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Starlix (Nateglinide)

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Starlix is used for lowering blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may also be used for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

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Actulin, Glucophage, Gluconorm, Hipover, NovoNorm, Regan, Repaglinide, Rapilin, Prandin, Sestrine, Actos, Avandia, Amaryl, Glycomet, Micronase


Also known as:  Nateglinide.


Starlix is used for lowering blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may also be used for other conditions.

Starlix is an antidiabetic agent. It works by lowering blood glucose levels, causing insulin to be released from beta cells of the pancreas.

Starlix is also known as Nateglinide, Fastic, Glinate, Glunat, Starsis, Trazec.


Take Starlix by mouth 1 to 30 minutes before meals. If you skip a meal, you must also skip your scheduled dose to avoid the risk of low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia).

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Starlix suddenly.


If you overdose Starlix and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Starlix are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Starlix if you are allergic to its components.

Be careful with Starlix if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Starlix if you have type 1 diabetes.

Do not take Starlix if you have diabetic ketoacidosis.

Be careful with Starlix if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Starlix if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be careful with Starlix if you have adrenocortical, pituitary, liver, or kidney problems

Be careful with Starlix if you have a high fever or are malnourished.

Be careful with Starlix if you are taking beta-adrenergic blockers (eg, metoprolol), gemfibrozil, imidazoles (eg, ketoconazole), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (eg, phenelzine), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, ibuprofen), or salicylates (eg, aspirin) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), rifampin, sympathomimetics (eg, pseudoephedrine), thiazides (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), or thyroid hormones (eg, levothyroxine) because they may decrease Starlix 's effectiveness

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Starlix suddenly.

starlix medication

Nateglinide is more rapidly absorbed than glibenclamide. Therefore, the different absorption kinetics of both drugs were eliminated by intraportal administration in conscious fasted dogs. The plasma insulin profiles were compared under similar kinetic changes in plasma drug concentrations. After a priming dose of nateglinide (1 mg/kg. 5 min) or glibenclamide (40 microg/kg. 5 min), plasma drug concentrations reached a peak at 4 minutes (nateglinide, 80 +/- 5 micromol/L, n = 6 and glibenclamide, 263 +/- 60 nmol/L, n = 6) followed by a sustained level at approximately 30% of the peak concentration at 30 minutes. Nateglinide led to a rapid and constant reduction in arterial glucose of approximately 30% basal, while glibenclamide promoted a gradual decrease to approximately 50% basal at 120 minutes. An increase in plasma insulin level by nateglinide of 4 times basal (218 +/- 58 pmol/L v 47 +/- 3 pmol/L, P <.05, n = 6) occurred at 6 to 10 minutes followed by sustained release of 1.4 times basal (67 +/- 15 pmol/L, n = 6). The insulin surge was more than doubled (484 +/- 209 pmol/L, n = 6) under a euglycemic clamp. Insulin release by glibenclamide increased gradually reaching 10-fold basal (449 +/- 166 pmol/L, n = 6) at 60 minutes. This was not enhanced during a euglycemic clamp. Lowering the primed doses of nateglinide resulted in a diminished peak plasma insulin concentration. In contrast, glibenclamide caused only a slower increase, but eventually reaching a similar peak. By increasing the continuous infusion of nateglinide, the sustained insulin release was not altered. Glibenclamide, but not nateglinide, evoked prompt and sustained insulin release in the continuing presence of the other. These results are consistent with the concept that nateglinide produces a quick, but very short-lived, interaction with sulfonylurea (SU)-receptors on plasma membrane by free access of the drug from the cell exterior. In contrast, glibenclamide promotes a slow and longer interaction with the receptor by distribution of the drug into the cell inferior. We conclude, therefore, that not only the different kinetics of gastrointestinal (GI) absorption, but also the inherent difference in the interaction with beta cells is attributed to the different insulin release characteristics between nateglinide and glibenclamide in vivo.

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Patients were randomized to nateglinide (n = 122) or glyburide (n = 110). The treatment groups were similar in terms of age, gender, BMI, fasting plasma glucose, 2-h postprandial glucose and HbA(1c). At endpoint, nateglinide recipients had significantly greater reductions than those receiving glyburide in both the 2-h (-2.4 vs. -1.6 mmol/l; P = 0.02) and 1-h (-1.7 vs. -0.9 mmol/l; P = 0.016) postprandial glucose excursions. Adverse events, most commonly symptomatic hypoglycaemia, were reported in 26% of recipients of glyburide and 22% of recipients of nateglinide. Episodes of suspected mild hypoglycaemia were reported in 24% of recipients of glyburide and 10% of recipients of nateglinide.

