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Topamax (Topiramate)

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Generic Topamax is a medication of high quality, which is taken in treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms. Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Neurontin, Depakote, Lamictal, Tegretol


Also known as:  Topiramate.


Generic Topamax target is the treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms.

Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation. It is anticonvulsant.

Topamax is also known as Topiramate, Topaz.

Generic name of Generic Topamax is Topiramate.

Brand name of Generic Topamax is Topamax.


Take it orally at the same time every day, with or without food.

Generic Topamax can be taken twice a day (in the morning and in the evening).

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Topamax suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Topamax and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Topamax overdosage: feeling drowsy, problems with a speech, blurred vision, double vision, fatigue, lack of coordination, lack of consciousness, lightheadedness, pain of stomach, dyspepsia, vomiting, extreme hunger, agitation, depression, dyspnoea, confusion, decreased appetite, weakness of muscle, pain of bone, convulsion, coma.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Topamax are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Topamax if you are allergic to Generic Topamax components.

Do not take Generic Topamax if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful if you are taking ipratropium (such as Atrovent); motion sickness, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, urinary problems, Parkinson's disease, ulcers medicines; oral contraceptives; methazolamide; seizures medicines (carbamazepine (such as Tegretol), phenytoin (such as Phenytek, Dilantin); metformin (such as Glucophage); iron; salicylate pain relievers (such as choline salicylate (such as Arthropan), aspirin, choline magnesium trisalicylate (such as Trisalate), diflunisal (such as Dolobid), magnesium salicylate (such as Doan's); dichlorphenamide (such as Daranide); digoxin (such as Digitek, Lanoxin); zonisamide (such as Zonegran); tranquilizers; acetazolamide (such as Diamox); valproic acid (such as Depakote, Depakene); cholestyramine (such as Questran); sedatives; antidepressants; isoniazid (such as Nydrazid, INH); antihistamines, salsalate (such as Salgesic, Argesic, Disalcid), sleeping pills.

Be careful if you have lung, kidney or liver disease, diabetes, glaucoma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nearsightedness, diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, kidney stones.

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Avoid being dehydrated.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

Be careful with Generic Topamax if you are going to have a surgery (dental or other).

If you experience drowsiness and dizziness while taking Generic Topamax you should avoid any activities such as driving or operating machinery.

To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control because hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Generic Topamax.

Avoid alcohol while taking Generic Topamax.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Topamax taking suddenly.

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As compared with TPM-IR, USL255 provided equivalent plasma exposure with an extended absorption profile. Therefore, USL255 offers a once-daily alternative to twice-daily TPM-IR, with reduced TPM fluctuations.

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SUNCT (Shortlasting Unilateral Neuralgiform Headache attacks with Conjunctival injection and Tearing) is a syndrome characterised by shortlived (5-240 s), strictly unilateral, orbital/periorbital, moderate-to-severe pain attacks, accompanied by rapidly developing conjunctival injection and lacrimation. Most attacks are triggered by mechanical stimuli, but there are also spontaneous attacks. Symptomatic periods alternate with remissions in an unpredictable fashion. In active periods, the attacks predominate during daytime, with a frequency that ranges from < 1 attack/day to > 30 attacks/h SUNCT is mainly a primary disorder, but is sometimes associated with intracranial structural lesions (symptomatic SUNCT). SUNCT has been included in the group of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, which are thought to depend on the activation of the trigeminal system together with the disinhibition of a trigeminofacial autonomic reflex. According to a few reports, SUNCT patients may benefit from carbamazepine, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate or various surgical procedures. However, well-designed clinical trials are required before these therapeutic options can be sufficiently validated.

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Up to 300 mg/d of topiramate (n = 183) or placebo (n = 188), along with a weekly compliance enhancement intervention.

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Epilepsy that first appears at the age of 65 years or older is a type of late-onset epilepsy. The diagnosis comprises the medical history and an EEG; a specialist should be consulted at an early stage. For the therapy of epilepsy in the elderly, some special points must be observed. Thus, for example, because of the usually changed pharmacokinetics and -dynamics in older people, medications must often be given at a lower dosage. Frequently, there are coexisting internal or other neurological diseases. Hence, adverse drug reactions can occur during the treatment. Second generation antiepileptic drugs (lamotrigine, topiramate, levetiracetam) are tolerated better and should be used preferentially over antiepileptic drugs of the first generation (carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone).

