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Vasotec (Enalapril)

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Vasotec is an effective strong preparation which is taken in treatment of diabetes symptoms as hypertension diseases, kidney problems, and congestive heart failure. Vasotec can be also helpful for patients after heart attack. Vasotec operates by reducing blood pressure and regulating blood provision to the heart.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Enalapril.


Vasotec is created by pharmacy specialists to combat not also diabetes symptoms as hypertension diseases, kidney problems, and congestive heart failure but it can be helpful for patients after heart attack.

Target of Vasotec is to control and decrease level of blood pressure.

Vasotec is also known as Enalapril, Renitec, BQL, Benalipril, Amprace, Alphapril, Converten, Enalagamma, Enatec, Envas, Invoril, Xanef.

Vasotec operates by reducing blood pressure and regulating blood provision to the heart.

Vasotec can be used in combination with medicines for heart failure treatment.

Vasotec is ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor.

Generic name of Vasotec is Enalapril.

Brand name of Vasotec is Vasotec.


You should take it by mouth with water.

It is better to take Vasotec once or twice a day at the same time with meals or without it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Vasotec suddenly.


If you overdose Vasotec and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Vasotec overdosage: fainting, dizziness.


Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Vasotec are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Vasotec if you are allergic to Vasotec components.

Be very careful with Vasotec if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Vasotec usage in case of having angioedema, throat, heart disease, diabetes, hands, kidney disease, lower legs, lupus, scleroderma.

Be careful with Vasotec usage in case of taking diuretics; aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) as indomethacin (Indocin); potassium supplements; lithium (such as Eskalith, Lithobid).

Nimotop can be not safety for elderly people.

Avoid dehydration.

Be careful with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Vasotec suddenly.

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Enalaprilate (Enal), an active pharmaceutical component, was intercalated into a layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al-LDH) by an ion exchange reaction. The use of a layered double hydroxide (LDH) to release active drugs is limited by the low pH of the stomach (pH approximately 1.2), in whose condition it is readily dissolved. To overcome this limitation, xyloglucan (XG) extracted from Hymenaea courbaril (jatobá) seeds, Brazilian species, was used to protect the LDH and allow the drug to pass through the gastrointestinal tract. All the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyses, transmission electronic microscopy, thermal analyses, and a kinetic study of the in vitro release was monitored by ultraviolet spectroscopy. The resulting hybrid system containing HDL-Enal-XG(3) slowly released the Enal. In an 8-h of test, the system protected 40% (w/v) of the drug. The kinetic profile showed that the drug release was a co-effect behavior, involving dissolution of inorganic material and ion exchange between the intercalated anions in the lamella and those of phosphate in the buffer solution. The nanocomposite coated protection with XG was therefore efficient in obtaining a slow release of Enal.

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Plasma angiotensin II (ANG II) is not increased significantly in renovascular hypertension (RVH), but tissue ANG II levels are elevated in both kidneys of renovascular rats. Because the contralateral, non-ischemic kidney is critical for maintenance of hypertension in RVH, this study sought to understand the mechanism by which intrarenal ANG II levels are augmented in the non-ischemic kidney. This study tested the hypothesis that an incremental increase in plasma ANG II induces the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the non-ischemic kidney by an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) dependent mechanism.

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A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind protocol.

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The purpose of the present review article is to update the information regarding pharmacokinetics of drugs in patients with heart failure that has accumulated since the last review article published in 1988 in Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Since this last review, our understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure has changed from the cardio-renal model to the neuro-humoral model, and the pharmacologic approach to treatment of heart failure has been shifted from inotropic agents to those acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The pharmacologic agents now used for heart failure include many important classes of drugs, such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (antagonists) (ARBs), and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. In Part 1 of this review, we summarized the pharmacokinetic properties of relevant drugs administered intravenously. In Part 2, the present article, we describe pharmacokinetics of drugs following oral administration. For this purpose we conducted a systematic search of literature using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Japan Centra Revuo Medicina (in Japanese). We retrieved a total of 110 relevant publications for 49 drugs and updated the information for ten drugs and provided new information for 31 drugs. We recognized that the pharmacokinetic data were obtained primarily from stable heart failure patients with moderate severity [New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II or III]. In addition, most patients were classified as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Furthermore, because most of the studies retrieved had no comparative groups of healthy subjects or patients without heart failure, historical controls from previous studies were used for comparisons. In Part 2, we also discuss the pharmacokinetics of active metabolites as well as parent drugs, because many drugs given by oral administration for the treatment of heart failure are prodrugs (e.g., ACE inhibitors and ARBs). The pharmacokinetic changes of drugs in patients with heart failure are discussed in the light of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. In addition, we discuss the effects of intestinal tissue heart failure-associated edema on drug absorption as it relates to the biopharmaceutical classification system, particularly for drugs demonstrating reduced systemic exposure as measured by the area under the plasma concentration-time curve after oral administration (AUCpo) in patients with heart failure as compared with healthy subjects. After review of the available data, it was seen that among patients with asymptomatic or compensated chronic heart failure there seemed to be no or minimal alterations in the maximum concentration (C max) and AUCpo of the included drugs, unless there was concurrent liver and/or renal dysfunction. In contrast, the AUCpo of at least 14 drugs (captopril, cilazaprilat, enalapril/enalaprilat, perindopril, carvedilol, candesartan, pilsicainide, felodipine, furosemide, enoximone, milrinone, flosequinan, molsidomine, and ibopamine) were suspected or documented to increase after oral administration by 50% or more in patients with symptomatic or decompensated heart failure.

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The functional improvement under the action of enalaprilat suggests that the advantages of the drug may be mediated mainly through an increase in myocardial blood flow and that angiotensin II might be involved in the restricted increase in coronary blood flow during dynamic exercise in hypertensives with coronary microangiopathy.

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In this study, we explored the effects of the ACEI enalapril on proteinuria and GAG synthesis in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-treated rats. We employed cationic colloidal gold (CCG) localization in glomerular basement membranes (GBM) to identify GAGs by electron microscopy and determined sialic acid residues by immunohistochemical staining with lectins. To clarify ACEI effects on GAG production in vitro, we studied de novo GAG synthesis into newly synthesized proteoglycans in podocytes and mesangial cells using (35)S incorporation. Cells were incubated with or without PAN, and with increasing doses of the ACEI enalaprilat.

