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Zofran (Ondansetron)
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Zofran

Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Dexamethasone, Scopolamine, Anzemet

 

Also known as:  Ondansetron.

Description

Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.

Generic Zofran is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor blocker. It works by blocking a chemical thought to be a cause of nausea and vomiting in certain situations (e.g., chemotherapy).

Zofran is also known as Ondansetron, Vomiof, Danzetron, Ondaz.

Generic name of Generic Zofran is Ondansetron.

Brand name of Generic Zofran is Zofran.

Dosage

Take each dose with a full glass of water.

Take Generic Zofran with food or an antacid to lessen stomach discomfort.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Zofran and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at temperature between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Zofran are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Zofran if you are allergic to Generic Zofran components.

Be careful with Generic Zofran if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Generic Zofran should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 4 months old. Safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.

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Acute gastroenteritis results from infection of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly with a virus. It is characterised by rapid onset of diarrhoea with or without vomiting, nausea, fever, and abdominal pain. Diarrhoea is defined as the frequent passage of unformed, liquid stools. Regardless of the cause, the mainstay of management of acute gastroenteritis is provision of adequate fluids to prevent and treat dehydration.

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Of the 57,921 patient visits during the study period, there were 2,401 hospitalizations (4.2%). A total of 55,520 patients were discharged from the ED, with 2,378 (4.3%) experiencing a 72-hour return visit. In adjusted models, none of the tools were significantly associated with admission. Medical directive for ORT was associated with lower return visit rates (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79-0.94] and printed discharge instructions with higher return visits (aOR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.08-1.65); pathways/order sets and medical directives for ondansetron had no association.

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The patients who received dexamethasone and metoclopramide had significantly less nausea during the first 24 hours after chemotherapy was begun. Otherwise, there were no statistically significant differences in efficacy between the regimens. The incidence of drowsiness and increased appetite was higher in the group given dexamethasone and metoclopramide.

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The 11 articles that met the inclusion criteria evaluated various antiemetic agents: ondansetron (n = 6), domperidone (n = 2), trimethobenzamide (n = 2), pyrilamine-pentobarbital (n = 2), metoclopramide (n = 2), dexamethasone (n = 1), and promethazine (n = 1). Meta-analysis of 6 randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trials of ondansetron demonstrated decreased risk of further vomiting (5 studies; relative risk [RR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.62; number needed to treat [NNT] = 5), reduced need for intravenous fluid (4 studies; RR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.28-0.62; NNT = 5), and decreased risk of immediate hospital admission (5 studies; RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.27-0.95; NNT = 14). Diarrheal episodes increased in ondansetron-treated patients in 3 studies. Ondansetron use did not significantly affect return to care (5 studies; RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.77-2.35).

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Chi-square tests and student's t-test were used to determine the significance of differences among groups. Of the 128 patients enrolled in this study, 20 were excluded: 15 patients received an additional antiemetic preoperative; 4 were converted to open cholecystectomies; and 1 procedure was aborted due to carcinomatosis. Of the 108 remaining participants, 50 received ondansetron (group 1) and 58 received dimenhydrinate (group 2). Both groups were well matched for demographics including gender, ASA class, and history of motion sickness. The need for rescue antiemetics occurred in 34% of group 1 and 29% of Group 2 (p = 0.376), postoperative vomiting in 6% of group 1 and 12% of group 2 (p = 0.228), and postoperative nausea in 42% of group 1 and 34% of group 2 (p = 0.422). One group 1 patient and two group 2 patients required overnight hospitalization for persistent nausea, a difference that was not significant. Rates of PONV 24 h after discharge were similar between groups 1 and 2 (10% vs 14%, p = 0.397 and 2% vs 5%, p = 0.375, respectively).

