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clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00117403.
An effective NMDA antagonist imaging model may find key utility in advancing schizophrenia drug discovery research. We investigated effects of subchronic treatment with the NMDA antagonist memantine by using behavioural observation and multimodal MRI.
Most frequently administered were narcotic analgesics (72% of sample), followed by antidepressants (67%), anticonvulsants (47%), anxiolytics (33%), hypnotics (30%), stimulants (28%), antipsychotics (25%), antiparkinson agents (25%), and miscellaneous psychotropics (18%). The psychotropic agents studied were administered to 95% of the sample, with 8.5% receiving only 1 and 31.8% receiving ≥6. Degree of psychotropic medication administration varied widely between sites. Univariate analyses indicated younger patients were more likely to receive anxiolytics, antidepressants, antiparkinson agents, stimulants, antipsychotics, and narcotic analgesics, whereas those older were more likely to receive anticonvulsants and miscellaneous psychotropics. Men were more likely to receive antipsychotics. All medication classes were less likely administered to Asians and more likely administered to those with more severe functional impairment. Use of anticonvulsants was associated with having seizures at some point during acute care or rehabilitation stays. Narcotic analgesics were more likely for those with history of drug abuse, history of anxiety and depression (premorbid or during acute care), and severe pain during rehabilitation. Psychotropic medication administration increased rather than decreased during the course of inpatient rehabilitation in each of the medication categories except for narcotics. This observation was also true for medication administration within admission functional levels (defined by cognitive FIM scores), except for those with higher admission FIM cognitive scores.
A significant proportion of hepatitis C patients treated with unmodified interferon plus ribavirin fail to respond. The optimal therapy for these patients has not been established yet. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of peginterferon plus ribavirin with or without amantidine in such patients.
Using a "Grand Rounds" format, we illustrate the application of consensus-based diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment recommendations in a patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury with prolonged alteration in consciousness. After discussing the salient features of the case, we summarize the basic tenets of clinical care for this population.
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Delayed ejaculation (DE) is an uncommon and a challenging disorder to treat. It is often quite concerning to patients and it can affect psychosocial well-being. Here we reviewed how DE is treated pharmacologically .We also highlighted specific settings where drugs could be introduced to medical practice. Electronic databases were searched from 1966 to February 2016, including PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBCSO Academic Search Complete, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, and Google Scholar using key words; delayed ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, drugs, treatment, or pharmacology. To achieve the maximum sensitivity of the search strategy and to identify all studies, we combined "delayed ejaculation" as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms or keywords with each of "testosterone" or "cabergoline" or "bupropion" or "amantadine" or "cyproheptadine" or "midodrine" or "imipramine" or "ephedrine" or "pseudoephedrine" or "yohimbine" or "buspirone" or "oxytocin" or "bethanechol" as MeSH terms or keywords. There are a number of drugs to treat patients with DE including: testosterone, cabergoline, bupropion, amantadine, cyproheptadine, midodrine, imipramine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, yohimbine, buspirone, oxytocin, and bethanechol. Although there are many pharmacological treatment options, the evidence is still limited to small trials, case series or case reports. Review of literature showed that evidence level 1 (Double blind randomized clinical trial) studies were performed with testosterone, oxytocin, buspirone or bethanechol treatment. It is concluded that successful drug treatment of DE is still in its infancy. The clinicians need to be aware of the pathogenesis of DE and the pharmacological basis underlying the use of different drugs to extend better care for these patients. Various drugs are available to address such problem, however their evidence of efficacy is still limited and their choice needs to be individualized to each specific case.
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Three types of hyperalgesia can occur during the postoperative period: primary hyperalgesia, which disappears with wound healing, secondary or central hyperalgesia, which can lead to chronic pain, and opiate-induced hyperalgesia. Different drugs, most of which are NMDA receptors antagonists, are used to decrease or prevent the risk of central or opiate-induced hyperalgesia. However, it is difficult to determine whether they are really effective and at which dosage: the results of most published studies are difficult to interpret because of methodological problems. The two most frequent of those are: absence of objective measurement of secondary hyperalgesia and difficulties targeting an at risk population.