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We infused enalaprilat and assessed changes in dorsal hand vein compliance using the linear variable differential transducer technique. Enalaprilat-mediated effects were assessed in small and large veins and in the presence and absence of one of two vasoconstrictors: exogenous norepinephrine or physiologic vasoconstriction by cooling.

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MAP was successfully controlled in 17 of 20 patients (maximum decrease -27 mm Hg [-26%]). In the three other patients, even reinjection of enalaprilat (0.06 mg/kg) did not sufficiently reduce MAP. In the 17 responders, heart rate did not increase, whereas central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure decreased significantly after intravenous administration of enalaprilat. Cardiac index changed only slightly (mean maximum +0.70 L/min/m2 [+18%]). Right ventricular ejection fraction increased from 36% to 45% (p < .05); right ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volume index decreased significantly. Both systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices decreased within the investigation period (-31% and -16%, respectively). Pao2/FIO2, intrapulmonary right-to-left shunting, and oxygen extraction ratio were not altered. Oxygen delivery index (+17%) and oxygen consumption index (+20%) increased during the investigation period (p < .04).

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The adverse reactions in combination of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and Ang II receptor blockers (ARBs) were severer than that in monotherapy for patients with nephropathy. The effect of candesartan on pharmacokinetics of enalaprilat in nephrotic rats was investigated to make references for the clinical therapy in patients with nephropathy to avoid related adverse effects.

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Unilateral ureteral obstruction breaks out events that cause the transitory increase of glomerular permeability to macromolecules, both in the obstructed kidney and in the contralateral kidney, suggesting the presence of some factor, with a systemic action, liberated as a response to the obstruction. We know that the rennin-angiotensin system is activated by acute ureteral obstruction. We have developed an experiment to assess the role of angiotensin II on the glomerular permeability to IgG due to acute ureteral obstruction, using enalaprilat, an angiotensin enzyme conversion inhibitor, to block the effects of the activation of the rennin-angiotensin system.

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Since angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) metabolizes bradykinin, the hypotensive effect of ACE inhibitors could be partly due to an increased bradykinin activity. We therefore investigated the influence of HOE K86-4321 [D-Arg-(Hyp2-Thi5,8-DPhe7)-bradykinin], a selective bradykinin-2 receptor antagonist, on the effects of enalaprilat (0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg) and zofenoprilat (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg) on the heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output and total peripheral resistance in rats. Both enalaprilat and zofenoprilat reduced mean arterial pressure (from 110 +/- 7 to 85 +/- 6 and from 108 +/- 9 to 72 +/- 9 mmHg, respectively; P less than 0.05) and total peripheral resistance (from 515 +/- 35 to 413 +/- 29 and from 495 +/- 45 to 310 +/- 25 x 10(-3) mmHg/litre per min per kg, respectively; P less than 0.05); the heart rate and cardiac output changed little. In the presence of HOE K86-4321, which by itself did not affect the haemodynamic variables measured, the effects of the two ACE inhibitors were significantly reduced. These results suggest that bradykinin-2 receptor-mediated vasodilation, although not involved in blood pressure regulation, influences the reduction in blood pressure induced by enalaprilat and zofenoprilat in normotensive rats. Furthermore, at comparable ACE-inhibiting doses, zofenoprilat was more effective in reducing mean arterial pressure, which might be related to the presence of a sulphydryl group.

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These results showed that: (a) RAS molecules are present in human islets and their expression is sensitive to glucose concentration, (b) ACE inhibitors, and in particular zofenoprilat, protect human islets from glucotoxicity and (c) the effects of ACE inhibition are associated with decreased oxidative stress. Together, these findings provide evidence that the possible beneficial effects of ACE inhibitors in human diabetes are due, at least in part, to a protective action on pancreatic beta-cells.

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In tissues rich in kallikrein, vasodilator kinins, acting as paracrine hormones, may play a role in the local regulation of blood flow. We studied the role of kinins in the regulation of blood flow in the rat submandibular gland using a kinin analogue with antagonistic properties, [DArg0]Hyp3-Thi5-8[DPhe7]bradykinin. When infused into the carotid artery (20 micrograms/min/rat), this antagonist blocked the effect of bradykinin (25-250 ng/kg, intracarotid injection) on glandular blood flow. In nephrectomized rats, the antagonist also blocked the increase in glandular blood flow caused by enalaprilat, a kininase II converting enzyme inhibitor. At a dose of 20 micrograms/min/rat, the antagonist produced no detectable change in basal glandular blood flow; however, at a higher dose (100 micrograms/min/rat), it caused a significant decrease (p less than 0.001). In eight of 10 rats, blood flow decreased by 75% or more; this effect was not blocked by the alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist phentolamine. After antagonist infusion was stopped, blood flow returned toward normal. Sympathetic nerve stimulation of the gland induced vasoconstriction followed by poststimulatory vasodilatation. In rats displaying severe vasoconstriction after the antagonist, postsympathetic vasodilatation was abolished even when stimulation was performed after the antagonist infusion had been stopped and blood flow returned toward normal. Although a direct vasoconstrictor effect of the kinin antagonist cannot be completely ruled out, these data suggest that, in the rat submandibular gland, kinins may play a role in regulation of basal blood flow and vasodilatation after converting enzyme inhibitor or sympathetic stimulation.

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This study was designed to assess the influence of the activation status of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) on the hemodynamic effects of EXP 3174 (an angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist) and enalaprilat (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) in tachycardia-induced heart failure. Thirteen dogs were chronically instrumented to measure left ventricular (LV) pressure, its first time derivative (LV dP/dt), atrial and aortic pressures, and cardiac output. EXP 3174 (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.) or enalaprilat (1 mg/kg, i.v.) were administered in conscious dogs with heart failure induced by right ventricular pacing (250 beats/min, 3 weeks). EXP 3174 and enalaprilat produced significant vasodilation but the effects of EXP 3174 on mean aortic pressure (MAP), cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were only 50% of those produced by enalaprilat. When dogs were grouped according to their baseline plasma renin activity (PRA) values, in dogs with normal PRA (0.5 +/- 0.1 ng/ml/h) EXP 3174 did not produce significant change in MAP and TPR, while enalaprilat decreased significantly MAP and TPR. In contrast, in dogs with high PRA (6.7 +/- 3.2 ng/ml/h), EXP 3174 produced significant reductions in MAP and TPR, which were similar to those produced by enalaprilat. Thus, in conscious dogs with heart failure, enalaprilat is effective whether the RAS is activated or not. In contrast, EXP 3174 is effective only when the RAS is activated. These results may help in the choice of inhibitors of the RAS in heart failure.