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A 39-year-old, right-handed woman had seizures for two years which were always triggered by exposure to various types of music: the first occurred while she listened to a tune she particularly liked, Con Te Partiro, by Andrea Boccelli. Other triggering factors were various types of music such as supermarket background music and polyphonic singing or instrumental music played by family members. The seizures had a stereotyped course: she felt anxious, tearful, then occurred slight obtundation, during which she smacked her lips and moved restlessly. There was no complete loss of consciousness, but some degree of amnesia. She never experienced a generalized tonic-clonic seizure, but reported rare spontaneous feelings of déjà-vu that had begun at the same time as the induced seizures. There were no other spontaneous attacks; only one seizure was apparently provoked, not by music but by a loud background noise in her office. She was a music lover and a singer. Interictal EEG showed independent slow waves over the temporal regions. Several seizures with EEG localisation over the right temporal region were elicited after several minutes of exposure to music. Monoauricular stimulation with the same music produced a seizure when applied to the left ear but was ineffective when applied to the right ear. Ictal SPECT demonstrated right temporal hyperperfusion. MRI was normal. On high dose of carbamazepine, seizure frequency decreased. The addition of topiramate resulted in full seizure control. Musicogenic epilepsy is a rare form of reflex epilepsy. Pure cases, when patients do not experience unprovoked seizures, are exceptional. Our report confirms the implication of the right temporal lobe in this epilepsy.

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Migraine affects ∼30 million people in the US. A subset of female migraineurs have migraines that are mainly associated with menstruation. Menstrual migraine (MM) is divided into pure MM and menstrually related migraine. Pure MM attacks occur only with menstruation and have a prevalence of 1%. Menstrually related migraine has a prevalence of 6-7%, and occurs both during menstruation as well as during the rest of the cycle. MM is usually without aura and is more severe, longer lasting, and more resistant to treatment due to the effects of ovarian hormones, specifically estrogen. MM treatment is divided into acute, short-term prophylaxis, and daily prevention. The best-studied acute treatments are triptans. For short-term prophylaxis, triptans, non-triptans, or combinations are used. Some preventive medications may be used daily to prevent MM. Many anti-epileptic medications used in migraine prevention can affect the efficacy of oral contraceptives and hormonal treatments, so caution is indicated when these are used.

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From the 447 patients with migraine in our database, we selected those: a) satisfying Silberstein criteria for CDH; b) that had not followed prior prophylactic treatment; and c) who were treated with topiramate as the primary drug. The mean number of days with headache and bouts of severe migraine in the fourth month of treatment using topiramate as compared to the month preceding treatment, as well as the percentage of responses and the rate of respondents in the fourth month were all analysed.

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Adrenocorticotropic hormone is recommended worldwide as an initial therapy for infantile spasms. However, infantile spasms in about 50% of children cannot be fully controlled by adrenocorticotropic hormone monotherapy, seizures recur in 33% of patients who initially respond to adrenocorticotropic hormone monotherapy, and side effects are relatively common during adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. Topiramate, vitamin B6, and immunoglobulin are effective in some children with infantile spasms. In the present study, we hypothesized that combined therapy with adrenocorticotropic hormone, topiramate, vitamin B6, and immunoglobulin would effectively treat infantile spasms and have mild adverse effects. Thus, 51 children newly diagnosed with West syndrome including infantile spasms were enrolled and underwent polytherapy with the four drugs. Electroencephalographic hypsarrhythmia was significantly improved in a majority of patients, and these patients were seizure-free, had mild side effects, and low recurrence rates. The overall rates of effective treatment and loss of seizures were significantly higher in cryptogenic children compared with symptomatic children. The mean time to loss of seizures in cryptogenic children was significantly shorter than in symptomatic patients. These findings indicate that initial polytherapy with adrenocorticotropic hormone, topiramate, vitamin B6, and immunoglobulin effectively improves the prognosis of infantile spasms, and its effects were superior in cryptogenic children to symptomatic children.

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This intact in vitro preparation in immature animals appears to be quite resistant to most AEDs. Blockade of seizures was achieved with drugs acting mainly at the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A-receptor site but not with those that increase the amount of GABA. Drugs with a broad spectrum of activity are efficient but not those preferentially used in partial seizures or absences. We suggest that this preparation may correspond to a model of epilepsy with generalized convulsive seizures and could be helpful to develop new AEDs for refractory infantile epilepsies.

