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Herbal combination of Itrifal Saghir (triphala) has been widely used in traditional medicine. And brings health benefits such as antioxidant effect and scavenger of hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide radicals activity and substantiated in traditional medicine a anti-obesity.
Three gallotannins (3-5) from Terminalia fruits acting as enhancers of both PPARα and PPARγ signaling increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake without inducing the adipogenesis, with 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (4) being the most effective in stimulating glucose uptake and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (5) being most effective in increasing PPAR protein expression.
The colitis rats treated with higher dose of Triphala (300 mg/kg) exhibited normal parameters similar to normal control group animals, which is on par with standard drug mesalzine effect.
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Human skin is body's vital organ constantly exposed to abiotic oxidative stress. This can have deleterious effects on skin such as darkening, skin damage, and aging. Plant-derived products having skin-protective effects are well-known traditionally. Triphala, a formulation of three fruit products, is one of the most important rasayana drugs used in Ayurveda. Several skin care products based on Triphala are available that claim its protective effects on facial skin. However, the skin protective effects of Triphala extract (TE) and its mechanistic action on skin cells have not been elucidated in vitro. Gallic acid, ellagic acid, and chebulinic acid were deduced by LC-MS as the major constituents of TE. The identified key compounds were docked with skin-related proteins to predict their binding affinity. The IC50 values for TE on human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were 204.90 ± 7.6 and 239.13 ± 4.3 μg/mL respectively. The antioxidant capacity of TE was 481.33 ± 1.5 mM Trolox equivalents in HaCaT cells. Triphala extract inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced RBC haemolysis (IC50 64.95 μg/mL), nitric oxide production by 48.62 ± 2.2%, and showed high reducing power activity. TE also rescued HDF from H2O2-induced damage; inhibited H2O2 induced cellular senescence and protected HDF from DNA damage. TE increased collagen-I, involucrin and filaggrin synthesis by 70.72 ± 2.3%, 67.61 ± 2.1% and 51.91 ± 3.5% in HDF or HaCaT cells respectively. TE also exhibited anti-tyrosinase and melanin inhibition properties in a dose-dependent manner. TE increased the mRNA expression of collagen-I, elastin, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2), aquaporin-3 (AQP-3), filaggrin, involucrin, transglutaminase in HDF or HaCaT cells, and decreased the mRNA levels of tyrosinase in B16F10 cells. Thus, Triphala exhibits protective benefits on skin cells in vitro and can be used as a potential ingredient in skin care formulations.
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The role of plant extracts and Ayurvedic polyherbal preparations in treating various ailments has been acknowledged since time immemorial. Studies based on the effect of these extracts in treatment of different diseases have also been well documented. Indian medicinal literature also emphasizes the synergistic effect of polyherbal drugs in restoring and rejuvenating immune system. This review focuses on the immunomodulatory potential of the polyherbal preparation, Triphala and its three constituents, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The role of Triphala and its extract has been emphasized in stimulating neutrophil function. Under stress condition such as noise, Triphala significantly prevents elevation of IL-4 levels as well as corrects decreased IL-2 and IFN-γ levels. Under the condition of inflammatory stress its immunosuppressive activity is attributed to its inhibitory action on complement system, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity and mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the individual constituents reportedly enhance especially the macrophage activation due to their free radical scavenging activity and the ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. This study thus concludes the use of Triphala and its three individual constituents as potential immunostimulants and/or immunosuppressants further suggests them to be a better alternative for allopathic immunomodulators.
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It was observed that triphalaguggulkalpa tablets, prepared by direct compression method, complied with the hardness and disintegration tests, whereas tablets prepared by Ayurvedic text methods failed.
Triphala, an Indian Ayurvedic herbal formulation which contains Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Combretaceae) and Emblica officinalis L. (Phyllanthaceae), is used for treating bowel-related complications, inflammatory disorders, and gastritis.
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The recent outbreaks of Hepatitis A in Kerala are suggestive of decrease in endemicity as most adults were not exposed during the childhood. In allopathic system of medicine, there is no established treatment for Hepatitis A and hence most people tend to rely on the alternate systems of medicine. The study was aimed at identifying the burden of Hepatitis A in the locality and to uncover the degree of dependence of the people on traditional systems of medicine.
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To evaluate glycolytic enzyme inhibitory and antiglycation potential of Triphala.
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This review for the first time summarizes these results, with emphasis on published observations. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects and lacunas in the existing knowledge that need to be bridged are also discussed.
The nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activities of traditional polyherbal drugs like abana, chyavanaprasha, geriforte, septilin, mentat and triphala were examined using sodium nitroprusside as a NO donor in vitro. All the drugs tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and were superior to Gingko biloba, which was used as a positive control. The extracts of various polyherbal drugs exhibited dose-dependent NO scavenging activities and the potency was in the following order: abana > chyavanaprasha > triphala > geriforte > septilin > mentat > Gingko biloba. The present results suggest that the traditional Indian polyherbal crude drugs may be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO, and thereby inhibit the pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite. These findings may also help to explain, at least in part, the pharmacological activities like rejuvenating, adaptogenic, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and neuroprotective activities of these traditional, clinically used non toxic drugs.
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The present work is probably the first report on cancer chemopreventive potential of Triphala, a combination of fruit powder of three different plants namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. Triphala is a popular formulation of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Our findings have shown that Triphala in diet has significantly reduced the benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. In the short term treatment groups, the tumor incidences were lowered to 77.77% by both doses of Triphala mixed diet. In the case of long-term treatment the tumor incidences were reduced to 66.66% and 62.50% respectively by 2.5% and 5% triphala containing diet. Tumor burden was 7.27 +/- 1.16 in the B(a)P treated control group, whereas it reduced to 3.00 +/- 0.82 (p < 0.005) by 2.5% dose and 2.33 +/- 1.03 (p < 0.001) by 5% dose of Triphala. In long-term studies the tumor burden was reduced to 2.17 +/- 0.75 (p < 0.001) and 2.00 +/- 0.71 (p < 0.001) by 2.5% and 5% diet of Triphala, respectively. It was important to observe that Triphala was more effective in reducing tumor incidences compared to its individual constituents. Triphala also significantly increased the antioxidant status of animals which might have contributed to the chemoprevention. It was inferred that the concomitant use of multiple agents seemed to have a high degree of chemoprevention potential.
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The present study investigates the anxiolytic activity of NR-ANX-C, a standardized polyherbal formulation containing the extracts of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Camellia sinensis, Triphala, and Shilajit in ethanol withdrawal- (EW-) induced anxiety behavior in rats. Ethanol dependence in rats was produced by substitution of drinking water with 7.5% v/v alcohol for 10 days. Then, ethanol withdrawal was induced by replacing alcohol with drinking water, 12 hours prior to experimentation. After confirming induction of withdrawal symptoms in the alcohol deprived animals, the anxiolytic activity of the test compound in graded doses (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) was compared to the standard drug alprazolam (0.08 mg/kg) in the elevated plus maze and bright and dark arena paradigms. In our study, single and repeated dose administration of NR-ANX-C reduced EW-induced anxiety in a dose-dependent manner. Even though the anxiolytic activity was not significant at lower doses, NR-ANX-C at the highest dose tested (40 mg/kg) produced significant anxiolytic activity that was comparable to the standard drug alprazolam. Based on our findings we believe that NR-ANX-C has the potential to be used as an alternative to benzodiazepines in the treatment of EW-induced anxiety.
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There was significant (P < 0.001, paired t test) reduction in blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and pulse rate immediately after both the sessions (LSP with and without triphala). There were no adverse effects reported during or after LSP. There was no significant difference between the two techniques (P < 0.505, independent samples t test), although the percentage change appeared to be higher after triphala LSP session. The number of visits to clear the bowel during the procedure was significantly (P < 0.001, independent samples t test) higher after LSP with triphala than LSP without triphalā. After weeklong IAYT, there were significant reductions in blood pressure (P < 0.001), BMI (P < 0.004), medication score (P < 0.001), symptoms score (P < 0.001), fatigue (P < 0.001), state and trait anxiety (STAI, P < 0.001), scores of general ill health (GHQ, P < 0.001), and increase in comfort level (P < 0.001) and quality of sleep (P < 0.001).
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We evaluated the preventive effects of Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) aqueous extract on oxidative and antioxidative status in liver and kidney of aged rats compared to young albino rats. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipofuscin (LF), protein carbonyls (PCO), activities of xantione oxidase (XO), manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), levels of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E were used as biomarkers. In the liver and kidney of aged animals, enhanced oxidative stress was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences. Administration of aqueous extract of T. cheubla effectively modulated oxidative stress and enhanced antioxidant status in the liver and kidney of aged rats. The results of the present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of T. cheubla inhibits the development of age-induced damages by protecting against oxidative stress.
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Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) family Combretaceae is an important plant used traditionally for medicinal purposes. It is component of the classic Ayurvedic combination called "Triphala". Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with atherogemc diet. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving treatment with Haritaki showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Haritaki was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The results also suggest that Haritaki at 1.05 and 2.10 mg/kg b.wt. concentrations are an excellent lipid-lowering agent.