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Two non-sulfur containing ACE-inhibitors were tested concerning their local effect on experimental dermatitis in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. Enalaprilat but not cilazaprilat potentiated the ovalbumin-evoked inflammatory response. Furthermore, enalaprilat clearly enhanced the erythema evoked by substance P, whereas cilazaprilat did not. Concerning, the bradykinin-evoked erythema, enalaprilat significantly potentiated the response, whereas cilazaprilat only caused a slight increase. Our results suggest that different affinities for peptidases involved in degradation of inflammatory peptides can explain differences between the pro-inflammatory properties of enalaprilat and cilazaprilat.

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We have reported that overnight fasting stimulates bicarbonate reabsorption (JtCo2) in rat distal tubules. The present in vivo microperfusion studies evaluated the hypothesis that endogenous angiotensin II (AII) mediates this response. Rat late distal (LD) tubules were perfused at 8 nl/min in vivo with a hypotonic solution containing 28 mM bicarbonate. In overnight-fasted rats, LD JtCO2 was significantly higher than in normally fed rats (50 +/- 4 vs. 16 +/- 6 pmol/, P < 0.05). When overnight-fasted rats were salt-loaded, JtCO2 fell significantly (38 +/- 3 pmol/, P < 0.05). Conversely, in fed rats ingesting a zero-salt diet, JtCO2 increased three-fold (45 +/- 5 pmol/, P < 0.05). Enalaprilat infusion (0.25 micrograms/kg body wt, intravenously), in these zero-salt and overnight-fasted rats, reduced LD JtCO2 values to normal. Further, infusion of losartan (5 mg/kg body wt, intravenously), the specific AII AT1 receptor blocker, reduced JtCO2 in overnight-fasted rats by two-thirds (16 +/- 4 pmol/, P < 0.05). Finally, we perfused 10(-11) M AII intraluminally with and without 10(-6) M losartan: AII increased JtCO2 to 45 +/- 6 pmol/, equal to the zero-salt flux. This was completely abrogated by simultaneous losartan perfusion. Therefore, these results suggest that AII is an in vivo stimulator of late distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption.

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ACE inhibitors potentiate kinin-nitric oxide (NO)-dependent coronary vascular dilation, and NO can modulate myocardial oxygen consumption. Whether ACE inhibitors also affect myocardial O2 consumption has not been established.

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Four groups composed of 10 Wistar rats each were followed for seven weeks: control (CONT); treated with enalaprilat (ENA, 1mg/kg/d/sc) treated with doxorubicin (DOX, 25 mg/kg/d/sc), and treated with doxorubicin plus enalaprilat (DOX+ENA). In eight animals of each group, the left ventricle (LV) was prepared for morphometric study and stained with HE and picro-sírius for identifying muscle fibers and collagen. In each group three fragments of the LV were examined with electronic microscopy (EM). For statistical analysis: the one-way analysis of variance was performed and was followed by multiple comparisons test when the difference between groups were detected p values < or = 0.05 were considered significant.

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Characterization of C- and N-terminal forms of angiotensin (Ang) peptides mandated assessment of methods to determine plasma levels. 125I-Ang I, 125I-Ang II, and 125I-Ang(1-7) were added to blood samples in the presence of protease inhibitors. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) inhibited the conversion of 125I-Ang I to 125I-Ang II. o-Phenanthroline and EDTA (EDTA + o-Ph) did not eliminate [des-Asp1] fragments or 125I-Ang(1-7). The combination of EDTA + o-Ph and pepstatin A or 4-(chloromercuri) benzoic acid (PCMB) significantly reduced 125I-Ang(1-7) generation. Only PCMB plus EDTA + o-Ph eliminated [des-Asp1] fragments. Authentic plasma values of Ang peptides require the correct choice of protease inhibitors.

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To study the effects of ACEI captopril (Cap) and enalaprilat (Ena) on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cardiac myocytes isolated from SHR and WKY rats.

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Enalaprilat exhibited better survival (91 %) versus other treatment groups (PSL: 85.7 %, PSL + ACE-I: 71.4 %, placebo: 66.6 %). The ACE-I and PSL + ACE-I groups showed significantly better histological scores versus placebo mice. ACE-I and the PSL groups significantly reduced several pro-inflammatory cytokines versus placebo mice. FITC-dextran permeability was reduced in the ACE-I and PSL + ACE-I groups. Blood pressure was not affected in ACE-I treated mice compared to placebo mice.

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The pharmacokinetic results of aliskiren and enalapril obtained by low-volume assays in serum and urine were comparable to that noted in the literature. The dense sampling enabled very detailed concentration-time profiles that showed high intersubject variability and biphasic absorption behavior of aliskiren. The replacement of invasive sampling by saliva collection appears inappropriate for both drugs because the correlations of drug concentrations in both fluids were low. A low-volume assay was also used to determine values for in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and to compare those results with the published literature.

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Podocytes were incubated in medium from mesangial cells incubated with aIgA1 isolated from IgAN patients, enalaprilat (10-5 M) and chymostatin (20 μM), or with enalaprilat and chymostatin separately. Podocyte adhesive capacity was evaluated by cell counting and hexosaminidase assay. Expression of the renin angiotensin system was measured by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and ELISA.

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The goal of this study was to elucidate the structure-activity relationship for vasodilating peptides and their underlying mechanism. In this study, we synthesized 62 di- and tri-peptides having aromatic amino acid residues (Tyr, Trp and Phe). Among them, only 4 peptides (HW, WH, WL and WV) evoked an apparent vasodilating effect in 50 mM KCl-contracted aortic rings in the descending order of WH>HW>WL>WV; WH showed the vasodilating activity with an EC50 of 3.4 mM. Within our experimental results, it seems likely that Trp residue at the N-terminal would play a role in eliciting vasodilating effect. No appearance of vasodilating effect for stereoisomers of WH with D-configuration revealed that the vessel would recognize the L-configuration of WH. The presence of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (50 nM enalaprilat) did not affect the WH-induced vasodilating effect, though WH showed a slight ACE inhibitory activity (IC50: 93 microM). The effect was also observed in the endothelium-denuded aortic rings. In contrast, WH provoked a significant displacement to the right in the vasodilating curve in the presence of 30 nM verapamil, while no shift was observed in the presence of 2.5 nM nifedipine. These results indicate that WH, a vasodilating di-peptide, would exert a vasodilation via the suppression of Ca2+ influx into KCl-induced depolarized aortic rings. The present study also suggests that the binding site of WH to the Ca2+ channel may be competitive to that of phenylalkylamine-type voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channel blocker.