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Subcutaneous administration of granisetron (BRL 43694, endo-1-methyl-N-(9-methyl-9-azabicyclo[3.3.1.]non-3-yl-1 H-indazole-3-carboxamide) and zacopride (4-amino-N-(1-azabicyclo[2.2.2.]oct-3-yl)-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzamide), two 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, at doses ranging from 3 to 1000 micrograms/kg, inhibited abdominal contractions induced by distension (30 mmHg, 10 min) of irritated colon (0.6% acetic acid) in conscious rats with a bell-shaped dose-response curve. The ED50 of granisetron and zacopride were 17.6 and 8.2 micrograms/kg, respectively. In contrast, both tropisetron (ICS 205-930, (3-a-tropanyl)t-indole-3-carboxylic ester) and ondansetron (GR38032F, 1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-9-methyl-3-[(2-methyl-1 H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-4 H-carbazol-4-one hydrocloride dihydrate) were inactive in this model. These data further support the concept of a heterogeneity in the potency of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in modulating visceral hypersensitivity in conscious rats. This finding is in agreement with a reported efficacy of granisetron but not of ondansetron in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

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Although the incidence of extrapyramidal reactions associated with metoclopramide has been reported to be approximately 0.2%, such reactions are rare in the anesthetic field. Several anesthetic adjuvants, including ondansetron and pregabalin, have also been associated with extrapyramidal side effect. Here, the authors report the case of a 47-year-old patient, previously administered pregabalin and ondansetron, who developed extrapyramidal side effects after a single injection of metoclopramide (10 mg) in a post-anesthesia care unit.

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Patients age 11-19 years old receiving emetogenic chemotherapy were randomized 2:1 to aprepitant triple therapy (aprepitant [A] 125 mg p.o., dexamethasone [D] 8 mg p.o., and ondansetron [O] 0.15 mg/kg i.v. t.i.d. day 1; A 80 mg, D 4 mg, and O 0.15 mg/kg t.i.d. day 2; A 80 mg and D 4 mg day 3; and D 4 mg day 4) or a control regimen (D 16 mg and O 0.15 mg/kg t.i.d. day 1; D 8 mg and O 0.15 mg/kg t.i.d. day 2; and D 8 mg days 3 and 4). The primary endpoint was the difference in drug-related adverse events during and for 14 days following treatment. Efficacy and aprepitant pharmacokinetics were assessed.

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With 50-90% of pregnant women experiencing nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), the burden of illness can become quite significant if symptoms are under-treated and/or under-diagnosed, thus allowing for progression of the disease. The majority of these women will necessitate at least one visit with a provider to specifically address NVP, and up to 10% or greater will require pharmacotherapy after failure of conservative measures to adequately control symptoms. As a result, initiation of prompt and effective treatment in the outpatient setting is ideal. Once NVP is diagnosed and treatment is started, it is crucial to track symptoms in order to assess for a decrease in or resolution of symptoms as well as an escalation in symptoms requiring additional therapy. Of note, co-existing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Helicobacter pylori infection, and psychosocial factors may have a negative impact on the management of NVP. Ultimately, every woman has her own perception of disease severity and desire for treatment. It is critical that both the provider and patient be proactive in the diagnosis and management of NVP.

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1. The effects of various 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists were examined following unilateral infusion into the substantia nigra (SN) of the guinea-pig. 2. The 5-HT1 receptor agonists, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) (2-25 micrograms), sumatriptan (10-25 micrograms) and RU24969 (25 micrograms) all induced a marked contralateral rotation. In contrast, the selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH DPAT, 10-25 micrograms) produced only a very small response, whilst the selective 5-HT1C/5-HT2 receptor agonist (+-)-1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride ((+/-)-DOI) (25 micrograms) and the 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl 5-HT (2-Me5-HT, 25 micrograms) were without effect. 3. The contralateral rotation induced by 5-CT (10 micrograms) was attenuated following pretreatment with the non-selective 5-HT1/5-HT2 receptor antagonists methiothepin (1 mg kg-1, s.c.) and metergoline (5-10 mg kg-1, s.c.) but not the 5-HT1C/5-HT2 antagonist ritanserin (1 mg kg-1, s.c.) or the 5-HT3 antagonist, ondansetron (0.5 mg kg-1, s.c.). An involvement of dopaminergic systems in the rotational response to 5-CT was implied by the antagonism of 5-CT-induced rotation by haloperidol (0.3 mg kg-1, s.c.). 4. At doses lower than those required to produce contralateral rotation, 5-CT (0.08-0.4 micrograms) and sumatriptan (2 micrograms) induced a small, but nonetheless consistent, ipsilateral rotation. 5. The data with agonists and antagonists taken together suggest that 5-CT-induced contralateral rotation may be mediated by 5-HTID receptor activation but definitive classification of the receptor will not be possible until selective 5-HTID-antagonists become available. This may therefore represent the first model to study this receptor subtype in vivo.