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The partial glutamate antagonist amantadine is currently used in clinical practice, to reduce dyskinesia developing as a side-effect of levodopa treatment in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was aimed at evaluating the antidyskinetic effect of another glutamate antagonist, memantine.
To evaluate long-term memantine treatment in moderate to severe Alzheimer disease.
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From a societal perspective, treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine was more effective but also more costly than standard care for mild to moderate vascular dementia. The donepezil 10 mg strategy was the most cost-effective and also dominated the other alternatives.
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Inhibition of N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by memantine, an NMDA-receptor antagonist, and other antagonists of ionotropic receptors for glutamate inhibit the development of opiate antinociceptive tolerance. The role of metabotropic receptors for glutamate (mGluR) in opiate tolerance is less known.
One small imprecise study in people with GBS showed uncertain effects of amantadine on fatigue. In two studies in people with CMT1A there is moderate-quality evidence that ascorbic acid has little meaningful benefit on fatigue. Information about adverse effects was limited, although both treatments appear to be well tolerated and safe in these conditions.There was no evidence available from RCTs to evaluate the effect of other drugs or other interventions for fatigue in either GBS, CMT1A or other causes of peripheral neuropathy. The cost effectiveness of different interventions should also be considered in future randomised clinical trials.
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The recent outbreaks of avian flu in Southeast Asia and swine flu in Mexico City painfully exemplify the ability of the influenza virus to rapidly mutate and develop resistance to modern medicines. This review seeks to detail the molecular mechanism by which the influenza virus has obtained resistance to amino-adamantyls, one of only two classes of drugs that combat the flu. Amino-adamantyls target the viral M2 H(+) channel and have become largely ineffective due to mutations in the transmembrane domain of the protein. Herein we describe these resistance rendering mutations and the compounded effects they have upon the protein's function and resulting virus viability.
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Twenty-four patients completed the study. A significant decrease in agitation and aggression (F-test with 3 and 90 degrees of freedom [F(3,90)] = 3.721, p = 0.014) was demonstrated following memantine, with 48% of patients improving (either much improved or minimally improved) on the CGI-C scale. In addition, nursing burden (t-test with 30 degrees of freedom [t(30)] = 3.02, p = 0.005), caregiver distress (F(3,90) = 4.125, p = 0.009) and the use of prn psychotropics decreased following memantine treatment (Z = -1.99, p = 0.046). Fourteen patients experienced at least one adverse event during memantine treatment. The most common adverse event associated with treatment was somnolence (n = 5).
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Although antiviral therapy is cost-effective in adults, its cost-effectiveness in older adults has not been studied.
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Interaction between mGluR5 NAM and L-DOPA is an area of interest in PD research as concomitant treatment results in the improvement of LID symptoms in humans, thus enhancing the patient's quality of life. However, few months ago, Novartis decided to discontinue clinical trials of mavoglurant for the treatment of LID, due to the lack of efficacy demonstrated in trials NCT01385592 and NCT01491529, although no safety concerns were involved in this decision. Nevertheless, the potential application of mGluR5 antagonists as neuroprotective agents must be considered and further studies are warranted to better investigate their potential.
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Tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) currents were recorded in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp method in enzymatically dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons of adult rats. Half-maximal blocking concentrations were derived from concentration-inhibition curves at different holding potentials (-90, -70, and -60 mV).
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Amantadine has been proved to be beneficial in Parkinson's disease. Although it is still uncertain which neurochemical events are modified at therapeutic doses, an increase in dopaminergic tone secondary to NMDA receptor blockade and a direct inhibition of the glutamatergic overactivity have been suggested to be involved in its clinical effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of amantadine on the dopaminergic system by measuring the in vivo binding of [11-C]raclopride to D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia of 6 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Each patient underwent a PET study, before and after 14 days of treatment with amantadine (200 mg/day). Repeated treatment with therapeutic doses of amantadine induced a moderate increase in the in vivo binding of [11C]raclopride in the putamen of PD patients. This observation indicates that in PD patients, 200 mg/day amantadine does not produce an increase in extracellular levels of dopamine sufficiently to inhibit raclopride binding or that, if present, is it masked by a concurrent increase in receptor availability, as recently reported in rat striatum.