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The medical records of 76 patients diagnosed with migraine were reviewed using the ICHD-II 2004 diagnosis criteria. The patients were classified into three age groups: 3-6 yr olds (group I), 7-12 yr olds (group II), and 13-17 yr olds (group III).

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Although 39.5% of subjects discontinued, most often due to AEs, the results of this 26-week, open-label extension study with topiramate (up to 600 mg/d) in subjects with moderately to severely painful DPN suggest that pain relief was effective and durable.

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Repeated, low-dose (5 mg/kg), intraperitoneal injections of kainate were administered every hour until each male Sprague-Dawley rat had experienced convulsive status epilepticus for at least 3 h. Five 1-month trials (n = 8-10 rats) assessed the effects of 0.3, 1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg carisbamate on spontaneous seizures. Each trial involved six AED-versus-vehicle tests comprised of carisbamate or 10% solutol-HS-15 treatments administered as intraperitoneal injections on alternate days with a recovery day between each treatment day.

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Our study shows the high retention rate of ZNS in the treatment of patients with epilepsy. The retention rate of ZNS was comparable with those of other antiepileptic drugs including lamotrigine, topiramate, and levetiracetam, and it can be suggested that ZNS can be considered for monotherapy and for the patients with generalized seizures.

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Aripiprazole may be useful for treatment of apathy syndrome. Its role in treatment of apathy requires further investigation in clinical trials.

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Topiramate can induce a renal tubule acidosis resulting in a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Recognition of the underlying cause is crucial so that the drug can be withdrawn while supportive care is provided.

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These results indicate that GABA(A)-receptor sensitivity to TPM is not dependent on the presence of BZD sensitivity. Enhancement of GABA-mediated inhibition through a BZD-insensitive pathway may represent one mechanism through which TPM exerts its anticonvulsant action.

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These data can help facilitate selection of AEDs.

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To evaluate the effects of drug intake and other risk factors on microscopic colitis patients.

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Lithium and several antiepileptic drugs have mood-stabilizing effects in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Both disorders are characterized by deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response.

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This review on the drug-drug interactions of mood stabilizers is aimed to be practical and clinically relevant. Polypharmacy has became the most frequent approach in the treatment of bipolar disorders, and patients given with a long term treatment are expected to suffer occasionally medical intercurrences, which in turn lead to prescriptions of other drugs. Both factors render a possibility of drug-drug interactions rather frequent. Two actual clinical vignettes will be given, illustrating clinical situations in which drug interactions may often occur. It will be reviewed the main drug-drug interactions reported with lithium, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, valproate, lamotrigine, gabapentin and topiramate, and also some pharmacokinetic aspects of mood stabilizers that are important in order to understand the possibility of interactions.

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All three patients reported complete amelioration of their binge eating symptoms and displayed weight loss (31.7 kg in 17 months, 14.5 kg in 9 months, 2 kg in 4 months, respectively) in response to topiramate (mean dose 541 mg).

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Ambulatory setting at a tertiary care medical center.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and imaging characteristics, treatment results, and prognosis of patients with electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES).

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A MEDLINE search of the literature, as well as review of bibliographies, was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and other reports evaluating efficacy, pharmacokinetic profile, adverse effects, and drug interactions of the second-generation antiepileptic drugs. Key search terms included felbamate, gabapentin, lamotrigine, topiramate, tiagabine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, zonisamide, and pregabalin.

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The effects of HCTZ and AEDs on convulsions were examined in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test in mice. Additionally, adverse effects of combined treatment with HCTZ and the AEDs in the passive avoidance task and chimney test were assessed. All drugs were injected intraperitoneally (ip) at single doses.

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CNS-acting drugs taken by the mother do not appear to pose any major risks of immediate adverse effects to the breastfeeding infant, although with most of the newer drugs further research is needed to be conclusive.

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The primary focus of the review was on Phase II and III controlled trials testing medications for BED. A total of 46 studies were considered and 26 were reviewed in detail. BED outcomes included binge eating remission, binge eating frequency, associated eating disorder psychopathology, associated depression and weight loss.

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Low-dose and slow-dose escalation of TPM in add-on therapy for patients with refractory partial epilepsy is effective and well tolerated in long-term, individualized clinical practice.

