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie' (CA-SFM). The major determinants of erythromycin resistance in S. pyogenes (ermB, ermTR and mefA genes) were investigated by buy rulide specific amplification protocols.

rulide drug class 2017-11-07

The purpose of our investigation was to monitor current trends in the susceptibility buy rulide patterns of clinical bacterial isolates to roxithromycin (RXM). We measured the MICs of macrolide antibiotics, such as RXM, erythromycin (EM), clarithromycin (CAM), rokitamycin (RKM) and midecamycin (MDM), and other classes of antibacterial compounds against various clinical isolates at seven institutions between October and December in 1994 and 1995. RXM had excellent antibacterial activities for S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, M. (B.) catarrhalis and methicillin sensitive S. aureus. Against methicillin sensitive S. epidermidis, RXM activity was fairly good but about 20% of the strains had MIC > or = 128 micrograms/ml. The activity against S. pneumoniae was not so potent and similar to activities of EM, CAM, MDM, and clindamycin. The vast majority of methicillin resistant S. aureus and S. epidermidis were also resistant to macrolide antibiotics and other classes of compounds tested. In conclusion, RXM is an unique macrolide antibiotic by retaining potent activity against S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. aureus except MRSA, M. (B.) catarrhalis and M. pneumoniae.

rulide alcohol 2017-07-28

The group that had used the antibiotics schema by inhalatory way after oral scheme failure had a significant longer period without buy rulide bronchopulmonary infection but with superior collateral effects without clinicals repercussions.

rulide tablets 150mg 2015-05-22

We evaluated the effect of roxithromycin therapy (150 mg twice daily for 30 days) on the progression of the intima-to-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery using duplex ultrasonography in a prospective and randomized trial with a follow-up of 2 years in 272 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke aged over 55 years in whom the first IMT measurement and Cp testing (IgG and IgA) were performed at least 3 years before the roxithromycin treatment. Cp IgG antibodies (> or =1:64) were initially found in 123 (45%) patients and IgA antibodies (> or =1:16) in 112 (41%) patients. During the 3 years before antibiotic therapy, Cp-positive patients showed an enhanced IMT progression, even after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors (0.12 [95% CI, 0.11 to 0.14] versus 0.07 [0.05 to 0.09] mm/year; P<0.005). The 62 Cp-positive patients given roxithromycin showed a significantly decreased IMT progression after 2 years compared with the Cp-positive patients without therapy (0.07 [0.045 to 0.095] versus 0.11 [0.088 to 0.132] mm/year; P<0.01). No significant difference in the occurrence of future cardiovascular events was found between both groups during follow-up. No change of IMT was observed in Cp-negative patients given roxithromycin (n=74) compared with those without therapy (0.06 [0.03 to 0.09] versus buy rulide 0.07 [0.05 to 0.09] mm/year).

rulide antibiotic dosage 2015-04-22

The effects of five macrolide antibiotics: erythromycin, josamycin, miokamycin, roxithromycin and rokitamycin, on human polymorphonuclear buy rulide leukocyte (PMN) chemotaxis was studied in vitro and ex vivo. At therapeutic concentrations none of the antibiotics tested affected in vitro PMN chemotaxis. In vitro, erythromycin, josamycin, miokamycin, roxithromycin and rokitamycin decreased PMN chemotaxis significantly only at the concentration of 10 mg/l, which is not usually reached in vivo. Ex vivo studies after the ingestion of therapeutic doses of erythromycin, josamycin, miokamycin and roxithromycin by five volunteers showed a significant effect on PMN chemotaxis. However, further studies are needed to confirm and better evaluate the clinical significance of recent and novel macrolides on PMN chemotaxis.

rulide 500 mg 2017-01-27

In this work, the combined use of desorption by a continuous wave near-infrared diode laser and ionization by a dielectric barrier discharge-based probe (laser desorption dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass buy rulide spectrometry (LD-DBDI-MS)) is presented as an ambient ionization method for the mass spectrometric detection of nonvolatile chemicals on surfaces. A separation of desorption and ionization processes could be verified. The use of the diode laser is motivated by its low cost, ease of use, and small size. To achieve an efficient desorption, the glass substrates are coated at the back side with a black point (target point, where the sample is deposited) in order to absorb the energy offered by the diode laser radiation. Subsequent ionization is accomplished by a helium plasmajet generated in the dielectric barrier discharge source. Examples on the application of this approach are shown in both positive and negative ionization modes. A wide variety of multiclass species with low vapor pressure were tested including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and explosives (reserpine, roxithromycin, propazine, prochloraz, spinosad, ampicillin, dicloxacillin, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, spinosad, cyclo-1,3,5,7-tetramethylene tetranitrate (HMX), and cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene trinitramine (RDX)). A comparative evaluation revealed that the use of the laser is advantageous, compared to just heating the substrate surface.

