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OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in fecal flora and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics with the oral antibiotics ceftibuten 400 mg daily and cefpodoxime proxetil (CPX) 200 mg every 12 h, compared to amoxycillin/clavulanate 500/125 mg every 8 h during and following 1 week of medication. METHODS: In an open randomized triple crossover design, 18 (nine female, nine male) healthy volunteers received each drug for 7 days, followed by a 'washout' period of 4 weeks. Serum and urine levels of the substances were determined by bioassay, and for ceftibuten isomers by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis of quantitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures of feces was performed, and beta-lactamase activity was determined. RESULTS: Ceftibuten showed a mean Cmax of 18.9 (SD 3.0) mg/L, a terminal half-life of 2.89 h, and an AUCtot of 100 (21.8) mg.h/L; protein binding was 63.7 (5.1)%, and accumulation was marginal. Cefpodoxime proxetil had a Cmax of 1.92 (0.61) mg/L, a terminal half-life of 1.97 (0.42) h and an AUCtot of 10.8 (3.3) mg.h/L; no accumulation was seen. Amoxycillin and clavulanate had Cmax values of 7.15 (2.16) mg/L and 3.39 (1.31) mg/L, terminal half-life values of 1.03 (0.15) h and 0.93 (0.17) h, AUCtot values of 20.0 (4.2) mg.h/L and 8.87 (3.10) mg.h/L, and there was no accumulation. Statistical analysis for ech microorganism in fecal samples showed significant differences between amoxycillin/clavulanate and the two third-generation cephalosporins, but virtually no differences between ceftibuten and cefpodoxime proxetil. Eleven of 12 volunteers reported loose stools (days 2-7, mean duration 4.4 (SD 2.7) days) with amoxycillin/clavulanate, but nobody during ceftibuten administration and one volunteer during cefpodoxime proxetil administration. CONCLUSIONS: Ceftibuten showed excellent and cefpodoxime favorable pharmacokinetic properties, with significantly less pronounced fecal flora changes and intestinal side effects compared to amoxycillin/clavulanate. The multiple crossover design allows powerful microbiological statistical analysis and pharmacokinetic parameter comparisons.
This multicentre, randomized study compared the efficacy and tolerance of cefpodoxime proxetil and ceftriaxone in vulnerable patients with bronchopneumonia. Patients received cefpodoxime proxetil 200 mg bd orally or ceftriaxone 1 g daily im for a ten-day period. They were evaluated at days 10 and 30. Ninety-six patients were evaluated for tolerance, 85 for clinical efficacy and 65 for bacteriological efficacy. At entry all patients had radiographic evidence of pneumonia and 74% of bacteriological samples were positive. The percentage of overall success (cured or improved) was 97.7% (43/44) in the cefpodoxime proxetil group and 95.1% (39/41) in the ceftriaxone group. The bacteriological efficacy was 94.3% in the cefpodoxime proxetil group and 97.4% in the ceftriaxone group. Clinical tolerance was satisfactory in both groups. In this study, the clinical and bacteriological results obtained with cefpodoxime proxetil were comparable with those obtained with ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired bronchopneumonia in patients with additional risk factors.
Penicillin (PC) resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae was tested by oxacillin disk method (Bauer-Kirby method) of the strains collected at the primary pediatric office. The rate of oxacillin resistance of S. pneumoniae was 36.4% in 1990, 41.4% in 1991, and 51.9% in 1992, respectively. The efficacy of oral antibiotics in the treatment of PC-insensitive S. pneumoniae infections was also studied retrospectively in 234 cases. Treatment failure rate was 17.7% in the amoxicillin group, 8.7% in the cefpodoxime proxetil group, while it was 42.9% in the cefixime group. These differences were statistically significant. From these data prevalence of PC-insensitive S. pneumoniae is very high in Japanese children, and amoxicillin and cefpodoxime proxetil can be used for the treatment of outpatients with PC-insensitive S. pneumoniae infections.
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Cefpodoxime proxetil, a relatively new broad-spectrum third-generaation cephalosporin, has very good in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae, Hemophilus spp. and Moraxella spp., including beta-lactamase producers and many strains resistant to other oral agents. It also has activity against Gram-positive bacteria, especially against streptococci. Cefpodoxime has no activity against enterococci. It is well tolerated and is one of the first third-generation cephalosporins to be available in oral form. While the compound has been used most widely in the treatment of respiratory and urinary tract infections, its utility has also been demonstrated in the treatment of skin structure infections, acute otitis media, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and sexually transmitted diseases.