In Ayurveda, various herbal preparations are clinically used to prevent or cure infectious diseases. Herbal preparations such as Triphala churna, Hareetaki churna, Dashmula churna, Manjistadi churna, Sukhsarak churna, Ajmodadi churna, Shivkshar pachan churna, Mahasudarshan churna, Swadist Virechan churna and Pipramool churna were investigated by preparing their organic solvent extract for antibacterial potential against enteric bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Proteus vulgaris, respectively. In the present study, Triphala churna, Hareetaki churna, Dashmula churna were potent antibacterial agents against S. epidermidis, P. vulgaris, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi. The study supports the use of these herbal preparations not only as dietary supplements but also as agents to prevent or control enteric bacterial infections.
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Extracted human mandibular premolars sectioned below the cemento-enamel junction were placed in the tissue culture wells exposing the crown surface to S. mutans to form a biofilm. At the end of 3 rd and 7 th day, all groups were treated for 10 min with the test solutions and control and were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively.
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Arthritis was induced in Wistar albino rats by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1 ml) into the foot pad of right hind paw. Triphala (100 mg/kg b wt, i.p.) was administered from day 11 to 18 after the administration of complete Freund's adjuvant. The activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes, glycoproteins, antioxidant status, and lipid peroxidation were determined in the paw tissues of arthritic rats. In addition, the inflammatory mediators were also measured in both the serum and the paw tissue of arthritic rats.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the constituents of T. bellerica and T. chebula fruit extracts on PPARα and PPARγ signaling/expression, cellular glucose uptake and adipogenesis.
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Triphala is an anti-oxidant-rich herbal formulation containing fruits of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and T. belerica in equal proportions. The preparation is frequently used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat diseases such as anaemia, jaundice, constipation, asthma, fever and chronic ulcers. Anti-mutagenic effects of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from Triphala have been reported, thus indicating that the phenols present in the formulation might be responsible for its therapeutic efficacy. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography method for the separation and quantitative determination of the major antioxidant polyphenols from Triphala has been developed. The use of an RP18 column with an acidic mobile phase enabled the efficient separation of gallic acid, tannic acid, syringic acid and epicatechin along with ascorbic acid within a 20 min analysis. Validation of the method was performed in order to demonstrate its selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness. In addition, optimisation of the complete extraction of phenolic compounds was also studied.
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Immune activation is an effective as well as protective approach against emerging infectious diseases. The immunomodulatory activities of Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) were assessed by testing the various neutrophil functions like adherence, phagocytosis (phagocytic index (P.I) and avidity index (A.I)) and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction in albino rats. In recent years much attention is being focused on the immunological changes occur during stress. Noise (100 dB) stress for 4 h/d for 15 d, was employed to alter the neutrophil functions. The neutrophil function tests and corticosterone levels were carried out in eight different groups of animals, namely control, Triphala, noise-stress, Triphala noise-stress, and corresponding immunized groups were used. Sheep red blood cells (SRBC 5 x 10(9) cells per ml) were used for immunizing the animals that belongs to immunized groups. In Triphala administration (1 g/kg/d for 48 d), A.I was found to be significantly enhanced in the Triphala group, while the remaining neutrophil functions and steroid levels were not altered significantly. However the neutrophil functions were significantly enhanced in the Triphala immunized group with a significant decrease in corticosterone level was observed. Upon exposure to the noise-stress, the neutrophil functions were significantly suppressed and followed by a significant increase in the corticosterone levels were observed in both the noise-stress and the noise-stress immunized groups. These noise-stress-induced changes were significantly prevented by Triphala administration in both the Triphala noise-stress and the Triphala noise-stress immunized groups. Hence our study has divulged that oral administration of Triphala appears to stimulate the neutrophil functions in the immunized rats and stress induced suppression in the neutrophil functions were significantly prevented by Triphala.
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Aim of the study was to determine protective effect of triphala on radiation-induced rectal mucosal damage. Male Sprague Dawley rats (30) were divided into 5 groups. Rats in group A were sham irradiated and rats in group B underwent only irradiation. Rats in group C were administered triphala 1 g/kg/day orally for 5 consecutive days before irradiation. Rats in group D and E were administered triphala 1 and 1.5 g/kg/day orally for 10 consecutive days, respectively. Rectal mucosal damage was induced by a single fraction of 12.5Gy gamma irradiation (Ir-192) on 5th day. All the rats were autopsied on 11th day and histological changes in surface epithelium, glands, and lamina propria were assessed. Proctitis showed significant improvement in surface epithelium (P < 0.024), glands (P < 0.000) and lamina propria (P < 0.002) in group E compared to group B. Rats in group E showed significantly less change in glands (P < 0.000) compared to rats in group D, All histological variables (surface epithelium, P < 0.001; glands, P < 0.000; lamina propria, P < 0.003) compared to rats in group C. In a Tukey-b test, group E had a significantly recovered grade for glands (P < 0.000) compared to groups B, C and D. Results of the present study showed that high-dose triphala improved radiation-induced damage of glands.