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Depression is associated with increased aggression and diminished ability and quality of life. The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of topiramate in influencing depressive symptoms, aggression, ability, and health related quality of life in depressive women.

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topamax alcohol reviews 2016-07-21

Obesity has been associated with several co-morbidities such as diabetes and increased mortality. In general, the use of medication promotes only a modest weight loss in the range of 2 to 10 kg, usually most buy topamax effective during the first 6 months of therapy; however, studies have shown positive effects on other risk factors such as blood pressure and serum glucose levels, but there are fewer studies in patients with diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of topiramate on weight reduction patients with type 2 diabetes.

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These findings demonstrate that TPM has marked neuroprotective effect in an buy topamax experimental model of SAH in rabbits. This observation may have clinical implications suggesting that this antiepileptic drug could be used as a possible neuroprotective agent in patients without major adverse effects.

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The lithium-pilocarpine model reproduces the main characteristics of human temporal lobe epilepsy. After status epilepticus (SE), rats exhibit a latent seizure-free phase characterized by development of extensive damage in limbic areas and occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Neuroprotective and antiepileptogenic effects of topiramate were investigated in this model. SE was induced in adult male rats by buy topamax LiCl (3 mEq/kg) followed 20 h later by pilocarpine (25 mg/kg). Topiramate (10, 30, or 60 mg/kg) was injected at 1 and 10 h of SE. Injections were repeated twice a day for six additional days. Another group received two injections of diazepam on the day of SE and of vehicle for 6 days. Neuronal damage was assessed at 14 days after SE by cell counting on thionin-stained sections. Occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) was videorecorded for 10 h per day in other groups of rats. In diazepam-treated rats, the number of neurons was dramatically reduced after SE in all subregions of hippocampus and layers II-IV of ventral cortices. At all doses, topiramate induced a 24 to 30% neuroprotection in layer CA1 of hippocampus (p < 0.05). In CA3b, the 30-mg/kg dose prevented neuronal death. All rats subjected to SE became epileptic. The latency (14-17 days) to and frequency of SRS were similar in topiramate- and diazepam-treated rats. The high mortality in the 30 mg/kg topiramate group (84%) was possibly the result of interaction between lithium and topiramate. In conclusion, topiramate displayed neuroprotective properties only in CA1 and CA3 that were not sufficient to prevent epileptogenesis.

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Primary endpoint, change in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), significantly favored phentermine 15 mg plus extended-release topiramate 92 mg (-31.5 events/h, 95% CI: -40.0, -22.9) over placebo (-16.6 events/h, 95% CI: -25.0, -8.2) at Week 28 (P =0.0084). At Week 28, there was a 10.2% (95% CI: -12.7, -7.6; 10.8 kg, 95% CI: -13.5, -8.0) mean decrease in weight buy topamax in the phentermine 15 mg plus extended-release topiramate 92 mg group compared with 4.3% (95% CI: -6.6, -2.0; 4.7 kg, 95% CI: -7.2, -2.2) in the placebo group (P = 0.0006) and a positive, significant (P = 0.0003) correlation between percent change in weight and change in AHI. Significant improvements in overnight oxygen saturation and reduction in blood pressure compared with placebo were observed. Phentermine 15 mg plus extended-release topiramate 92 mg was well tolerated with low adverse event rates.

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Results in many clinical trial support the use of some old antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine and sodium valproate in monotherapy in the acute treatment buy topamax of severe, mixed or mild manic episodes as well as in the management treatment of bipolar disorder. Overall, new antiepileptic drugs show a better profile of adverse reactions with fewer interactions than lithium, but data on their efficacy in bipolar disorder remain scarce. Oxcarbazepine efficacy in mania is similar to that of the carbamazepine. Lamotrigine is becoming the best alternative to lithium in depressive episodes. Topiramate does not appear to be effective in acute treatment of manic episodes. Levetiracetam seems to produce some benefits, but controlled, randomized and double blind clinical trials are not yet available. Data on gabapentin efficacy are controversial.

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There were 510 samples from 476 adult patients. Serum TPM was below 2.0 mg/L or above 10.0 mg/L in 28.2% and 5.9% of samples, respectively. Although serum TPM was broadly related to prescribed dose, there was wide variation. Most patients using TPM were treated in combination with other anticonvulsants (90.8%). TPM-CDR in patients receiving TPM monotherapy was not significantly different from those receiving TPM in combination with buy topamax nonenzyme inducers, but TPM-CDR was lower in patients who were taking inducers (P < 0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunnett method).