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Nateglinide and mitiglinide (glinides) are characterized as rapid-onset and short-acting insulinotropic agents. Although both compounds do not have a sulfonylurea structure, it has been postulated that insulin secretion is preceded by their binding to Kir6.2/SUR1 complex, and a mechanism of insulin secretion of glinides has been accounted for by this pathway. However, we hypothesized the involvement of additional mechanisms of insulin secretion enhanced by glinides, and we analyzed the pattern of time course of insulin secretion from MIN6 cells with the existence of agents that have specific pharmacologic actions. Dose-dependent effects of tolbutamide, glibenclamide, nateglinide, and mitiglinide were observed. Insulin secretion induced by 3 microM tolbutamide and 1 nM glibenclamide was completely inhibited by 10 microM diazoxide and 3 microM verapamil, although the latter half-component of insulin secretion profile induced by 3 microM nateglinide or 30 nM mitiglinide remained with the existence of those agents. Glinides enhanced insulin secretion even in Ca2+-depleted medium, and its pattern of secretion was same as the pattern with existence of verapamil. The latter half was suppressed by 1 microM dantrolene, and concomitant addition of verapamil and dantrolene completely suppressed the entire pattern of insulin secretion enhanced by nateglinide. Thus, we conclude that glinide action is demonstrated through two pathways, dependently and independently, from the pathway through K(ATP) channels. We also demonstrated that the latter pathway involves the intracellular calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum via ryanodine receptor activation.

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Islet dysfunction, characterized by the loss of an acute insulin secretory response (AIR) to glucose is a well-established pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using oral insulin secreting agents with very different pharmacodynamic profiles, the present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that, within the setting of an underlying insulin resistance, changes in the insulin response profile can differentially affect glycaemic control.

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The change in area under the curve (AUC) of glucose from 0 to 180 min (AUC0-180 min) during the meal test by nateglinide was similar to that by sitagliptin. As expected, the change in active glucagon like peptide-1 was significantly higher after a single-dose of sitagliptin than nateglinide. Then, insulin secretion relative to glucose elevation (ISG) (ΔISG0-180 min: ΔAUC0-180 min insulin/AUC0-180 min glucose) was significantly enhanced by nateglinide compared with sitagliptin. Conversely, glucagon level (ΔAUC0-180 min glucagon) was increased by administration of nateglinide, whereas the glucagon level was reduced by administration of sitagliptin.

starlix drug classification

Ten patients participated in this single-center, double-blind, crossover study. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured over 24 h following five 7-day treatment periods with nateglinide (30, 60, or 120 mg) or placebo given three times daily before breakfast, lunch, and dinner. A fifth treatment consisted of 120 mg nateglinide four times daily, with the fourth dose given before an evening snack.

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Seventeen healthy volunteers with different SLCO1B1 genotypes (11 with 521TT, four with 521TC and two with 521CC) were enrolled in this study. Each was given a single oral dose of 90 mg nateglinide. Plasma concentrations of nateglinide were measured up to 8 h by HPLC.

starlix diabetes medication

The aim of this study was to quantify the incidence of hypoglycaemic events and to describe the pattern of these incident events during the first 9 months of treatment with four oral antidiabetic drugs, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, nateglinide and repaglinide, prescribed in general practice in England.

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Antidiabetic agents that augment insulin secretion can cause hypoglycemia. With the current trend toward early and aggressive treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes, the hypoglycemic potential of insulinotropic agents is of concern. This study aimed to compare the propensity of the "glinide," nateglinide, and the sulfonylurea (SU), glyburide, to elicit hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients with moderately elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Hyperglycemic clamps (target plasma glucose = 11.1 mmol/L) were initiated, and 30 minutes later patients received a single oral dose of nateglinide (120 mg, n = 15) or glyburide (10 mg, n = 12) in a double-blind fashion. At the end of the 2-hour clamp when the glucose infusion was terminated, plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured for 4 additional hours. The minimum plasma glucose level achieved after terminating the glucose infusion (glucose nadir) was used as an index of hypoglycemic potential. The mean (+/-SEM) glucose nadir was significantly lower in patients given glyburide (3.3 +/- 0.2 mmol/L) versus nateglinide (4.4 +/- 0.3 mmol/L, P = .025). Confirmed hypoglycemia (plasma glucose < or = 2.8 mmol/L) occurred in 2 of 12 patients given glyburide and in none of those given nateglinide. Plasma insulin levels were significantly higher from 100 to 240 minutes after clamp termination in patients given glyburide versus nateglinide. Nateglinide has less hypoglycemic potential than glyburide, suggesting that nateglinide may be a more appropriate insulinotropic agent for patients with moderate fasting hyperglycemia, such as elderly patients and those with comorbid cardiac ischemia.