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India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital stake in conservation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources. Plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to their pharmacological relevance. With this in view, the bark powder of Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Juglans regia, and the fruit powder of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula, Emblica officinalis, and a combination drug "Triphala," which are known to be rich in polyphenols, were tested for their antimutagenic activities. Antimutagenic activities of the extracts were estimated by employing the plate incorporation Ames Salmonella histidine reversion assay by using the frame shift mutagen tester strain TA98 and base pair substitution strain TA100 against direct acting mutagens (NPD, sodium azide), and the S9-dependent mutagen 2-aminofluorene(2AF). Acetone extracts of all the plants exhibited significant antimutagenic activities among the other extracts tested, but an acetone extract of Acacia nilotica showed a marked anti-mutagent effect. Furthermore, it was more effective against indirect acting mutagen, 2AF, in both TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium than against the direct acting mutagens. The results indicate that an acetone extract of bark and fruit of the medicinal plants under study harbors constituents with promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that could be investigated further.
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Triphala is categorized as rejuvenator and traditionally been used in various gastric disorders including intestinal inflammation. The aim of present study was to examine the comparative gastroprotective effects of Triphala formulations against experimental gastric ulcer in rats to substantiate its traditional claim. Gastric ulcer was induced by water immersion plus stress-induced ulcers in rats. The drug effects were assessed by studying macroscopic gross injury and stomach tissue biochemical parameters. Triphala unequal formulation and Chinnodbhavadi kwath showed significant antiulcer activity and this is evident from reduction of ulcer index, lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl radical levels and concomitantly raised levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Though similar kind of activity was observed in Triphala equal formulation the magnitude was much less. Further, Chinnodbhavadi kwath significantly increased the glutathione and ATPase level but Triphala equal formulation significantly increased glutathione level only. Based on the data generated, it is suggested that among the three formulations studied, Chinnodbhavadi kwath and Triphala unequal formulations provides significant protection in gastric ulcer as compared to Triphala equal formulation.
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The anti-diarrhoeal effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Triphala and Triphala Mashi were studied employing castor oil-induced-diarrhoeal model in rats. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance travelled by the charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. All the extracts, at various doses 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg displayed remarkable anti-diarrhoeal activity as evidenced by a significant increase in first defecation time, cumulative fecal weight and intestinal transit time. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Triphala and Triphala Mashi were considered safe up to a dose of 1750 mg/kg when evaluated for acute oral toxicity in accordance with the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines. In conclusion, the remarkable anti-diarrhoeal effect of Triphala and Triphala Mashi extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea suggest its potential for application in a wide range of diarrhoeal states.
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Wound infection is a major problem in the medical community since many types of wounds are more prone to microbial contamination leading to infection. Triphala (a traditional ayurvedic herbal formulation) incorporated collagen sponge was investigated for its healing potential on infected dermal wound in albino rats.
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Diabetic population is more than 245 million worldwide and expected to be b380 million by 2025. One of the main causes of increasing rate of diabetes is stress and tension in day-to-day life, disturbing the homeostasis of positive and negative emotions to initiate pathophysiology of stress-induced diabetes. In the present study, in Group A of 34 patients, a herbo-mineral compound containing Shuddha Shilajatu, Shuddha Guggulu, Vijayasara Ghana, Saptarangi Ghana, and Triphala Ghana was administered in the dose of 3 gm/day in three divided doses with luke-warm water before meal for the duration of 8 weeks, which significantly relieved symptoms (60.52%) like Prabhuta Mutrata (54.55%), Avila Mutrata (66.67%), Daurbalya (61.36%), Shrama (59.32%), etc. with fasting blood sugar (4.05%) and postprandial blood sugar (9.95%). In another series of 34 patients (Group B), where psychological health promoting drug Shankhapushpi was administered in the dose of 1.5 gm/day in three divided doses for 8 weeks along with herbo-mineral compound. The percentage relief was found to be more better on symptoms (71.13%) like Prabhuta Mutrata (76.92%), Avila Mutrata (83.33%), Daurbalya (75%), Shrama (70.37%), fasting blood sugar (18.04%) and postprandial blood sugar (27.75%). Group B showed better results on psychological parameters like disturbed Manasabhava (29.16%) and Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale (38.28%). The high significance of χ(2) (15.50) on overall effect of therapy indicated better results in group B.