rulide tablets 300mg 2016-01-23

The effects of a new macrolide antibiotic (Roxithromycin) and one of its major metabolite (RU 39001) on rat hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes were compared to those of erythromycin, erythralosamine and troleandomycin (TAO) both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to erythromycin, erythralosamine and TAO, roxithromycin and its metabolite RU 39001 exhibit: (i) a very poor affinity for rat liver cytochrome P-450, (ii) an unability to be metabolized into a stable inhibitory metabolite-cytochrome P-450 complex and (iii) a decreased ability to induce Cymbalta Capsule Image liver cytochrome P-450 PCNE, an isozyme implicated in drug associations involving some macrolide antibiotics.

rulide tab 2016-04-29

The aim of this work was to develop and optimize a robust HPLC method for the separation and quantitation of ambroxol hydrochloride and roxithromycin utilizing Design of Experiment (DoE) approach. The Plackett-Burman design was used to assess the impact of independent variables (concentration of organic phase, mobile phase pH, flow rate and column temperature) on peak resolution, USP tailing and number of plates. A central composite design was utilized to evaluate the main, interaction, and quadratic effects of independent variables on the selected dependent variables. The optimized HPLC method was validated based on ICH Q2R1 guideline and was used to separate and quantify ambroxol hydrochloride and roxithromycin in tablet formulations. The findings showed that DoE approach could be effectively applied to optimize a robust HPLC method for quantification of ambroxol hydrochloride Astelin Dosage and roxithromycin in tablet formulations. Statistical comparison between results of proposed and reported HPLC method revealed no significant difference; indicating the ability of proposed HPLC method for analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride and roxithromycin in pharmaceutical formulations.

rulide y alcohol 2015-07-28

This is a study of assessing the comparative bioavailability of roxithromycin produced by two companies in 36 healthy volunteers. On the basis of informed consent, 36 healthy male volunteers received each medicine at the roxithromycin dose of 150mg in a cross-over study. There was a 1-week washout period among the doses. Plasma concentrations of roxithromycin were monitored by an LC-MS/MS for over a period of 72 hours after administration. In this study, roxithromycin was generally well tolerated. After an oral administration of roxithromycin capsule, the pharmacokinetic parameters of roxithromycin, such as AUC(0-72 h) (66 076 microg x L x h(-1) and 70 334 microg x L x h(-1) for test and reference capsule, respectively) and AUC(0-infinity) (68 153 microg x L x h(-1) and 72 362 microg x L x h(-1)) were significantly Imdur 50 Mg similar. For test and reference capsule, the values of C(max) were 6 631.5 microg x L(-1) and 7 033.9 microg x L(-1) respectively, of T1/2 were 15.39 +/- 4.61 h and 16.06 +/- 5.56 h, and of T(max) were 1.3 +/- 0.9 h and 1.4 +/- 0.7 h respectively. The relative bioavailability F was 94.9% +/- 22.4% of tested formulation. The values of 90% confidence interval around the ratios (test/reference) (obtained by analysis of variance, ANOVA) were 88.3%-101.2% for C(max), 86.2%-98.9% for AUC(0-72) h, being within the predefined acceptable range for the conclusion of bioequivalence. The results of statistical analysis suggest that the two formulations be bioequivalent.

rulide dosage 2016-06-08

Roxithromycin, a new introduction into the macrolide class of antibiotics possesses favourable pharmacokinetic properties enabling a once daily dosing. This study evaluates its efficacy, safety and tolerability, previously demonstrated in Europe and North America, in Nigeria patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infections. 32 patients, aged 18-65 years with acute bronchitis/acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and pneumonia were administered roxithromycin 300 mg once daily. 25 patients (12 males, 13 females: aged 39.2 +/- 2.7 years) were evaluable for clinical efficacy at the end of the study. The mean duration of treatment was 6.9 +/- 0.5 days. 22 Luvox Reviews patients (88.0%) responded to therapy. Sputum culture was positive in 5 patients (20.0%): Streptococcus pneumonia and resistant Klebsiella pneumonia. Therapy was discontinued in 3 patients due to non-response. The two patients in whom Klebsiella were isolated did not show any significant clinical improvement. The third non responding patient developed empyema. Gram negative bacilli were identified in the pleural aspirate but no patients with resistant Streptococcus pneumonia improved clinically. Adverse effects were mild, transient and included nausea (4) and diarrhoea (1). The study suggests that roxithromycin is an effective and well tolerated antibacterial in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infection.

cost of rulide 2017-05-21

Mycoplasma was a high rate of drug-resistance, and the drug sensitivity evolves with the time. Treatment for mycoplasma should be based on the results of drug sensitivity tests. Josamycin can be used Cozaar Generic Name as the first choice.

rulide renal dose 2016-04-15

A significantly greater percentage of patients treated with roxithromycin 300 mg met the ACR 20% improvement criteria (ie, achieved an ACR20 response) at 6 months compared with patients who received placebo (60% vs 34%; P = 0.009). Greater percentages of patients treated with roxithromycin 300 mg also achieved ACR50 responses (38% vs 12%; P = 0.003) and ACR70 responses (18% vs 2%; P = 0.008) compared with patients who received placebo. Roxithromycin was well tolerated, with an overall safety profile similar to that of Lexapro Reviews 2015 placebo.