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common disease whose complications have great costs, both in quality of life and expense of treatment. Improving glycemic control, as measured by monitoring glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, can reduce the rate of such complications.

starlix dosing

Observational analysis of data from the Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) study, a double-blinded randomised clinical trial of nateglinide and valsartan, respectively.

starlix dosage

Sulfinpyrazone increased the mean exposure of nateglinide by 28% when both drugs were administered in combination. Nateglinide, given as a single dose or co-administered with multiple doses of sulfinpyrazone, was safe and well tolerated in healthy subjects.

starlix tabs

With repaglinide/metformin, improved glycaemic control led to projected decreases in complication rates, improvement of LE and QALE by 0.15 and 0.14 years respectively, and total cost savings of 3,662 dollars/person over the 30-year period. Repaglinide/metformin had a 96% probability that the incremental costs per quality-adjusted life year gained would be 20,000 dollars or less, and a 66% probability that repaglinide/metformin would be cost-saving compared to nateglinide/metformin. Sensitivity analyses supported the validity and reliability of the results.

starlix drug

Treatment with nateglinide was followed by a significant decrease in mean two-h plasma glucose from 10.5 mmol/L (3.1) to 7.6 mmol/L (2.1; p < 0.001) and a decline in total postprandial area under the curve (AUC) of glucose concentration (p < 0.001). Both estimated EIR and the late insulin response increased significantly (p = 0.008 and p = 0.003, respectively). No serious adverse event was observed during the study period.

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We designed a single unit type tablet formulation containing nateglinide to decrease both postprandial blood glucose level (PBG) and fasting blood glucose level (FBG) in normal beagle dogs. The tablet was a dry coated tablet comprising both a core tablet (an erosion matrix tablet: a controlled release portion(nateglinide: 90 mg)) and an outer shell (an immediate release portion (nateglinide: 60 mg)). The weight, the diameter and the hardness of the obtained tablet were 416.1 mg, 10 mmpsi, about 60 N, respectively. The dissolution study of the obtained tablet in pH 1.2 or 6.8 showed that the nateglinide in the immediate release portion dissolved in almost 30 min., and that 30 min after the dissolution test started, the nateglinide in the controlled release portion had dissolved slowly. An in vivo single oral administration study using normal beagle dogs showed the bioavailability value of the obtained nateglinide dry coated tablets against nateglinide immediate release tablets was 73.6%, although the value of nateglinide controlled release tablets containing enteric coated granules was 57.2-60.8%. An in vivo multiple oral administration study (b.i.d. (interval: 12 h), 8 d) using normal beagle dogs showed the reproducibility of nateglinide absorption. In addition, decreases in both PBG and FBG were observed. The ability to decrease the blood glucose level did not weaken during a multiple administration. On the basis of the above results, a controlled release formulation containing a short-acting type oral blood glucose regulator, not only nateglinide but meglitinides (repaglinide, mitiglinide, etc.) was suggested to enable control of both PBG and FBG for moderate and severe diabetes patients.

starlix 60 mg

In the present study we administered nateglinide to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients with type 2 diabetes who had failed to respond adequately to diet and exercise therapy, and we compared the resulting changes in insulin kinetics and improvements in blood glucose levels, as well as the concomitant changes in hepatic function, diagnostic liver images and liver histology, with the results from a non-treated control group.