Twenty-four healthy volunteers and 24 patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate received an oral dose of 200 mg of cefpodoxime as proxetil ester in a fasting state. At the same time 3.235 g of iohexol, a renal contrast medium, was injected intravenously to indicate possible urinary contamination of the prostatic fluid. The subjects were divided into three groups each. After 3, 6 and 12 h the cefpodoxime concentrations were measured in plasma, urine, prostatic fluid and ejaculate in volunteers and in plasma, prostatic fluid and prostatic adenoma tissue in patients by a bioassay as well as by an HPLC method. In general, the concentrations measured by bioassay were higher than those by HPLC. The median plasma concentrations (bioassay) in volunteers (patients) after 3, 6 and 12 h were 2.28 (2.34) mg/l, 0.95 (1.17) mg/l and 0.12 (0.28) mg/l, respectively. The median ejaculate concentrations after 6 and 12 h were 0.95 mg/l and 0.19 mg/l, respectively. Only in three volunteers and in one patient prostatic fluid concentration without urinary contamination could be measured after 3 h with a median fluid to plasma ratio of 0.10. The prostatic adenoma tissue concentrations (bioassay) after 3 and 6 h were 0.50 mg/kg and 0.24 mg/kg with tissue to plasma ratios of 0.30 and 0.26, respectively. After 3 h about half of the volunteers and after 12 h about half of the patients showed no detectable concentration in ejaculate (volunteers) and prostatic tissue (patients), respectively. It was concluded that the cefpodoxime should be administered 3 to 6 h prior to surgery if used for perioperative prophylaxis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Mean plasma protein binding for cefpodoxime and cephalexin was 82.6% and 20.8%, respectively. Mean ± SD values for cephalexin in plasma were determined for peak plasma concentration (Cmax, 31.5±11.5 μg/mL), area under the time-concentration curve (AUC, 155.6±29.5 μg•h/mL), and terminal half-life (T½, 4.7±1.2 hours); corresponding values in ISF were 16.3±5.8 μg/mL, 878±21.0 μg•h/mL, and 3.2±0.6 hours, respectively. Mean±SD values for cefpodoxime in plasma were 33.0±6.9 μg/mL (Cmax), 282.8±44.0 μg•h/mL (AUC), and 5.7±0.9 hours (T1/2); corresponding values in ISF were 4.3±2.0 μg/mL, 575±174 μg•h/mL, and 10.4±3.3 hours, respectively.
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All patients had acute-onset otorrhea associated with their AOM. Five patients had tympanostomy tubes and 1 had perforation of the tympanic membrane. None of the patients were responding to treatment with oral antibiotics (amoxicillin sodium-clavulanate potassium, cefpodoxime proxetil, and cefprozil) or fluoroquinolone ear drops (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin). Specimens were obtained from the ears for cultures, and MRSA was present in the cultures. The organisms were resistant to levofloxacin and erythromycin in all patients and resistant to clindamycin hydrochloride in 2 patients. The cultures were sensitive to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin sulfate, rifampin, and vancomycin hydrochloride. All patients were treated successfully with oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ear drops (gentamicin sulfate or polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone [Cortisporin]).
Included trials were grouped by antibiotic used in the short course: (1) 15 short-acting oral antibiotic trials (penicillin V potassium, amoxicillin [-clavulanate], cefaclor, cefixime, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefprozil), (2) 4 intramuscularceftriaxone sodium trials, and (3) 11 oral azithromycin trials. The summary odds ratio for treatment outcomes at 8 to 19 days in children treated with short-acting antibiotics for 5 days vs 8 to 10 days was 1.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.98) but by 20 to 30 days outcomes between treatment groups were comparable (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.54). The risk difference (2.3%; 95% CI,-0.2% to 4.9%) at 20 to 30 days suggests that 44 children would need to be treated with the long course of short-acting antibiotics to avoid 1 treatment failure. This similarity in later outcomes was observed for up to 3 months following therapy (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.90-1.50). Comparable outcomes were shown between treatment with ceftriaxone or azithromycin, and at least 7 days of other antibiotics.
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Between September 2006 and September 2007, 91 physicians enrolled 2400 children and 1482 patient records are fully assessable. The two factors that improve significantly compliance are administration in two doses by day (OR 2.2 [95% CI 1 6-3]) and acceptability ≥80% (OR 2.6, [95% CI 1.9-3.7]). The acceptability was better for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 65.4% (95% CI [57.6 to 72.4]) than for cefpodoxime 47.1% (95% CI [43.8-50.4]) or cefuroxime axetil 26% (95% [CI 15.9-39.6]). Conversely, cefpodoxime proxetil obtained a better score for compliance 91.8% (95% CI [89.8 to 93.4) as amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 84.6% (95%CI 80.8 to 87.8) because of its mode of administration in two doses per day. There is no difference between the amoxicillin clavulanic acid reference product and its generics as a whole, however a large variability exists between generics. If, for antibiotics prescribed in two doses per day, the two administrations by day are roughly equidistant, it is not the same for those prescribed three times a day: indeed, while the doses taken are identical, only four hours separate the first intake of the morning from the second intake in mid-day and more than 12 hours between the evening dose from the next morning intake.