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In a search for an effective 'anti-alcohol pill', three modern anti-craving agents have been studied in alcoholics of buy topamax Army/ DSC, Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard.

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To assess the efficacy and safety of weight loss medications approved by the U. buy topamax S. Food and Drug Administration and other medications that have been used for weight loss.

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Although base-case results suggest that Qsymia is cost-effective, this result hinges on the time on Qsymia buy topamax and the extent to which benefits are maintained post medication cessation. This should be an area of future research.

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Antiepileptic drugs have proven effectiveness in migraine prophylaxis. However, in patients responsive to their acute care medications, the antiepileptic drugs are only cost-effective for those buy topamax patients with a high frequency of migraines and those with comorbid diseases. Future studies should be done with antiepileptic drugs in patients exhibiting a migraine frequency of 10 or more headaches per month.

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A total of 73 patients with migraine headache with or without aura are included in this single-center, double-blind, randomized, and controlled trial. Patients were assigned to receive topiramate alone, amitriptyline alone or a combination of these buy topamax drugs. Frequency, duration and severity of migraine attacks, accompanied symptoms, depressive state, consumption of medications, side effects and patient satisfaction were evaluated.

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Topiramate as an add-on treatment to lifestyle improvements produced significant weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis in obese, drug-naive subjects with type 2 diabetes. These treatment advantages should be balanced against the occurrence of adverse events in the buy topamax CNS.

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Among 2722 epileptic patients from tertiary referral center, we retrospectively identified 105 patients (62 females; mean age 22.3+/-7.2 years) with an established diagnosis of JME. All patients buy topamax were treated with valproates (83.3%), or lamotrigine, topiramate, phenobarbital, add-on clobazam, or combinations (16.2%).

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Topiramate may be an effective treatment for binge-eating disorder. Controlled studies Oxytrol Generic Name of topiramate in binge-eating disorder appear warranted.

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Renal excretion remains a major route of TPM elimination, even in the presence of enzyme induction. The twofold increase in TPM-CL/F in patients taking CBZ can be ascribed, at least in part, to stimulation of the oxidative pathways leading to formation of 2,3-diol-TPM and 10-OH-TPM. VPA was not found to have any clinically significant influence on TPM pharmacokinetic Generic Viagra Online and metabolic profiles.

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Migraine and migraine variants are common, chronic and incapacitating neurovascular disorders with a high impact on health resources. There is an extensive evidence base provided by double-blind, placebo-controlled trials showing that topiramate is a safe, effective and well tolerated drug in the management of migraine and its variants, being especially promising in the management Celexa Generic Reviews of migraine-vertigo syndrome. Models both in the US and the UK have also shown that it offers a cost benefit when direct and indirect costs are evaluated, by reducing work loss, improving quality of life and reducing the use of increasingly scarce health resources.

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All 13 patients had comorbid Axis I psychiatric disorders along with binge-eating disorder and were receiving psychotropic medications at the time of topiramate administration. After beginning topiramate treatment, 9 patients displayed a moderate or better response of binge-eating disorder symptoms that was maintained for periods ranging from 3 to 30 months (mean +/- SD = 18.7+/-8.0 months). Two other patients displayed moderate or marked responses that subsequently diminished. The remaining 2 patients had a mild or no response. The mean +/- SD weight of Bactroban Drug Classification the 13 patients decreased from 99.3+/-26.4 kg to 87.5+/-20.4 kg (z = -2.4, df = 1, p = .02), but only 7 patients lost > or = 5 kg of weight. The mean topiramate treatment dose was 492.3+/-467.8 mg/day for all 13 patients. The mean topiramate dose was higher in patients who lost > or = 5 kg than in patients who lost < 5 kg. Also, topiramate dose correlated significantly with weight loss (p < .01). In general, topiramate was well tolerated, with neurologic side effects the most common. Of 3 patients who discontinued topiramate because of side effects, 2 resumed the drug at a later date without significant recurrence of these effects.