starlix generic

Human monocarboxylate transporter 6 (MCT6) has recently been isolated, and its tissue distribution has been established at the mRNA level, but its functional properties remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the transport properties of MCT6. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, MCT6 transported [3H]bumetanide in a pH- and membrane potential-sensitive but not proton gradient-dependent manner, with the K(t) value of 84 microM. Furthermore, MCT6 transported various drugs such as probenecid and nateglinide. Neither [14C]L-lactic acid nor [3H]L-tryptophan, typical substrates of other MCT isoforms, was transported by MCT6. Four loop diuretics, i.e., furosemide, piretanide, azosemide, and torasemide, thiazides, probenecid, glibenclamide, and nateglinide inhibited the MCT6-mediated uptake of [3H]bumetanide. In contrast, short-chain carboxylic acids, such as L-lactic acid and succinic acid did not inhibit the MCT6-mediated uptake of bumetanide. These results suggest that the substrate specificity of MCT6 is distinct from those of other MCTs. Bumetanide would be a good tool for investigating the functional properties of MCT6. It is probable that MCT6 is involved in the disposition of various drugs, including bumetanide.

starlix 120 mg

This study was performed in 58, insulin naïve type 2 diabetes. After fasting glucose was optimized by insulin glargine, nateglinide or acarbose was initiated and then crossed over after second wash out period. 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and 7 point self monitoring blood glucose for 3 days at the end of each period was performed.

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and may be an expression of the syndrome within the liver. Using screening data from the Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) study (n = 42 149), we examined whether alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a biomarker for NAFLD, clustered with features of MetS and whether the clusters differed across global geographic regions.

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Mean peak serum insulin levels were lower after nateglinide (115 mU/l) than after glibenclamide (145 mU/l.h; p = 0.017) but higher than after placebo (79 mU/l; p = 0.001). However, peak insulin levels were reached earlier after nateglinide [mean time to peak (tmax) 1.7 h] compared to glibenclamide (mean tmax 2.1 h, p = 0.06). Total insulin exposure over the day was higher after glibenclamide compared with that following nateglinide (1216 vs. 1067 mU/l.h; p = 0.009). Similar findings were seen with serum C-peptide. Despite this, mean peak plasma glucose concentrations were lower following nateglinide (11.4 mmol/l from a baseline of 8.3 mmol/l) compared with glibenclamide (13.2 mmol/l from a baseline of 8.5 mmol/l; p = 0.001) and placebo (14.0 mmol/l from a baseline of 8.0 mmol/L; p < 0.001).

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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the timing of food intake on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral nateglinide 60 mg and the effect of nateglinide on the rate of gastric emptying.

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Databases and reference lists of clinical trials on acarbose were searched. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials of acarbose monotherapy in populations with hyperglycaemia of more than 12-week duration that provided data on body weight (BW) or body mass index (BMI).

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We extracted data in duplicate and assessed the methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.

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Of the 9306 patients enrolled, 129 (1.4%) had a history of venous thromboembolism. Patients with venous thromboembolism were older, more frequently white and female, and had a higher body mass index. Patients with venous thromboembolism had higher 5-year event rates for the composite of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, as compared with patients without venous thromboembolism (10.7% vs 5.9%; P < .001; adjusted hazard ratio 2.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-3.31; P = .001).

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Insulin secretion (both overall and first phase) was significantly increased by nateglinide (P < 0.001), as were C-peptide (P < 0.001) and proinsulin (P < 0.001) secretion. Overall glucose concentrations following glucose challenge were lower after nateglinide than after placebo (P = 0.05).

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A total of 219 treatment-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes from 6 centers were enrolled in this study and blindly divided into nateglinide group (n = 105) and repaglinide group (n = 114). In all patients, the disease was confirmed for at least three months. The whole observation lasted for 12 weeks. The efficacy indicators measured include glycohemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, and 2 hours postprandial blood glucose, and the safety parameters measured included renal and hepatic function, serum lipids, and blood and urea profiles.

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A systematic analysis for 11 ingredients of oral hypoglycemic agent in health foods was established using three different analytical methods; i.e. thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and comparison of MS/MS spectra analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). In Normal-phase and reversed-phase TLC, each condition to separate and detect 10 ingredients except nateglinide was developed. On the other hand, 11 ingredients were detected qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC. The recovery rates were 92-101% and each coefficient of variation was less than 5.4%. Then UV spectra were monitored using this HPLC method and furthermore MS/MS spectra of 11 ingredients were obtained by LC/MS/MS. Identification of each ingredient became precise and rapid by comparing UV and MS/MS spectra of standard solutions with that of extract solutions from health foods. Using this systematic analysis, glibenclamide was accurately determined and identified from health foods.