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Intravenous infusion of the converting-enzyme (CE) inhibitor, MK422 (1 mg X kg-1 X hr-1 for 30 minutes) in normotensive controls and two-kidney, one clip (2K1C) rats in the acute phase of renovascular hypertension had a significant hypotensive effect that persisted after 24 hours. In contrast to that prolonged effect, inhibition of the pressor responses to intraarterial or intravenous angiotensin I, and the potentiation of the depressor responses to intravenous bradykinin (BK), were evident during the hour following the infusion of MK422, but not 24 hours later. Potentiation of intraarterially administered BK, however, persisted for 24 hours after infusion of the CE inhibitor. It is concluded that at least the prolonged (24-hour) effect of the treatment with MK422 was due to inhibition of the CE activity in tissues other than the lung, and that increased levels of endogenous BK may be responsible for the inhibitor's hypotensive effect.

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Prospective interventional study.

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Converting enzyme inhibitors meet most of the criteria required to be used in acute pulmonary edema. However, they could also induce deleterious effects on renal function and electrolytes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single intravenous 2-hour infusion of enalaprilat (1 mg) after an acute pulmonary edema.

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Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland

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Ang-(1-7) was formed in the intact human myocardial circulation buy vasotec and was decreased when Ang II formation was suppressed. These data indicate that the major pathway for Ang-(1-7) generation in the intact human heart was dependent on substrate availability of Ang II. Ang-(1-7)-forming enzymes that demonstrate substrate preference for Ang II are likely to play an important role in the regulation of Ang-(1-7) formation in the intact human heart.

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Zofenopril calcium (CAS 81938-43-4) is a new angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which in addition to the typical activity of the class, proved to possess a specific cardioprotective effect due also to the presence of the sulfhydryl group. In this trial zofenopril calcium and enalapril maleate (CAS 76095-16-4) were given to 20 healthy volunteers of both sexes in repeated dose regiment at two dose levels: 30 mg and 60 mg zofenopril calcium and 10 mg and 20 mg enalapril maleate. The study was conducted according to a two-period, two-sequence, crossover design, with washout. ACE activity in serum and zofenopril, zofenoprilat, enalapril and enalaprilat plasma concentrations were determined during and on the last day of the two study periods. Both zofenopril and enalapril were extensively converted through hydrolysis to their active metabolites zofenoprilat and enalaprilat, respectively. Zofenopril exhibited a complete and a more rapid hydrolysis rate compared to enalapril, which is reflected by the higher metabolite to parent drug ratio of Cmax and AUCss, tau showed by this compound. Even though only two dose levels were investigated in this trial, the pharmacokinetics of both drugs seem to be linear. In line with previous trials, both compounds at both dose levels investigated produced complete or almost complete inhibition of ACE activity in serum, for a period lasting 6 buy vasotec -8 h after administration, the inhibition being still relevant 24 h thereafter. The tolerability of the two drugs at both dose levels proved to be very good as demonstrated by subjective and objective symptoms, by the absence of relevant adverse events, and by laboratory biochemical parameters and vital signs evaluated before and after the trial. Blood pressure showed a fairly decreasing trend with both the drugs, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values being however within normal range in all the subjects. In no case symptoms of hypotension were experienced. In conclusion, zofenopril calcium and enalapril maleate show very good tolerability and appear to exert similar activity on serum ACE. The main difference in the pharmacokinetics of the two compounds is the conversion from pro-drug to the active metabolite which is faster with zofenopril.

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Toxic substances buy vasotec in the blood of patients with uremia due to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) can induce local conformational changes in the ACE protein globule and alter the efficacy of ACE inhibitors.

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ACE-inhibitors enalaprilat and benazepril (both 10(-5) M) did not change ciliary vascular tone nor flow of perfused porcine eyes. However, enalaprilat or benazepril enhanced the relaxation of ciliary arteries to bradykinin (P < 0.02). In the perfused porcine eye, enalaprilat (10(-5) M) augmented vasodilation to bradykinin (P < 0.02). The bradykinin antagonist Hoe 140 (3 x 10(-7) M) prevented the relaxation of ciliary arteries to bradykinin (P < 0.001), but not to acetylcholine. In perfused eyes, Hoe 140 reduced the vasodilation to bradykinin (P < 0.01). Ang II (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) evoked a contraction of ciliary arteries and was more potent than Ang I. Enalaprilat abolished the effect of Ang I. The AT1-receptor antagonist, valsartan (10(-9) to 10(-5) M; 30 minutes) inhibited the response of ciliary arteries to Ang II, whereas the AT2-receptor ligand CGP 42112 B (10(-7) to 10(-8 buy vasotec ) M) was ineffective. In the perfused porcine eye, valsartan restored the decrease in flow to Ang II.

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Thirty anesthetized and 18 conscious hypertensive dogs were studied randomly. Anesthetized dogs were divided into 4 groups: group 1 received cumulative doses of bosentan (bolus+30-minute infusion: 0.1 mg/kg+/-0.23 mg/kg per hour to 3 mg/kg+/-7 mg/kg per hour); group 2, the same dose-responses after 1 mg/kg enalaprilat; group 3, the vehicle after enalaprilat; and group 4, the dose responses to bosentan followed by enalaprilat. The conscious dogs were divided into 3 groups: group 5 received 2 cumulative doses of bosentan buy vasotec ; group 6, the vehicle; and group 7, enalaprilat alone. In groups 1 and 2, bosentan produced dose-related decreases (P=.0001) in left ventricular systolic pressure and mean aortic pressure (AOP). In group 1, bosentan decreased mean AOP by 22%. In group 2, enalaprilat decreased mean AOP by 25% (from 173+/-26 to 130+/-25 mm Hg; P<.005); an additional 18% decrease was obtained with bosentan, the mean AOP reaching 98+/-21 mm Hg (P<.01). In group 3, the effect of enalaprilat alone was a 22% decrease in mean AOP (P<.005). The additive effect of the bosentan-ACEI association was also observed in group 4. In group 5, bosentan reduced mean AOP by 20% (P<.005), whereas mean AOP remained unchanged in group 6. The effect of ACEI alone (group 7) was similar to that of bosentan.