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Several studies have shown that a number of pharmacological and neurochemical conditions in rats can induce jaw movements that are described as "vacuous" or "tremulous". For several years, there has been some debate about the clinical significance of various drug-induced oral motor syndromes. Nevertheless, considerable evidence now indicates that the non-directed, chewing-like movements induced by cholinomimetics have many of the characteristics of parkinsonian tremor. These movements are characterized largely by vertical deflections of the jaw, which occur in the same 3-7 Hz peak frequency that is typical of parkinsonian tremor. Cholinomimetic-induced tremulous jaw movements are suppressed by a number of different antiparkinsonian drugs, including scopolamine, benztropine, L-DOPA, apomorphine, bromocriptine, ropinirole, pergolide, amantadine, diphenhydramine and clozapine. A combination of anatomical and pharmacological research in rats has implicated M4 receptors in the ventrolateral neostriatum in the generation of tremulous jaw movements. Mice also show cholinomimetic-induced jaw movements, and M4 receptor knockout mice demonstrate subtantially reduced levels of jaw movement activity, as well as increased locomotion. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that a centrally-acting M4 antagonist may be useful as a treatment for parkinsonian symptoms, including tremor.
Baclofen and aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) depressed the explorative and locomotor activity in rats. Baclofen, but not AOAA, decreased the locomotor stimulation, produced by apomorphine. Both compounds did not affect hyperactivity, induced by D, L-amphetamine, amantadine and methylphenidate. Neither baclofen nor AOAA influenced stereotypy induced by the above four substances.
Open-label, 24-week extension trial. Raters remained blind to the patients' initial study treatment. Patients (n = 175) were enrolled from the previous double-blind study in an outpatient setting.
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Cortical systems involved in the response to medication treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly understood. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the effect of memantine on neuroreceptors and cell physiology, although the impact of treatment on cortical activity in vivo is not known.
Due to its wide field of application, sensitivity, wide range of linearity and the applicability to gradient elution, the most common detection technique for HPLC nowadays is UV/vis spectrophotometry. However, UV/vis detection comes to its limits when the analytes are lacking suitable chromophors or exhibit very different UV responses. In the past years, different types of evaporation/aerosol based HPLC detectors have been developed to fill this gap in HPLC detection. Amongst those, the corona-charged aerosol detector (CAD) is one of the most powerful and versatile representatives. In the recent past a variety of papers have been published, demonstrating the potential of the CAD in different fields of analytical chemistry. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the key performance characteristics and manifold applications for HPLC-CAD in the field of pharmaceutical analysis.
Clinical studies reported that treatments for Alzheimer's disease may have an impact on behavioral and psychiatric disorders. We tested the hypothesis that memantine treatment initiation modifies psychotropic medication in real-life practice patients.
Liposomes have been used to diagnose and treat cancer and, to a lesser extent, cardiovascular disease. We previously showed the uptake of anionic liposomes into the atheromas of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits within lipid pools. However, the cellular distribution of anionic liposomes in atherosclerotic plaque remains undescribed. In addition, how anionic liposomes are absorbed into atherosclerotic plaque is unclear. We investigated the uptake and distribution of anionic liposomes in atherosclerotic plaque in aortic tissues from apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. To facilitate the tracking of liposomes, we used liposomes containing fluorescently labeled non-silencing small interfering RNA. Confocal microscopy analysis showed the uptake of anionic liposomes into atherosclerotic plaque and colocalization with macrophages. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed anionic liposomal accumulation in macrophages. To investigate how anionic liposomes cross the local endothelial barrier, we examined the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) treated with or without the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Pretreatment with amantadine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, significantly decreased liposomal uptake in HCAECs treated with or without TNF-α by 77% and 46%, respectively. Immunoblot analysis showed that endogenous clathrin expression was significantly increased in HCAECs stimulated with TNF-α but was inhibited by amantadine. These studies indicated that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is partly responsible for the uptake of liposomes by endothelial cells. Our results suggest that anionic liposomes target macrophage-rich areas of vulnerable plaque in ApoE(-)(/)(-) mice; this finding may lead to the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for treating vulnerable plaque in humans.