starlix and alcohol

In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we assigned 9306 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors to receive valsartan (up to 160 mg daily) or placebo (and nateglinide or placebo) in addition to lifestyle modification. We then followed the patients for a median of 5.0 years for the development of diabetes (6.5 years for vital status). We studied the effects of valsartan on the occurrence of three coprimary outcomes: the development of diabetes; an extended composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, arterial revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina; and a core composite outcome that excluded unstable angina and revascularization.

starlix drug class

The effects of the oral administration of a non-sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent, the phenylalanine derivative A-4166, on serum insulin and glucose levels and glucose metabolism in isolated rat adipocytes and slices of muscle tissues were studied. An increase in serum insulin and a decrease in glucose levels were observed 30 minutes after A-4166 administration to rats fed basal or high fat diet. No changes in basal glucose transport in isolated fat cells were observed after the administration of A-4166. The effect of in vitro added insulin was, however, stronger in rats fed basal diet and treated with A-4166. An elevation of the membrane glucose transporter GLUT 4 was observed in rats treated with A-4166. An increase of basal lipogenesis, measured by incorporation of radiocarbon labeled glucose into lipids, was noted in adipocytes from rats fed high fat diet. The addition of insulin was followed by stimulation of lipogenesis in rats fed basal diet, however, this hormone had no effect in rats fed high fat diet. The administration of A-4166 did not affect the basal or insulin stimulated lipogenesis. Basal glucose oxidation in the diaphragm was not influenced by high fat diet or by A-4166 treatment. In the soleus muscle, basal glucose oxidation was decreased in rats fed high fat diet, and treatment with A-4166 increased the glucose oxidation up to values observed in the control basal diet fed rats. These results indicate that the administration of A-4166 can affect glucose metabolism in muscle tissue and the sensitivity of adipocytes to insulin.

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Dyslipidemia and fatty liver are important components of the metabolic syndrome and are the factors most commonly associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Delayed and excessive insulin secretion in response to food intake is a key element in the onset of these risk factors. Nateglinide (NAT) is known to restore early-phase insulin secretion. We assessed the effect of NAT on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. The GK rats fed a high-fat diet containing 30% beef tallow twice a day were administered either the vehicle alone or NAT (50 mg/kg) before each meal for 12 weeks. Delayed insulin secretion and an increase of total insulin release were caused by feeding 30% beef tallow to the rats. This diet also induced postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and increased the hepatic triglyceride content. Treatment with NAT restored early-phase insulin secretion without any increase of total insulin release and also reduced postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and the hepatic triglyceride content. There was up-regulation of the hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha and its downstream enzymes after 12 weeks of NAT treatment, as well as normalization of the plasma total ketone body level. Furthermore, NAT also up-regulated hepatic expression of the adiponectin receptor AdipoR2, although there was no effect on the plasma adiponectin level. These findings indicate that long-term treatment with NAT prevented the development of fatty liver through the up-regulation of hepatic lipid oxidation pathways. Restoration of early-phase insulin secretion and suppression of recurrent postprandial hypertriglyceridemia might be involved in these effects of NAT. The present results may support the use of NAT to prevent the onset and progression of the metabolic syndrome and chronic liver disease.

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starlix 30 mg 2016-08-04

Observational analysis of data from the Nateglinide buy starlix And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) study, a double-blinded randomised clinical trial of nateglinide and valsartan, respectively.

starlix drug information 2015-01-01

Inhibition of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 is a novel strategy for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. As the mechanism of action of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on plasma glucose levels is distinct from that of existing oral antidiabetic drugs, a combination of the two might provide a therapeutic benefit. Here, we investigated the antihyperglycemic effect of ipragliflozin, a selective buy starlix sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, alone or in combination with oral antidiabetic drugs in a range of relevant mouse models to analyse the blood glucose-lowering properties of different drug types based on their mechanism of action. Oral glucose tolerance tests in ICR mice were used to evaluate the effect of ipragliflozin in combination with the insulin secretagogues, glibenclamide or nateglinide. Liquid meal tests in ICR mice and diabetic KK-A(y) mice were used to investigate the combined effect of ipragliflozin with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, and α-glucosidase inhibitor, voglibose, respectively. Four-week repeated administration tests in KK-A(y) mice were used to examine the combined effect of ipragliflozin with the insulin sensitizers, pioglitazone and metformin. In all mouse models tested, the combination of ipragliflozin and existing oral antidiabetic drugs lowered blood glucose or glycated hemoglobin levels more than either monotherapy. In conclusion, inhibition of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 by ipragliflozin, alone or in combination with existing oral antidiabetic drugs, has a robust effect on blood glucose levels in a range of mouse models of hyperglycemia.