vasotec dosage iv 2016-11-06

In order to understand angiotensin metabolism in the canine brain, we determined the molecular forms of angiotensin peptides present in the hypothalamus of the dog and carried out measurements of the metabolism of 125I-angiotensin I in homogenates of that tissue. Angiotensin peptides were extracted from canine hypothalamic tissue and quantified by specific radioimmunoassays combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The major angiotensin peptides detected were angiotensin-(2-7) (391.2 +/- 16.8 pg/g tissue) and angiotensin-(3-7) (864.8 +/- 128.1 pg/g). Angiotensin II immunoreactivity was mainly composed of angiotensin-(3-8) (117.5 +/- 64 pg/g) and trace amounts of angiotensin II and angiotensin III. Angiotensin I immunoreactivity was composed of angiotensin I (52.3 +/- 5.8 pg/g). In separate experiments, addition of 125I-angiotensin I into supernatants (18,000 g for 2 min) of canine hypothalamic homogenates resulted in the accumulation of 125I-angiotensin-(1-7) as the major peptide product (14% of the total 125I-radioactivity) at 2 min. Incubation buy vasotec of the homogenate supernatants with enalaprilat (1 mumol/l), phosphoramidon (10 mumol/l), or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (1 mmol/l) did not inhibit the production of 125I-angiotensin-(1-7). In contrast, addition of Z-Pro-Prolinal (1 mumol/l), a specific inhibitor of prolyl endopeptidase, prevented the generation of 125I-angiotensin-(1-7) from 125I-angiotensin I by 47.0 +/- 8.0% (n = 6).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

vasotec pill 2015-02-03

In normal rabbits propofol (1.2 reduced mean arterial pressure from awake control by 33(SEM 3)%, cardiac output by 24(4)%, and hindlimb blood flow (HBF) by 10 buy vasotec (2)%, but did not change renal blood flow. In rabbits with CHF, although resting mean blood pressure was lower, propofol did not alter blood pressure or hindlimb blood flow, but renal blood flow was reduced by 37(6)%.

vasotec normal dosage 2015-02-05

HR was reduced during orthostasis in the tetraplegia compared with the nondisabled group (P < 0.0001), and was unaffected by ACE inhibition in either group. PR was not increased with orthostasis in either group, but was increased after ACE inhibition in both groups (P < 0.001). MAP was not affected by orthostasis in either group, but was reduced with ACE inhibition in both groups (P < 0.01). In the tetraplegia group, MAP was initially reduced after ACE inhibition, but was maintained thereafter with increasing angles buy vasotec of tilt, and no subject complained of symptomatic orthostatic hypotension.

vasotec medication interactions 2017-05-12

The conventional pharmacokinetic profile of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalapril, is a lipid-soluble and relatively inactive prodrug with good oral absorption (60 to 70%), a rapid peak buy vasotec plasma concentration (1 hour) and rapid clearance (undetectable by 4 hours) by de-esterification in the liver to a primary active diacid metabolite, enalaprilat. Peak plasma enalaprilat concentrations occur 2 to 4 hours after oral enalapril administration. Elimination thereafter is biphasic, with an initial phase which reflects renal filtration (elimination half-life 2 to 6 hours) and a subsequent prolonged phase (elimination half-life 36 hours), the latter representing equilibration of drug from tissue distribution sites. The prolonged phase does not contribute to drug accumulation on repeated administration but is thought to be of pharmacological significance in mediating drug effects. Renal impairment [particularly creatinine clearance < 20 ml/min (< 1.2 L/h)] results in significant accumulation of enalaprilat and necessitates dosage reduction. Accumulation is probably the cause of reduced elimination in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with concomitant diabetes, hypertension and heart failure. Conventional pharmacokinetic approaches have recently been extended by more detailed descriptions of the nonlinear binding of enalaprilat to ACE in plasma and tissue sites. As a result of these new approaches, there have been significant improvements in the characterisation of concentration-time profiles for single-dose administration and the translation to steady-state. Such improvements have further importance for the accurate integration of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses to enalapril(at) in a concentration-effect model.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

vasotec 5 mg 2015-09-11

Temocapril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), a prodrug with a thiazepine ring. Its active form, temocaprilat, is slightly more buy vasotec potent than enalaprilat in inhibiting ACE isolated from rabbit lung. The inhibitory potency of temocaprilat on isolated rat aorta is 3 times that of enalaprilat. Temocapril is excreted in the bile and urine and can be used in patients with renal insufficiency. It reduces blood pressure without causing any significant change in heart rate or cardiac output. Temocapril has been reported to improve endothelial dysfunction in vitro by suppressing increased oxidative stress. In vivo it improves reactive hyperemia in patients with essential hypertension. It has been reported to prevent coronary vascular remodeling in vivo by suppressing local ACE and increased oxidative stress. In humans temocapril has been found to improve insulin resistance partly by increasing adiponectin levels. Cardiac remodeling was improved by temocapril not only in experiment animals but also in humans. It improves renal function and decreases urinary albumin excretion in diabetics as well as in hypertensive patients. Temocapril is currently marketed only in Japan. Considering its beneficial effects and unique pharmacokinetics, temocapril, is likely to be introduced in other countries as well.

vasotec medication 2015-04-14

In an open, crossover study, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of lisinopril and buy vasotec enalapril, administered alone and in combination with propranolol, were evaluated in 12 volunteers. The maximum serum concentration (Cmax) of lisinopril and time to reach maximum concentration (Tmax) were 64 +/- 16 ng/ml and 7.5 +/- 1.5 h, respectively. The area under the serum curve (AUC) was 916 +/- 239 h. ng/ml. The Cmax of enalaprilat (89 +/- 34 ng/ml) was greater than that of lisinopril whilst Tmax was shorter (4.3 +/- 1.7 h) and AUC smaller (718 +/- 17 (P less than 0.01). Renal clearance of drug 48 h post-dosing showed that enalaprilat (164 +/- 38 ml/min) was cleared from plasma significantly more rapidly than lisinopril (82 +/- 16 ml/min) (P less than 0.001). Mean supine blood pressure decreased significantly with all treatments, as did heart rate. No significant changes were observed in either the serum concentrations or the urinary outputs of these ACE inhibitors following combination with propranolol, apart from a greater variability of Cmax after addition of propranolol to enalapril compared with lisinopril in combination.

