Elenoside is a cytotoxic arylnapthalene lignan (NSC 644013-W/1) derived from Justicia hyssopifolia (Family: Acanthaceae). The neuropharmacological activity of this lignan, a beta-D-glucoside was studied. The LD50 (24 h) of elenoside in mice is 305 +/- 7 mg/kg by i.p. route. In the present study elenoside was given to rats at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg, and its effects on locomotor activity (Varimex test), muscular relaxant activity, open-field test and with chlorpromazine, 10 mg/kg was compared. On Varimex test, spontaneous activity was reduced. Elenoside produced a reduction in the permanence time on muscular relaxant activity (traction test). On open-field test, ambulation and rearing were reduced compared with the control group and an increase in boluses of dose-dependent rate was obtained. Thus it can be concluded that elenoside has central sedative effects and possible application in anxiety conditions.
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We have observed, in several studies, high rates of psychiatric disorders and traumatic childhood experiences in people who are deprived of their freedom in prison institutions. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of different types of adverse childhood experiences and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patient-internal male in a prison psychiatric institution.
From January 2000 to July 2002, there had been 29 cases of suicide in prisons and forensic psychiatric hospitals of the Penitentiary Service of the Province of Buenos Aires. In the year 2000, the annual suicide rate in convicts was 14 times higher than that of the general population of the province of Buenos Aires. Ninety-three per cent of the suicides were committed by males. In this study, several characteristics and conditions associated with suicide are described. Among other findings, it is reported that forensic psychiatric population is at high risk for suicide.
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A simple high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the pharmacologically important quinazoline alkaloids vasicine and vasicinone in Adhatoda vasica. The assay combines the separation and quantification of the analytes on silica gel 60 GF254 HPTLC plates with visualisation under UV and scanning at 270 and 281 nm. Using this technique, the alkaloidal content of different parts of the title plant have been determined.
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The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is an instrument used to assess purposeful embellishment or fabrication of memory difficulties for personal gain. Although the TOMM can be use in non-English speaking cultures, it has not been validated in Spanish-speaking Central and South American contexts.
An exhaustive review of suicide deaths data from forensic sources has led to an improvement in the under-reported statistical information. It also improves the knowledge of the method of suicide and personal characteristics.
To investigate the biological activities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae), an herbal medicine used in Costa Rica (CR) for the management of menopausal symptoms and dysmenorrhea.
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Four experiments examined the role of meaning frequency (dominance) and associative strength (measured by associative norms) in the processing of ambiguous words in isolation. Participants made lexical decisions to targets words that were associates of the more frequent (dominant) or less frequent (subordinate) meaning of a homograph prime. The first two experiments investigated the role of associative strength at long SOAs (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony) (750 ms.), showing that meaning is facilitated by the targets' associative strength and not by their dominance. The last two experiments traced the role associative strength at short SOAs (250 ms), showing that the manipulation of the associative strength has no effect in the semantic priming. The conclusions are: on the one hand, semantic priming for homographs is due to associative strength manipulations at long SOAs. On the other hand, the manipulation of the associative strength has no effect when automatic processes (short SOAs) are engaged for homographs.
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The results from this study will have a large impact on the practice of neuropsychology in Latin America, as this is the first normative multicenter study to create norms for the TOMM in this global region.
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Elder people in the study area still rely on herbal remedies although the modern heath care facilities are present in the study area; thus, the indigenous plants remain important medicines in solving health problems.
A post-hoc analysis indicated that bilastine and cetirizine were similarly effective and more effective than placebo during a 4-week treatment period in patients with PAR. In addition, bilastine was shown to be safe and well-tolerated over a 1-year treatment period.
Five patients had to modify ultra-rush regimen because of mild local adverse reactions. In total, 32 adverse reactions were reported in 27 patients during the ultra-rush regimen. Seven of these events were local gastrointestinal reactions, and the remaining 17 were local reactions, mainly labial or mouth itching and burning. Eight events were systemic reactions [rhinitis (n = 3), general malaise (n = 1), general malaise and vomiting (n = 1), dizziness (n = 1), asthma (n = 1), dyspnea (n = 1)]. All adverse reactions were mild or moderate. Serious adverse events or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions were not reported.
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The current study presents the α-glucosidase inhibiting potential of J. secunda supporting its traditional medicinal use in diabetes mellitus treatment. HPTLC bioautography screening for α-glucosidase inhibitors provides a simple and effective method for the investigation of complex samples, such as plant extracts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in MBL-null mice induced smaller infarctions, better functional outcome, and diminished C3 deposition and neutrophil infiltration than in wild-type mice. Accordingly, reconstitution of MBL-null mice with recombinant human MBL (rhMBL) enhanced brain damage. In order to investigate the clinical relevance of these experimental observations, a study of MBL2 and MASP-2 gene polymorphism rendering the lectin pathway dysfunctional was performed in 135 stroke patients. In logistic regression adjusted for age, gender and initial stroke severity, unfavourable outcome at 3 months was associated with MBL-sufficient genotype (OR 10.85, p = 0.008) and circulating MBL levels (OR 1.29, p = 0.04). Individuals carrying MBL-low genotypes (17.8%) had lower C3, C4, and CRP levels, and the proinflammatory cytokine profile was attenuated versus MBL-sufficient genotypes.
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These results indicate that the percentage of cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins with an identical side chain is high and that this critical part of the molecule seems to be an important contributor to these results. The value is higher than previously reported data from similar studies of non-side-chain-related cephalosporins.
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283 questionnaires were obtained. 98.93 % of the children had undergone or were planning to undergo circumcision. 68.2 % were circumcised. Circumcisions were most frequently performed during a vacation to the country of origin (67.04 %), especially so for the Maghreb population. The remaining circumcisions had been performed in Spain. Half of the circumcisions practiced in Spain were performed at home, and 84 % of these were performed on Gambian children.