starlix brand name 2017-02-10

The prevalence and medical and economic impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing in Western societies. New agents have been developed that act primarily to reduce postprandial glucose excursions, which may be of particular significance now that postprandial glucose excursions are known to be correlated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Nateglinide is a phenylalanine derivative that blocks K+ channels in pancreatic beta-cells, facilitating insulin secretion. Nateglinide sensitises beta-cells to ambient glucose, reducing the glucose concentration needed to stimulate insulin secretion. The pharmacokinetics of nateglinide are characterised by rapid absorption and elimination, with good (73%) bioavailability. Nateglinide is more rapidly absorbed buy starlix when given 0-30 minutes prior to meal ingestion than if given during the meal. Nateglinide is extensively metabolised, primarily by cytochrome P450 2C9, and eliminated primarily by the kidney. Nateglinide pharmacokinetics are linear over the dose range 60-240 mg. No significant pharmacokinetic alterations occur in renally impaired patients, in the elderly, or in mildly hepatically impaired patients. Nateglinide administered prior to meals stimulates rapid, short-lived insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner, thus decreasing mealtime plasma glucose excursions. Its effects on insulin secretion are synergistic with those of a meal. With increasing nateglinide doses, the risk of hypoglycaemia also increases, but its incidence is low. Even if a meal is missed, and the patient skips the dose of nateglinide (as recommended in the event of a missed meal), the incidence of subsequent hypoglycaemia remains low compared with long-acting agents. The postprandial insulinotropic effects of nateglinide are more rapid than those of repaglinide and more rapid and greater than those of glibenclamide (glyburide), while producing less prolonged insulin exposure and less risk of delayed hypoglycaemia. Further investigation is required to determine if nateglinide inhibition of postprandial glucose excursions will help to prevent diabetic complications or preserve pancreatic beta-cell function.

starlix generic 2017-01-30

An open-label, parallel-group, randomized, multicenter trial was conducted to compare efficacy and safety of repaglinide buy starlix versus nateglinide, when used in a combination regimen with metformin for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

starlix pill images 2017-11-30

A simple, rapid and sensitive two column-switching high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection at 210 nm has been developed for the determination of N-(trans-4-isopropylcyclohexanecarbonyl)-D-phenylalanine (AY4166, I) and its seven metabolites in human plasma and urine. Measurements of I and its metabolites were carried out by two column-switching HPLC, because metabolites were classified into two groups according to their retention times. After purification of plasma samples using solid-phase extraction and direct dilution of urinary samples, I and each metabolite were injected buy starlix into HPLC. The calibration graphs for plasma and urinary samples were linear in the ranges 0.1 to 10 microg ml(-1) and 0.5 to 50 microg ml(-1), respectively. Recoveries of I and its seven metabolites were over 88% by the standard addition method and the relative standard deviations of I and its metabolites were 1-6%.

starlix 60 mg 2015-09-27

The effect of rapid-acting insulin secretagogues (glinides) on glycemic control when included with insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes remains uncertain. To examine this, we added glinide once buy starlix a day to twice daily injections of premixed insulin.

starlix medication 2017-12-19

ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels are composed of pore-forming subunits (Kir6.x) and of regulatory subunits, the sulfonylurea receptors (SURx). Subtypes of K(ATP) channels are expressed in different organs. The sulfonylureas and glinides (insulinotropes) close the K(ATP) channel in pancreatic beta-cells and stimulate insulin secretion. The insulinotrope binding site of the pancreatic channel (Kir6.2/SUR1) consists of two overlapping (sub)-sites, site A, located on SUR1 and containing Ser1237 (which in SUR2 is replaced by Tyr1206), and site B, formed by SUR1 and Kir6.2. Insulinotropes bind to the A-, B-, or A + B-site(s) and are grouped accordingly. A-ligands are highly selective in closing the pancreatic channel, whereas B-ligands are nonselective and insensitive to the mutation S1237Y. We have examined the binding of insulinotropes representative of the three groups in [(3)H]glibenclamide competition experiments to determine the contribution of Kir6.x to binding affinity, the effect of the mutation Y1206S in site A of SUR2, and the subtype selectivity of the compounds. The results show that the bipartite nature of the SUR1 binding site applies also to SUR2. Kir6.2 as part of the B-site may interact directly or allosterically with structural elements common to all insulinotropes, i.e., the negative charge and/or the adjacent phenyl ring. The B-site confers a moderate subtype selectivity on B-ligands. The affinity of B-ligands is altered by the mutation SUR2(Y1206S), suggesting that buy starlix the mutation affects the binding chamber of SUR2 as a whole or subsite A, including the region where the subsites overlap.