vasotec drug label 2016-05-23

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, kininase II) is an endothelial luminal ectoenzyme. The majority of ACE has been found on the buy vasotec pulmonary capillary endothelium (PCE). Pulmonary capillary endothelium-bound (PCEB)-ACE has been extensively studied by means of indicator dilution techniques in animals and man. We have recently developed and applied methodologies for assaying pulmonary capillary endothelium-bound (PCEB) angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in man. This article provides a summary of our studies in human subjects utilizing similar methodology. Trace amounts of the specific ACE substrate, (3)H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Pro ((3)H-BPAP; 40 microCi or 2 nmol), was injected as a bolus into the subclavian vein of patients and immediately blood was withdrawn from a radial arterial catheter. Plasma concentrations of surviving substrate and product ((3)H-benzoyl-Phe) were estimated and BPAP utilization was calculated during a single transpulmonary passage. To investigate the PCE in this manner we tested the hypothesis that PCEB-ACE is depressed in patients diagnosed with acute lung injury and estimated interaction of an ACE inhibitor (enalaprilat) with PCE in human subjects. An inverse correlation was found between the pulmonary endothelium-bound ACE activity (v) and the lung injury score (r=0.379; p<0.01). Similarly, an inverse correlation was found between the pulmonary capillary perfusion index (CPI) and the lung injury score (r=0.284, p<0.05). PCEB-ACE activity in the group of patients with mild lung injury was significantly different from the group of control patients (0.44 +/- 0.048 vs. 1.15 +/- 0.05; p<0.01). Trace amounts (1.5 microg/kg) of enalaprilat had no significant effect on mean arterial pressure (91 +/- 6 vs. 84 +/- 7 vs. 88 +/- 6 mmHg for T(1), T(2) and T(3), respectively), but significantly decreased PCEB-ACE activities. When normalized to pre-drug (T(1)) activity levels, enalaprilat inhibited PCEB and SE ACE activity at T(2) by 74 +/- 6 and 68 +/- 6%, respectively. PCEB-ACE measurements can be used in clinical practice for estimating PCE functions and can provide new insight into the physiology of the pulmonary circulation.

vasotec generic names 2016-12-31

1. Lisinopril and enalapril were administered as 2.5 mg single doses and as eight single daily 2.5 mg doses to separate groups of six patients with chronic renal failure. Patients were receiving regular haemodialysis. 2. In the absence of haemodialysis, the decline in plasma concentrations of lisinopril and enalaprilat was extremely slow and plasma concentrations were generally high. 3. Haemodialysis had large effects on plasma concentrations of lisinopril and enalaprilat. A 4 h period reduced plasma concentrations of both drugs by around one-half and often by significantly more than this. Even 1 or 2 h of haemodialysis had significant effects. 4. Haemodialysis plasma clearance was similar for both drugs with mean values of the order of 40 ml min-1. Clearance did not markedly differ when buy vasotec measured after 1, 2 or 4 h of haemodialysis or after single or multiple doses of lisinopril or enalapril. 5. The design of dosage regimens of both lisinopril and enalapril for patients with severe renal impairment or chronic renal failure should take into consideration the use and effects of haemodialysis.

vasotec medication doctor 2015-06-07

Enalapril maleate is a prodrug which when administered orally is hydrolysed to release the active converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat. Enalapril maleate is 60% absorbed and 40% bioavailable as enalaprilat. Both compounds undergo renal excretion without further metabolism. The functional half-life for accumulation of enalaprilat is 11 h, and this is increased in the presence of a reduction in renal function. Inhibition of converting enzyme inhibition is associated with reductions in plasma angiotensin II and plasma aldosterone, and with increases in plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin I. Acute and chronic effects have been reviewed. When given with hydrochlorothiazide, enalapril attenuates the secondary aldosteronism and ameliorates the hypokalaemia from diuretics. Both acutely and chronically in patients with essential hypertension, enalapril reduced blood pressure with a rather flat dose-response curve. No evidence of a triphasic response such as seen with captopril has been demonstrated with enalapril, and blood pressure returns smoothly to pretreatment levels when the drug is abruptly discontinued. Once- or twice-daily dosing gives similar results. The antihypertensive effects of enalapril are potentiated by hydrochlorothiazide. Haemodynamically, blood pressure reduction buy vasotec is associated with a reduced peripheral vascular resistance and an increase in cardiac output and stroke volume with little change in heart rate. Renal vascular resistance decreases, and renal blood flow may increase without an increase in glomerular filtration in patients with normal renal function. In patients with essential hypertension and glomerular filtration rates below 80 ml/min/m2, both renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rates may increase.

vasotec 4 mg 2017-02-14

This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of enalaprilat infusion Cost Of Azulfidine on hemodynamics and renal function during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

vasotec generic drug 2016-03-30

The laminin concentration was higher in the cells than in the medium, where an increase of its content was observed under high-glucose conditions (p < 0.01). Fibronectin, found only in the medium, was not modified by the high glucose concentration. Following enalaprilat Neurontin Lethal Dose administration, the laminin concentration was decreased under high-glucose conditions, both in the cell and in the medium (p < 0.001), whereas the fibronectin concentration was increased under high-glucose conditions (p < 0.001). The mRNA expression of laminin and fibronectin under high-glucose conditions only slightly increased. Enalaprilat decreased the fibronectin mRNA synthesis dramatically (>50%, p < 0.0001) under high-glucose conditions.

vasotec iv dosage 2016-09-02

The positive inotropic effects of bradykinin (BK) and 2 analogs resistant to angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) were potentiated on isolated guinea pig atrial preparations by enalaprilat. The stable BK analogs, dextran-BK and [Hyp3-Tyr(Me)8]-BK, were as active as BK. Pretreatment for 5 min with enalaprilat augmented the maximal positive inotropic effect of [Hyp3-Tyr(Me)8]-BK 2.8-fold, from 19% to 53% and that of BK from 28% to 42% over baseline; inotropic responses to dextran-BK (1 microM) were similarly increased. The activity of atrial ACE, a zinc-requiring enzyme, was completely inhibited by 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (QSA, 10 mM), which raised the maximal inotropic effect of BK to 39% above baseline. This value rose to 67% when in addition to QSA, 1 microM enalaprilat was added; enalaprilat thus, potentiated the effects of BK independently of enzyme inhibition. The positive inotropic effects to BK and its analogs decline with time Moduretic Tablet Dosage in the presence of these agonists. After 10 min of exposure, the response to 1 microM [Hyp3-Tyr(Me)8]-BK decreased to about half, and after 20 min, to 0. Enalaprilat, when present in the tissue bath, prevented the decline in inotropy; even after tachyphylaxis occurred, it reversed this decrease in activity when added. The effects of 1 microM [Hyp3-Tyr(Me)8]-BK, in the absence or presence of enalaprilat, were abolished by the BK B2 receptor antagonist icatibant (0.75 microM). The results indicate that ACE inhibitors, by potentiating the BK effects and blocking BK B2-receptor desensitization, may contribute to the beneficial cardiac effects of BK independently of blocking its inactivation.