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The anti-emetic activity of selective NK-1 receptor antagonism is well established. However, little is known of the possibility that other NK receptors might also be involved in the emetic reflex. Given the reported location of NK-3 receptors within the rat brainstem vagal motor and sensory nuclei, we investigated the ability of SB-222200, a brain-penetrant NK-3 receptor antagonist, to interfere with emesis evoked in ferrets by the emetogenic cytotoxic agent cisplatin. In contrast to control anti-emetic experiments using the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron, SB-222200 was found to have no effects on cisplatin-induced vomiting or on the associated reductions in feeding and drinking behaviors at any dose tested. We suggest that if NK-3 receptors are involved in the mechanisms of cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting, they play only a minor role, relative to the major anti-emetic activity exhibited by 5-HT3 or NK-1 receptor antagonism.

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Our current findings do not support a role for 5-HT3 receptor agonists in the reduction of craving in opiate addicts.

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Early-onset alcoholics (EOAs) have a greater familial loading for alcoholism, more severe progression of the disorder, a greater severity of comorbid psychopathology, and a poorer response to treatment than late-onset alcoholics (LOAs). Ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 antagonist, was found to be superior to placebo in the treatment of EOAs, but not of LOAs. This study compared the tolerability and potential efficacy of an oral solution of ondansetron in EOAs versus LOAs.

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The addition of aprepitant may negate the adverse prognostic effect of female gender on the prevention of CINV in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

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In this study of the amino acid nutrition of a marsupial we tested three hypotheses: (a) that brushtail possums eat less when diets contain excesses or deficiencies in essential amino acids, (b) that brushtail possums choose diets that do not contain amino acid excesses, and (c) that amino acid consumption is mediated partly by the 5HT3 receptor. Possums ate less when 0.2-1.0% methionine (wet matter) was added to the diet, but similar concentrations of lysine and threonine had little effect. However, when given a choice, possums always selected the basal ration over one with added lysine, methionine or threonine at concentrations between 0.05% and 0.9%. In contrast to the experiments with excess amino acids, possums did not eat less of a diet almost devoid of an essential amino acid. Instead, the possums ate less when their diets contained synthetic amino acids rather than similar amounts and proportions of amino acids as casein. Contrary to the third hypothesis, the 5HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, did not affect feeding by possums given a diet containing 0.8% methionine, suggesting that post-ingestive feedback, via the 5HT3 receptor, does not regulate amino acid intake when diets contain amino acid excesses.

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Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of prolactin (PRL) secretion as a stimulator. Within the last decade several 5-HT receptor types have been identified, but their individual role in the mediation of the PRL response to 5-HT is only partly understood. We investigated in conscious male rats the effect of different 5-HT1, 5-HT2, and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on the PRL response to 5-HT or to the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytrytophan (5-HTP) which was administered in combination with the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. 5-HT (0.5-5.0 mg/kg BW i.v.) or 5-HTP (25-100 mg/kg i.p.) in combination with saline or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg i.p.) increased the plasma PRL concentration dose-dependently. Pretreatment with the 5-HT1+2 receptor antagonist methysergide (2.5 mg/kg i.p.) prevented the stimulatory effect of 5-HT or 5-HTP + fluoxetine. Pretreatment with the 5-HT2 receptor antagonists ketanserin or LY 53857 (2.5 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited the PRL response to 5-HT by approximately 80% and to 5-HTP + fluoxetine approximately 100%. A higher dose (10 mg/kg) of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonists possessed only 50% inhibitory effect. Pretreatment with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists ICS 205-930 or GR 38032F (0.05-2.5 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited the PRL response induced by 5-HT or by 5-HTP + fluoxetine. The maximal inhibitory effect (approximately 80%) was obtained by a dose of 0.1 mg/kg of both compounds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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This randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial was conducted in 9 countries to assess the safety and efficacy of 2 doses of intravenous ondansetron (8 and 16 mg) for the control of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. A total of 2574 nonsurgical patients who presented with pain requiring treatment with an opioid analgesic agent participated in this trial. The most common presenting painful condition was back or neck pain, reported by approximately one third of patients. A total of 520 patients (317 females, 203 males) developed nausea or vomiting after opioid administration and were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of 1 of 3 study treatments: placebo (n = 94), ondansetron 8 mg (n = 215), or ondansetron 16 mg (n = 211). Ondansetron 8 and 16 mg led to complete control of emesis in 134 of 215 patients (62.3%) and 145 of 211 patients (68.7%), respectively. Results with both doses were significantly better than those seen with placebo (43 of 94 patients [45.7%]). Complete control of nausea was achieved in 6.8% of placebo patients, 14.8% of ondansetron 8-mg-treated patients, and 19.4% of ondansetron 16-mg treated patients; only ondansetron 16 mg was significantly better than placebo (P = 0.007). Significantly more patients who received ondansetron 8 mg than patients who received placebo were satisfied/very satisfied with their antiemetic treatment, as assessed by 4 patient-satisfaction questions. Significantly more patients who received ondansetron 16 mg compared with placebo were satisfied/very satisfied on 2 of 4 satisfaction questions. In conclusion, based on the observed incidence of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting in this study, it may be more appropriate to treat symptoms on occurrence rather than administering antiemetic agents prophylactically. The results of this study demonstrate that intravenous ondansetron in doses of 8 or 16 mg is an effective antiemetic agent for the control of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting in nonsurgical patients requiring opioid analgesia for pain.