The aqueous extract of the leaf mixtures of Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus and Justicia insularis given by oral route to immature female rats, at doses of 13, 49 and 94 mg/kg per day for 15 days induced a significant increase in ovarian and uteri weight as well as serum and ovarian oestradiol. Moreover, a significant decrease in liver of aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was noticed in treated animals.
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The conventional schedule used in specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is a slow treatment that often leads to poor compliance or discontinuation of treatment. These disadvantages have led to design administration schedules that shorten the build-up phase without increasing the adverse reactions rate.
This is the first normative multicenter study conducted in Latin America to create norms for the BTA; this study will have an impact on the future practice of neuropsychology throughout Latin America.
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A delayed functional improvement due to stem cell implantation has been documented by electrophysiology, fMRI and behavioral testing. This functional improvement occurred without cells acting as a tissue replacement for the necrotic tissue after the ischemic event. Combination of disappearance of grafted cells after six months on histological sections with persistent functional recovery was interpreted as paracrine effects by the grafted stem cells being the dominant mechanism of cell activity underlying the observed functional restitution of the original activation sites. Future studies will have to investigate whether the stem cell mediated improvement reactivates the original representation target field by using original connectivity pathways or by generating/activating new ones for the stimulus.
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This report reviews the available scientific documentation of the safety profile of build-up schedules for SCIT with Alustal Rapid® (a suspension of standardized allergen extracts adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide gel for specific immunotherapy) in the treatment of IgE-mediated rhinitis, conjunctivitis and bronchial asthma to inhaled allergens.
Significant cadmium (Cd) contamination In soil and rice has been discovered in Mae Sot, Tak province, Thailand where the rice-based agricultural systems are established in the vicinity of a zinc mine. The prolonged consumption of Cd contaminated rice has potential risks to public health and health impacts of Cd exposed populations in Mae Sot have been demonstrated. The Thai government has prohibited rice cultivation in the area as an effort to prevent further exposure. Phytoextraction, the use of plants to remove contaminants from soil, is a potential option to manage Cd-contaminated areas. However, successful phytoextraction depends on first identifying effective hyperaccumulator plants appropriate for local climatic conditions. Five sampling sites at Padaeng Zinc mine, Tak province were selected to collect plant and soil samples. Total Cd and Zn concentrations in sediments or soils were approximately 596 and 20,673 mg kg(-1) in tailing pond area, 543 and 20,272 mg kg(-1) in open pit area, 894 and 31,319 mg kg(-1) in stockpile area, 1458 and 57,012 mg kg(-1) in forest area and 64 and 2733 mg kg(-1) in Cd contaminated rice field. Among a total of 36 plant species from 16 families, four species (Chromolaena odoratum, Gynura pseudochina, Impatiens violaeflora and Justicia procumbens) could be considered as Cd hyperaccumulators since their shoot Cd concentrations exceeded 100 mg Cd kg(-1) dry mass and they showed a translocation factor >1. Only Justicia procumbens could be considered as a Zn hyperaccumulator (Zn concentration in its shoot more than 10,000 mg Zn kg(-1) dry mass with the translocation factor >1).
The expression of the apoptotic and proliferative genes were assessed with the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) comparing with the control gene. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the bacterial extract was found to be 43.97 μg/ml. With the dual staining the apoptotic cell percentage was significantly increased (P < 0.001) and with the 40μg/ml and 80μg/ml concentration the apoptotic percentages observed as 67% and 89% respectively. Similar concentrations were used for the nuclear fragmentation (PI) and the cell cycle analysis (FACS) using WinMDI 2.9 software. During cell cycle analysis the accumulation of the cells at G0-G1 stage was observed with increasing concentrations of the chi-alg encophytic bacterial extract nanoparticles. Finally the proapoptotic and proliferative gene expression for the bax, Bcl-2 and caspase was significantly regulated (P < 0.01; P < 0.05). The Bax and Caspase were up-regulated and Bcl-2 was down regulated.
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A total of 26 271 patients in 160 public hospitals were interviewed. The mean availability of drugs was 82% for all hospitals, with the lowest availability for the Ministry of Health (SESA) hospitals (77%, with a range of 30 to 96%). Patients discharged at social security hospitals received in 97% of cases a complete prescription filling, while in SESA hospitals the average was only 56.2%, with a large variance among states (13 to 94%). The median inpatient spending was 150 pesos in national currency (1% spent over 10 000 pesos).
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The analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Justicia beddome leaves (Family: Acanthaceae) was evaluated in albino rats using Eddy's hot plate method. The extract at 50 and 100 mg/ kg, (i.p), showed significant analgesic activity at 90 minutes of administration. The analgesic effect of the extract was comparable to that of morphine sulphate.
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The anticonvulsant activity of the methanolic extract of Justicia extensa (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was assessed in strychnine-induced (STR) and picrotoxin-induced (PCT) convulsion models in mice. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) and phenobarbitone (2 mg/kg) were used as reference drugs respectively.
Average cTnT levels measured by a highly sensitive assay in postmortem serum were markedly higher than clinical serum levels. Moreover, similar results, higher cTnT levels in postmortem pericardial fluid, were obtained when compared to levels found in pericardial fluid taken from two living patients during coronary artery bypass surgery. cTnT levels in both postmortem fluids remained stable for up to 34 h after death. No differences in cTnT levels in either postmortem fluid by sex and age were detected. Levels of cTnT found in pericardial fluid in the other natural deaths group were significantly lower than the cTnT levels found in that postmortem fluid from any of the other causes of death groups.