vasotec drug 2015-03-11

A series of inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, EC Oxytrol Review is described which addresses certain conformational aspects of the enzyme-inhibitor interaction. In this study the alanylproline portion of the potent ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (2) is replaced by a series of monocyclic lactams containing the required recognition and binding elements. In order to more fully assess the lactam ring conformations and the key backbone angle psi as defined in 3 with respect to possible enzyme-bound conformations, a series of model lactams was investigated with use of molecular mechanics. The results point to a correlation between inhibitor potency (IC50) and the computed psi angle for the lowest energy conformation of the model compounds. Thus the psi angle as defined in 3 is an important determinant in the binding of inhibitors to ACE. The inhibition data in conjunction with the computational data have served to define a window of psi angles from 130 degrees to 170 degrees which seems to be acceptable to the ACE active site.

vasotec suspension 2017-06-12

Neurohormonal activation may provide a pathophysiological link between acute myocardial infarction and chronic congestive heart failure, and modulation of neurohormonal activity may be an important therapeutic target in these conditions. Plasma neurohormones were studied in 55 patients with acute myocardial infarction. Angiotensin II, noradrenaline and ANP were elevated in the early phase but tended to normalize during the first week in patients without signs of heart failure. In patients with heart failure angiotensin II and noradrenaline remained elevated for 1 month and ANP for 4-6 months. During head-up tilt, angiotensin II and noradrenaline increased most in patients with heart failure. In patients with a first myocardial infarction there was a positive correlation between sustained neurohormonal activity and infarct size. Almost complete suppression of plasma ACE activity was achieved within 30 min in 48 patients treated with Lasix 5 Mg intravenous enalaprilat, initiated within 24 h from the onset of infarction. The drug was tolerated in dosages of 1.0-1.2 mg given over 1-2h. Patients with systolic blood pressure between 100 and 110 mmHg incurred a greater risk of hypotension than those with higher blood pressure at baseline. Tolerance was not worse among patients treated with intravenous diuretics, metoprolol or nitroglycerin. A total of 98 patients were randomized to treatment with enalapril or placebo, initiated within 24 h from onset of infarction and continued for 4-6 months. During treatment there were no significant differences in plasma levels of angiotensin II, aldosterone, ANP or catecholamines between groups. Echocardiographic recordings were performed in 28 patients. Among patients on placebo there was a positive correlation between plasma levels of noradrenaline at days 5-7 and the increase in left ventricular volumes during the study period, and an inverse correlation between plasma aldosterone at days 5-7 and the increase in left ventricular ejection fraction during the study. No such correlation was found among patients on enalapril. ANP levels at 1 month correlated inversely with the left ventricular ejection fraction at the same time. Plasma neurohormones were measured in 223 patients with mild or moderately severe chronic heart failure, randomized to treatment with ramipril or placebo for 3 months. There was wide variation in hormone levels. Noradrenaline and aldosterone correlated inversely with exercise duration at baseline. Noradrenaline correlated positively with the degree of symptoms. Aldosterone and ANP were reduced with ramipril compared with placebo. Noradrenaline was reduced among patients with baseline levels in the highest tertile. Plasma hormones were also measured at peak exercise in 54 patients. Hormonal levels at rest correlated strongly with those at peak exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

vasotec brand name 2015-07-23

The prevalence of congestive heart failure (CHF), a debilitating condition associated with impaired Dyspepsia Medicine Motilium quality of life and markedly shortened life expectancy, is increasing. The goals of therapy for CHF are reducing symptoms, improving functional capacity, and slowing the progression of the condition. In most cases, this is best achieved with a combination of diuretic and vasodilator therapy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have several advantages over other vasodilatory agents and are becoming widely used for treating CHF. The most recently introduced ACE inhibitor, fosinopril, is at least as effective as enalapril, and its dual and compensatory route of excretion is particularly advantageous in patients with renal insufficiency. Fosinopril may also have particular benefits in the prevention of CHF, as it has beneficial effects on cardiac function that may help delay the onset of overt cardiac failure.

vasotec 200 mg 2015-06-26

Pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin converting enzyme reportedly alters the heart rate (HR) power spectrum in conscious dogs, suggesting that these hormones contribute to the short-term regulation of arterial blood pressure. We tested this possibility using four independent procedures. First, HR power spectrum was determined in seven awake dogs before and after administration of enalaprilat (300 ng/kg), a converting-enzyme inhibitor. There were no significant changes in the average amplitude for the spectral peak between 0.003 and 0.1 Hz (i.e., the "low-frequency peak"). Second, the HR power spectrum was measured in 11 awake rabbits before and after treatment with deoxycorticosterone acetate (1 and salt (0.9% saline ad libitum) for 7 days to depress plasma renin levels. There were no significant changes in the amplitude of the HR power spectrum, although mean HR decreased from 206 +/- 3 to 184 +/- 4 beats/min after treatment. In the third experiment, another group of rabbits (n = 8) was tested after 2 wk on a low-salt diet to elevate plasma angiotensin levels and then after 2 wk on a normal salt diet. Once again there were no significant effects on the HR power spectrum. Finally, tranquilized dogs (n = 9) were subjected to sinusoidally varying lower body negative pressure at selected frequencies of 0.008-0.12 Hz. Tests were conducted in the control state and after administration of an angiotensin receptor antagonist (saralasin, 1 Lower body negative pressure-induced fluctuations in arterial blood pressure were similar in both states. We find no evidence for the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the Oxytrol Drug Interactions moment-to-moment regulation of arterial pressure and HR.