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Refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TCE) shows a unique Evista Tabs type of hippocampal damage, referred to as hippocampal sclerosis. The mechanisms underlying drug-refractoriness in TCE are poorly understood, which may be connected with pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Some studies show that expression of the multidrug resistance gene (mdr1a and mdr1b) and p-glycoprotein encoded by mdr1a and mdr1b are high in the brain, especially in the hippocampus, and the expression may lead to reduction of AEDs concentration in the brain. But most of these studies focused on acute epileptic activity shortly after status epilepticus (SE), spontaneous seizures are seldom studied. The authors used a rat model of kainic acid induced spontaneous seizures to investigate expression of mdr1a and mdr1b mRNA, and explore whether topiramate (TPM) affects expression of mdr1a and mdr1b in the hippocampus.

topamax reviews 2017-03-04

Historically, most pharmacological approaches to the treatment of addictive disorders have utilized either substitution-based methods (i.e., nicotine replacement or opioid maintenance) or have targeted monoaminergic or endogenous opioidergic neurotransmitter systems. However, substantial evidence has accumulated indicating that ligands acting on glutamatergic transmission are also of potential utility in the treatment of drug addiction, as well as various behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling. The purpose of this review is to summarize the pharmacological mechanisms of action and general clinical efficacy of glutamatergic medications that are currently approved or are being investigated for approval for the treatment of addictive disorders. Medications with effects on glutamatergic transmission that will be discussed include acamprosate, N-acetylcysteine, d-cycloserine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, memantine, modafinil, and topiramate. We conclude that manipulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission is a relatively young but Coumadin Po Dose promising avenue for the development of improved therapeutic agents for the treatment of drug and behavioral addictions.

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In an institutional practice setting, two women, aged 25 and 45, developed acute myopia after starting Levitra Weekly Dose topiramate for epilepsy. One patient also developed bilateral angle closure glaucoma.

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Age and comedication are important contributors to pharmacokinetic variability. Age had the greatest impact Zetia Medication Coupon on levetiracetam, and comedication affected the clearance of each of the 4 AEDs investigated in this study. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions must be carefully considered when multidrug therapies are prescribed. Therapeutic drug monitoring is a valuable tool for individualizing AED therapy.

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Topiramate has efficacy as an add-on treatment for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. However, trials reviewed were of relatively short duration, and provide no evidence for the long term efficacy Cymbalta Dosage of topiramate. Results cannot be extrapolated to monotherapy or treating other epilepsy types.

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In this 24-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study, patients with one or more seizures in previous 6 months were randomized to treatment with 50 or 200 mg/day TPM. TPM was initiated as monotherapy or added to one AED and titrated by 25 mg/day per week to target or maximum tolerated dose as the concomitant AED, if any, was withdrawn.

topamax generic 2016-03-05

Aggressive symptomatology presents across multiple psychiatric, developmental, neurological and behavioral disorders, complicating the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying pathology. Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AEDs) have become an appealing alternative in the treatment of aggression, mood lability and impulsivity in adult and pediatric populations, although few controlled trials have explored their efficacy in treating pediatric populations. This review of the literature synthesizes the available data on ten AEDs - valproate, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine, topiramate, levetiracetam, zonisamide, gabapentin and tiagabine - in an attempt to assess evidence for the efficacy of AEDs in the treatment of aggression in pediatric populations. Our review revealed modest evidence that some of the AEDs produced improvement in pediatric aggression, but controlled trials in pediatric bipolar disorder have not been promising. Valproate is the best supported AED for aggression and should be considered as a first line of treatment. When monotherapy is insufficient, combining an AED with either lithium or an atypical anti-psychotic can result in better efficacy. Additionally, our review indicates that medications with predominately GABA-ergic mechanisms of action are not effective in treating aggression, and medications which decrease glutaminergic transmission tended to have more cognitive adverse effects. Agents with multiple mechanisms of action may be more effective.

topamax medicine 2015-12-31

Pharmacokinetic interactions of CBZ with LTG, TPM, VGB or VPA in children are associated only with the changes in total CBZ parameters.