starlix and alcohol 2017-10-05

Several meglitinide analogs are currently under investigation as potential insulinotropic tools for the treatment of noninsulin-dependent diabetes. The present study aimed to further insight into the effect of these agents on the secretion of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin by the isolated perfused pancreas. Both repaglinide (0.01 microM) and A-4166 (1.0 microM) stimulated insulin and somatostatin release, but failed to affect glucagon output, from pancreases exposed to 5.6 mM D-glucose. The secretory response of the B- and D-cells to the hypoglycemic agents was much less marked than that caused by a buy starlix rise in hexose concentration from 5.6-16.7 mM. Although repaglinide was tested at a concentration a hundred times lower than that of A-4166, the drug-induced increase in both insulin and somatostatin secretion persisted for a longer time after exposure to repaglinide, than to A-4166. The relevance of these findings to the use of meglitinide analogs as antidiabetic agents is double. First, they document that these drugs, although enhancing both insulin and somatostatin release, do not provoke an undesirable stimulation of glucagon secretion. Second, they indicate that even at a very low concentration, repaglinide provokes a protracted insulinotropic action, thus suggesting that the reversibility of the secretory response to this or other meglitinide analogs represents an intrinsic molecular attribute, unrelated to either their biological potency or the relative extent of B-cell stimulation.

starlix drug class 2016-01-07

To establish the differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) methodology for controlling the crystal-type B form of nateglinide buy starlix .

starlix generic cost 2017-10-01

To design and synthesize new compounds buy starlix of prandial glucose regulator with more simple structure.

starlix medication cost 2017-04-26

Abnormal beta-cell function, characterized as the inability of the beta-cell to buy starlix mount a rapid secretory response to glucose, is a well-established pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. These studies were designed to demonstrate the importance of early insulin release on the control of meal-induced glucose excursions by capitalizing on the significant pharmacodynamic differences between several oral insulin secreting agents.

starlix maximum dose 2017-03-12

Thiazoledinediones decrease blood glucose by their insulin-sensitizing properties. Here, we examined whether pioglitazone plus nateglinide (PIO) interferes with hepatocellular lipid (HCL) content and/or improves insulin sensitivity in well-controlled non-obese patients with buy starlix type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

starlix generic name 2017-11-06

Nateglinide is an oral antidiabetic medication that acts through rapid, short-term stimulation of insulin production. This study undertook to identify the nature of any adverse effects of nateglinide and to assess its clinical efficacy in long-term use in clinical practice. Patients (n=1014) were recruited from centers in Japan and were followed over a 15-month treatment period. Pretreatment and posttreatment values were obtained for fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), triglycerides, and total cholesterol. All adverse reactions were noted, along with standard laboratory blood variables. The efficacy value was rated as 78.76% by the treating physicians; this was indicated by a postprandial glucose decrease of 53.2 mg/dL (from 223.8+/-61.1 mg/dL to 170.6+/-40.7 mg/dL), a fasting glucose decrease of 9.3 mg/dL (from 155.1+/- 40.0 mg/dL to 145.4+/-35.1 mg/dL), and an HbA1c decrease of Nexium Prescription Dosage 0.68% (from 7.51+/- 1.36% to 6.83+/-1.09%). In patients previously treated with sulfonylurea, a decrease in HbA1c was not observed. Changes in HbA1c had no association with age, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes, or concomitant disease. No change in BMI was noted after 15 months of nateglinide treatment. Adverse reactions occurred at an incidence of 10.07% (100/993 cases), with hypoglycemic symptoms being the most prevalent (1.91%). Adverse reactions were sometimes associated with extant renal dysfunction, a condition about which the physician had to be aware. No problems such as increased incidences of adverse reactions or deterioration in severity were detected in this long-term study. This study showed the efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with nateglinide of patients with diabetes from various backgrounds.