vasotec drug card 2017-05-21

The most common curable cause of high blood pressure is renovascular hypertension. Although hypertension is common in the United States, only a minority, approximately 1%, of patients have a renovascular cause. Using clinical criteria, a subgroup of these patients can be selected in which the prevalence of renovascular hypertension will be approximately 15%. In these selected patients, it is appropriate to proceed to a radiographic screening modality to look for a significant renal artery stenosis. The choice of modality should reflect the strengths and expertise of each specific institution. Hypertensive urography is no longer recommended for screening. Excellent results have been reported with intravenous DSRA in Trileptal Reviews Bipolar institutions where a strong interest in this procedure exists. Furthermore, intravenous DSRA is easily coupled with the collection of renal vein samples for renin assay. Intravenous DSRA, however, has not maintained widespread use. Although the radionuclide renogram is no longer adequate as a radiographic screening tool, stimulation with an ACE inhibitor, such as captopril or enalaprilat, may produce excellent results. In many institutions, this is the most appropriate examination. Furthermore, it is relatively noninvasive. Merely detecting a significant renal artery stenosis does not, however, mean the patient has renovascular hypertension. Both hypertension and a renal artery stenosis may be present and not be causally related. Because renovascular hypertension is, at least initially, renin mediated, the demonstration of increased renin production by the ipsilateral kidney should confirm renovascular hypertension. Prospective application of these results to patients undergoing revascularization techniques, however, has been disappointing. This may be related to problems in patient preparation, sample collection, renin assay, or even the physiology of chronic hypertension, which is incompletely renin mediated. Thus, offering revascularization only to those patients with lateralizing renal vein renins is not appropriate. If radiographic screening is limited to those patient at greatest likelihood for a renovascular etiology, intra-arterial DSRA or conventional arteriography may be used. These techniques most reliably detect renal artery stenosis. Their main disadvantage lies in their relatively invasive nature, as an arterial puncture is required. The poor predictive value of selective RVRRs implies that revascularization may be attempted without awaiting those results. If percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty can be performed with a satisfactorily low complication rate, both the diagnostic and the interventional procedure may be undertaken at the same setting. It is expected that further refinements in these diagnostic procedures, particularly with the use of stimulating drugs such as ACE inhibitors, will lead to further improvement in the diagnostic results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

vasotec 15 mg 2015-07-10

Impaired baroreflex function is a characteristic feature of congestive heart failure (CHF), although the mechanism is obscure. This study examined the hypothesis that activation of the renin-angiotensin system contributes to baroreflex dysfunction in CHF. The acute effects of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, enalaprilat, on baroreflex-mediated changes in heart rate (HR), total and renal noradrenaline (NA) spillover rates were examined in conscious rabbits with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathic CHF. Studies were performed under resting conditions and in response to changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusions. Seven saline-treated (normal group) and 11 doxorubicin-treated rabbits (1 mg/kg administered intravenously twice weekly) were studied after 4 and 6 weeks' treatment. Five CHF rabbits received saline (C group) and 6 enalaprilat infusion (ACEI group) during each study period. After 4 weeks of doxorubicin, baroreflex-HR responses were normal, whereas baroreflex-NA spillover responses were enhanced. Enalaprilat infusion shifted the HR-MAP curve downwards to the left but had no effect on the NA spillover-MAP curves. After 6 weeks of doxorubicin, when CHF was established, baroreflex-HR and NA spillover curves were depressed. At this stage, enalaprilat had little effect on the HR-MAP curve but restored towards normal the NA spillover-MAP curves. The results suggest that the endogenous renin-angiotensin system contributes to attenuated baroreflex responses when CHF is established.

vasotec non generic 2017-10-26

We infused locally in small dorsal hand veins at skin temperatures of less than 29.0 degrees C (baseline distention < 0.35 mm) in the absence of exogenous vasoconstrictors, enalaprilat mediated dose-dependent vasodilation (median effective dose [ED50], 12 ng/min to a maximal effect of 162% +/- 15% of baseline, p < 0.01). Maximal enalaprilat-mediated vasodilation was comparable to dilation mediated by insulin (175% +/-17% of baseline; p = 0.21) and less than dilation mediated by nitroglycerin (221% +/- 20% of baseline; p = 0.011). At skin temperatures > 31 degrees C, enalaprilat mediated dose-dependent vasodilation in small vessels only when vessels were preconstricted with norepinephrine (ED50 = 5.1 ng/min, maximal enalaprilat-mediated effect of 164% +/- 21% of baseline; p < 0.05).

vasotec drug interactions 2017-11-06

The results show that complete bioequivalence of the two formulations can be concluded from serum total enalapril concentration data, and that serum ACE activity is not a suitable pharmacodynamic variable for assessing bioequivalence.

vasotec 50 mg 2017-06-05

In 10 hypertensive patients (group 1; aged 52+/-4 years, 1 men, 9 women) with ST segment depression during exercise and concomitant angina pectoris but normal coronary angiograms (microangiopathy) and without left ventricular hypertrophy (LVMI <110 g/m2), the left ventricular function at rest and during exercise was studied by cardiac catheterization and compared with 10 hypertensives with CAD (group 2; aged 57.6+/-4 years, 7 men, 3 women) and 10 hypertensives without ST segment depression (group 3; aged 51.8+/-5 years, 10 men) before and after intravenous administration of 1.25 mg enalaprilat.

vasotec tab 10mg 2015-08-23

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure. A diagnostic assay to measure angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was transformed into an enzyme inhibition assay and optimised, which led to a more sensitive and less expensive assay. By this spectrophotometric method, ACE inhibition is measured using the substrate furanacryloyl-Phe-Gly-Gly and as ACE source rabbit lung acetone extract. The optimised as well as the original ACE inhibition assay were used to verify the ACE inhibitory activity of captopril. The ACE inhibition assay was further validated by enalapril, its active derivative enalaprilat and the ACE-inhibitory peptide Ala-Leu-Pro-Met-His-Ile-Arg, corresponding to a tryptic fragment of bovine beta-lactoglobulin. Sigmoid curves could be fit adequately to the data points representing ACE inhibition in function of inhibitor concentration. IC(50) values for these compounds corresponded well with literature data. Furthermore, pea and whey protein hydrolysates obtained by digestion with trypsin showed ACE inhibitory activity in the ACE inhibition assay. Hence, this optimised assay is suitable to screen for ACE inhibitory peptides derived from food proteins with a possible antihypertensive effect in vivo.