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The purpose of this work was to develop and characterize chitosan-alginate beads for the extended delivery of cefpodoxime proxetil (CFP), to understand the impact of formulation and process parameters on the critical quality attributes (CQAs) using a quality-by-design approach. For this, a study was performed with various formulation and process parameters to determine their impact on CQAs of beads, which were determined to be time for 80% of the drug released (T80%), particle size, and encapsulation efficiency. The beads of CFP were optimized using a three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design. A formulation comprising of 4.38% (w/v) alginate, 1.39% (w/v) chitosan and 6.82% (w/v) calcium chloride was found to fulfill requisites of an optimum formulation. In vitro release studies showed that the drug is released from the optimized formulation over a period of 24h in a sustained release manner, primarily by non-Fickian diffusion. The optimized formulation was characterized by DSC, FTIR, XRD and SEM analysis. Antimicrobial studies revealed that the release of the drug over 24h periods was above the minimum concentration required for inhibition of microbial growth. This research highlights the level of understanding that can be accomplished through a well designed study based on the approach of QbD.
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To determine the disposition of orally administered cefpodoxime proxetil in foals and adult horses and measure the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the drug against common bacterial pathogens of horses.
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Primary pediatric clinic.
To conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children to determine whether outcomes were comparable in children treated with antibiotics for less than 7 days or at least 7 days or more.
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The disposition of cefpodoxime after single, oral 200-mg doses of cefpodoxime proxetil (cefpodoxime equivalents) was investigated in an open-label study of six patients with end-stage renal disease currently maintained on hemodialysis. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, which differed in the sequence of the interdialytic and intradialytic periods. Doses were separated by at least 2 weeks. Blood samples were serially collected for 48 hours after each treatment; if obtainable, urine was also collected over this same period. During the intradialytic period, hemodialysis was scheduled to begin approximately 3 hours after dosing, and dialysate was collected before and until the end of dialysis. Average cefpodoxime elimination half-life for the interdialytic period was 18.0 +/- 6.5 hours; apparent total body clearance was 28.6 +/- 13 mL/minute. The half-life during hemodialysis, 2.66 +/- 0.74 hours, was considerably shorter than that after hemodialysis, 19.2 +/- 3.5 hours, in the intradialytic period of the study. Hemodialysis clearance of cefpodoxime was 120 +/- 31 mL/minute, which was 57.1 +/- 13% and 71.7 +/- 25% of the hemodialysis clearance for urea nitrogen and creatinine, respectively. The 2.86 +/- 0.25 hour hemodialysis session removed 22.4 +/- 2.9% of the administered dose, as assessed by cefpodoxime recovery in dialysate. A maximum rebound in cefpodoxime plasma concentration of 0.41 +/- 0.33 mcg/mL was observed, at about one-half hour after the end of hemodialysis. Based on these results, dosage adjustment is not required, but extension of the dosing interval is warranted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
This study was designed to compare cefditoren pivoxil, a new beta-lactam, with cefpodoxime proxetil, a beta-lactam with an established role in the treatment of CAP.
The pulmonary disposition of cefpodoxime was studied in 12 patients with pulmonary opacities after a single oral dose of 260 mg of cefpodoxime-proxetil, which is equivalent to 200 mg of cefpodoxime. Blood and lung tissue samples were collected during surgery, and bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out 3 h (group A) or 6 h (group B) after drug administration. Urea was used as an endogenous marker for measurement of the volume of epithelial lining fluid (ELF). Concentrations were measured by using a microbiological assay. The mean concentrations of cefpodoxime in plasma, ELF, and lung tissue were, respectively, 1.85 +/- 0.82 mg/liter, 0.22 +/- 0.13 mg/liter, and 0.89 +/- 0.80 mg/kg of body weight in group A and 1.40 +/- 1.25 mg/liter, 0.12 +/- 0.14 mg/liter, and 0.84 +/- 0.61 mg/kg in group B. Concentrations in lung parenchyma 6 h after dosing were at least equal to or above the MICs for 90% of the strains of most organisms commonly found in respiratory tract infections, whereas data for ELF suggest levels of drug insufficient to inhibit bacteria.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00194532.