topamax 75 mg 2016-11-04

Most drugs (262 of 368) were not associated with any cognitive tests after adjusting for age, gender, education, household income, smoking, alcohol status, psychostimulant/nootropic medication use, assessment centre, and concurrent diagnoses and medications. Drugs used for nervous system disorders were associated with poorer cognitive performance (antiepileptics, eg, topiramate breasoning(score) -0.65 (95% CI -1.05 to -0.24), bmemory(score) -1.41 (-1.79 to -1.04); antipsychotics, eg, risperidone breaction time(ms) -33 (-46 to -20), negative values indicate poor cognitive performance and vice versa). Drugs used for non-nervous system conditions also showed significant negative association with cognitive score, including those where such an association might have been predicted (antihypertensives, eg, amlodipine breasoning -0.1 (-0.15 to -0.06), bmemory -0.08 (-0.13 to -0.03), breaction time -3 (-5 to -2); antidiabetics, eg, insulin breaction time -13 (-17 to -10)) and others where such an association was a surprising observation (proton pump inhibitors, eg, omeprazole breasoning -0.11 (-0.15 to -0.06), bmemory -0.08 (-0.12 to -0.04), breaction time -5 (-6 to -3); laxatives, eg, contact laxatives breaction time -13 (-19 to -8)). Finally, only a few medications and health supplements showed association towards a positive effect on cognitive function (anti-inflammatory agents, eg, ibuprofen breasoning 0.05 (0.02 to 0.08), breaction time 4 (3, 5); glucosamine breasoning 0.09 (0.03 to 0.14), breaction time 5 (3 to 6)).

topamax 15 mg 2016-05-07

The study investigated the types of interactions between loreclezole (LCZ) and a variety of newly licensed antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) with different mechanisms of actions [felbamate (FBM), lamotrigine (LTG), topiramate (TPM), and oxcarbazepine (OXC)] by isobolographic analysis.

topamax diet pill 2016-07-24

A total of 25 studies were included in the review (2641 participants). Most participants were male, with an average age of 44 years. Anticonvulsants were compared with placebo (17 studies), other medications (seven studies) and no medication (two studies). The mean duration of the trials was 17 weeks (range four to 52 weeks). The studies took place in the USA, Europe, South America, India and Thailand. Variation was reported in the characteristics of the studies, including their design and the rating instruments used. For many key outcomes, the risk of bias associated with unclear or unconcealed allocation and lack of blinding affected the quality of the evidence.Anticonvulsants versus placebo: For dropouts (16 studies, 1675 participants, risk ratio (RR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.74 to 1.19, moderate-quality evidence) and continuous abstinence (eight studies, 634 participants, RR 1.21, 95% Cl 95% 0.97 to 1.52, moderate-quality evidence), results showed no evidence of differences. Moderate-quality evidence suggested that anticonvulsants reduced drinks/drinking days (11 studies, 1126 participants, mean difference (MD) -1.49, 95% Cl -2.32 to -0.65) and heavy drinking (12 studies, 1129 participants, standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.35, 95% Cl -0.51 to -0.19). Moreover, withdrawal for medical reasons (12 studies, 1410 participants, RR 1.22, 95% Cl 0.58 to 2.56, moderate-quality evidence) showed no evidence of difference, but for specific adverse effects (nine studies, 1164 participants), two of 18 adverse event outcomes favoured placebo. The direction of results was confirmed by subgroup analyses for topiramate and partially for gabapentin and valproate.Anticonvulsants versus naltrexone: No evidence of difference was shown in dropout rates (five studies, 528 participants, RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.06), severe relapse rates (four studies, 427 participants, RR 0.69, 95% Cl 0.44 to 1.07) and continuous abstinence rates (five studies, 528 participants, RR 1.21, 95% Cl 0.99 to 1.49); anticonvulsants were associated with fewer heavy drinking days (three studies, 308 participants, MD -5.21, 95% Cl -8.58 to -1.83), more days to severe relapse (three studies, 244 participants, MD 11.88, 95% Cl 3.29 to 20.46) and lower withdrawal for medical reasons (three studies, 245 participants, RR 0.13, 95% Cl 0.03 to 0.58).

topamax 250 mg 2017-12-27

We identified 222 published SUNCT/SUNA cases. Our three patients with neurovascular compression added to the 34 cases previously described (16.9%). SUNCT and SUNA share the same clinical features and therapeutic options. At present, there is no available abortive treatment for attacks. Lamotrigine was effective in 64% of patients; topiramate and gabapentin in about one-third of cases. Of the 34 cases with neurovascular compression, seven responded to drug therapies, 16 patients underwent microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve (MVD) with effectiveness in 75%.

topamax reviews anxiety 2015-09-01

We conducted a retrospective review of the charts of patients treated with add-on topiramate in order to control weight gain induced by psychotropic drugs (antipsychotic drugs, lithium or valproate).