starlix tablet 2015-01-23

US Food and Drug Administration Imitrex 50mg Tab approval for generic drugs relies on demonstrating pharmaceutical equivalence and bioequivalence; however, some drug products have unique attributes that necessitate product-specific approval pathways. We evaluated rates of patients' switching back to brand-name versions from generic versions of four drugs approved via such approaches.

starlix dosing 2017-01-25

Nateglinide elicited a dose-related increase of insulin and a decrease of glucose during standardized meal challenges, with the predominant effect on early insulin release, leading to a substantial reduction in peak plasma glucose levels. Nateglinide was well tolerated, and symptoms of hypoglycemia were the only treatment-emergent AEs. Confirmed hypoglycemia occurred in 28 subjects receiving nateglinide (30 mg, 0 [0%]; 60 mg, 5 [6.6%]; 120 mg, 23 Voltaren Online [26.7%]) and in 1 (2.3%) subject receiving placebo.

starlix nateglinide generic 2015-12-27

To compare the efficacy Lopressor Metoprolol Medication and tolerability of nateglinide with those of acarbose in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.

starlix diabetes medication 2015-09-30

Most antidiabetic agents target only one of several Avelox Tablets underlying causes of diabetes. The complementary actions of the glinides and the biguanides may give optimal glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of nateglinide plus metformin with glibenclamide plus metformin on glucose and lipid metabolism, and haemodynamic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

starlix 120 mg 2016-09-14

Current antidiabetic agents do not suppress insulin resistance, do not reinstate physiological insulin secretion and fail Buspar 600 Mg to prevent the gradual loss of B-cell function. Thus, these molecules are unable to maintain long term euglycemia in all type 2 diabetic patients and there is a need for new antidiabetic drugs. Thiazolidinediones (TZD) are a new class of insulin sensitizers recently approved in Europe, in combination therapy with sulfonylureas or/and metformin, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. TZD show beneficial effects on insulin action, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism despite a substantial weight gain. Their potential protective effect on B-cell function and on the development of macrovascular complication is of particular interest. Non TZD PPARgamma agonists are also under clinical trials. Other interesting therapeutic perspectives to treat insulin resistance lie in the development of inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatases and in the promotion of non insulin-dependent contraction-like muscle glucose uptake via stimulation of AMP protein kinase (AMPK). As to new insulin secretagogues, the phenylalanine derivative nateglinide is a first phase insulin secretion enhancer primarily intended at controlling post-prandial hyperglycemia. The most promising perspective to improve B-cell function lies in the development of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs. Clinical studies show beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetics and efficacy in sulfonylurea resistant patients without risk of hypoglycaemia. Animal studies predict beneficial effects on B-cell mass. Finally we will discuss the potential use of gene therapy to treat insulin resistance and B-cell dysfunction.

starlix drug classification 2016-07-13

Drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are the cornerstone of therapy for cardiovascular and renal disease because they protect against worsening outcomes in the respective target organs. Recent results from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET Cipro 5 Suspension ) have confirmed that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) confer similar cardioprotection and renoprotection, showing little to no benefit from the combination in cardiovascular disease. It is not yet clear whether one class is superior to another for renoprotection. Whether dual RAAS blockade is more advantageous than single blockade, and in which patients, is also yet to be clearly determined. The Long-Term Impact of RAS Inhibition on Cardiorenal Outcomes (LIRICO) study will compare the cardiorenoprotective effects of ACE inhibitors and ARBs in patients with albuminuria, and clarify the role of dual blockade. Preliminary evidence that RAAS inhibitors reduce incident diabetes is intriguing. Whether ARBs can reduce incident diabetes and related cardiovascular outcomes is awaited with the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) trial.

starlix tabs 2016-11-30

Detection and confirmation of the 10 anti-diabetic drugs at 10 ng/mL each Effexor Common Dosage in equine plasma and equine urine were achieved by full-scan MS-MS. All of these drugs were detected consistently at this concentration in spiked samples of different plasma and urine (n = 15 each). No significant matrix interferences were observed at the expected retention times of the targeted ions in blank urine samples (n = 30). This method has been used successfully in the analysis of drug-administration samples as well as official racing samples.