Cefpodoxime, the active de-esterified molecule of the orally absorbable cephalosporin cefpodoxime proxetil, inhibits streptococci, Neisseria spp., and most Enterobacteriaceae, with MIC50 and/or MIC90 values of less than or equal to 2 mg/L; with regard to the latter family of bacteria, the MIC50 and/or MIC90 values of cefpodoxime are consistently greater than or equal to 4 mg/L for only Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia marcescens, and Morganella morganii. The MIC50 of cedpodoxime for coagulase-negative staphylococci is greater than 2 mg/L, while the MIC for Staphylococcus aureus strains is 4 mg/L. In comparison with other orally absorbable cephalosporins, cefpodoxime is slightly less active than cefixime, cefetamet, and cefotiam against Gram-negative bacteria, but more active than cefuroxime, cefaclor, and cefalexin. Against staphylococci, the activity of cefpodoxime is comparable to that of cefotiam and cefuroxime, and superior to that of cefaclor, while cefixime and cefetamet have insufficient activity against these species. In common with other cephalosporins, cefpodoxime has no activity against enterococci. In vitro models simulating human serum cefpodoxime concentrations demonstrate that a dosage regimen of 200mg is probably sufficient to treat most infections. However, further study is needed to clarify whether infections due to bacteria such as S. aureus, with higher cefpodoxime MICs, can be treated with this dose regimen.
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To compare bacteriologic and clinical efficacy and safety of 10 vs 5 days of cefpodoxime proxetil vs 10 days of penicillin V potassium for the treatment of acute group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in children.
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122 patients with bacterial infections of respiratory tract, ear, nose, and throat, urinary tract and skin and soft tissue were treated with cefpodoxime proxetil. In the treatments of patients with clinical efficacy tates of cefpodoxime proxetil for infections in these four systems were 90.0%, 97.5%, 90.0% and 86.4%, respectively. The bacterial clearance rate of gram-positive bacterial was 96.9%, and that of gram-negative bacteria 96.4%. Adverse drug reaction rate was 18.9%.
Cefpodoxime disposition was best characterized using a one-compartment open model with first order absorption. The area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve, Cmax and Ke were not significantly different between fed and fasted conditions. However, Tmax was significantly prolonged (fed=2.79+/-1.10 h vs. fasted=1.93+/-0.54 h) and Ka was significantly smaller (fed=0.42+/-0.14 h(-1) vs. fasted=0.81+/-0.72 h(-1)) in the fed state.
Dry syrup and tablet of newly developed cefpodoxime proxetil (CS-807, CPDX-PR) was investigated in the departments of pediatrics of 17 institutes and their related hospitals. 1. Pharmacokinetics of CPDX-PR in pediatrics were investigated. Peak blood levels of CPDX at dose levels of 3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg were 2.24 +/- 0.21 and 4.68 +/- 0.54 micrograms/ml, respectively, in fasting and 1.65 +/- 0.07 and 3.71 +/- 0.41 micrograms/ml, respectively, after meal. Urinary recovery rates in 6 hours were 31.2 +/- 2.2% of dose in average. 2. Clinical efficacies of CPDX-PR on various infectious diseases were studied in 748 cases. Clinical efficacy rate in 499 cases with causative bacteria isolated was 94.6%: efficacy rates for individual infections were 96.8% (120/124) for tonsillitis, 96.0% (96/100) for urinary tract infection, 93.5% (58/62) for pneumonia, 92.4% (61/66) for impetigo, 100% (32/32) for scarler fever and 93.2% for pharyngitis or laryngitis. Bacteriological eradication rate for Gram-positive organisms was 91.0% (244/268); and for Gram-negative organisms, 89.7% (210/234). The clinical efficacy rate for cases which were non-responsive to previous antibiotic therapy was 88.1% (74/84). 3. Side effects and clinical laboratory findings were investigated in 779 cases. Two each of vomiting, loose stool and rash, 10 of diarrhea and 1 of diarrhea associated with candidiasis were reported, but no serious side effects were noted. There was no serious laboratory test abnormality except slight elevations of eosinophile, platelet, transaminase or prolongation of prothrombin time, totalling 34 occurrences.
AOM accounted for 5.8% of the 43 433 visits or 6.2 cases/week per pediatrician. Among 3141 evaluable AOM cases (mean age 16.7±8 months, peak incidence at 10 months), 99% had been vaccinated with PCV7 and 42.1% attended day care (DCC). Recurrent AOM comprised 24.5% of cases and 51% of children had received ATB in the last 3 months. At the time of diagnosis, 47.1% had fever≥38,5°C, 74.5% otalgia and 4.7% otorrhea. Febrile and painful AOM accounted for 29.5% of cases and cunjunctivitis-otitis syndrome for 18.2%. ATB was prescribed in 98.7% of cases (cefpodoxime proxetil, 59% and amoxicillin/clavulanate, 37%). The failure rate was 6.4% and failure risk was greater in children in DCC (OR=1.50, [1.10;2.05]), young age<18 months (OR=1.47, [1.06;2.04]) and history of recurrent AOM (OR=1.45, [1.02;2.06]).
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6 healthy adult horses and 6 healthy foals at 7 to 14 days of age and again at 3 to 4 months of age.