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The efficacy of a single dose of prophylactic ondansetron versus dolasetron in conjunction with dexamethasone was studied on posttonsillectomy retching/vomiting and 48-h recovery in children 2-12 yr old. Compared with placebo, ondansetron and dolasetron produced comparable reductions in the incidence of retching/vomiting and the need for rescue antiemetics.

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To evaluate the prophylactic effect of ondansetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) of cholecystectomy under abdominoscope.

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A total of 209 palonosetron and 153 ondansetron patients (702 and 515 cycles, respectively) met the inclusion criteria. Palonosetron patients were significantly older (mean 67.9 versus 63.9 years; P < 0.0001), with no significant difference in gender, baseline comorbidity score, or multicancer diagnosis. Palonosetron cycles had 63% lower risk for uncontrolled CINV events versus ondansetron cycles [odds ratio (OR) 0.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.54; P < 0.0001]. Sub-analysis by chemotherapy supported overall analysis (cisplatin OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.04-0.25; P < 0.0001; carboplatin OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.30-0.70; P = 0.0003).

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The mean nausea scores for regimens TENS, ondansetron and TENS + ondansetron were found to be 5.12 +/- 2.54, 3.0 +/- 1.71 and 0.8 +/- 0.96, respectively. Ondansetron was better than TENS in preventing nausea (p = 0.000). However the combination of TENS and ondansetron resulted in a significant decrease in nausea scores when compared to TENS alone (p = 0.000) or ondansetron alone (p = 0.000). The mean number of emetic attacks for the TENS, ondansetron and TENS + ondansetron regimens were 3.16 +/- 1.84, 1.64 +/- 1.44 and 0.56 +/- 0.82, respectively. A statistically significant difference was present between the number of emetic attacks observed with the TENS + ondansetron combination and TENS alone (p = 0.000) or ondansetron alone (p = 0.001). Ondansetron was again better than TENS in preventing emetic attacks (p = 0.001).

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All medications tested with acetaminophen were physically compatible except for acyclovir and diazepam. All 8 medications tested for chemical compatibility with acetaminophen were stable over the 4 hour simulated Y-site administration study.

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Amygdala is involved in processing of primary emotions and particularly its central nucleus (CeA) also in pain control. Here we studied mechanisms mediating the descending control of mechanical hypersensitivity by the CeA in rats with a peripheral neuropathy in the left hind limb. For drug administrations, the animals had a guide cannula in the right CeA and an intrathecal catheter or another guide cannula in the medullary raphe. Hypersensitivity was tested with monofilaments. Glutamate administration in the CeA produced a bidirectional effect on hypersensitivity that varied from an increase at a low-dose (9μg) to a reduction at high doses (30-100μg). The increase but not the reduction of hypersensitivity was prevented by blocking the amygdaloid NMDA receptor with a dose of MK-801 that alone had no effects. The glutamate-induced increase in hypersensitivity was reversed by blocking the spinal 5-HT3 receptor with ondansetron, whereas the reduction in hypersensitivity was reversed by blocking the spinal 5-HT1A receptor with WAY-100635. Both the increase and decrease of hypersensitivity induced by amygdaloid glutamate treatment were reversed by medullary administration of a 5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, that presumably produced autoinhibition of serotonergic cell bodies in the medullary raphe. The results indicate that depending on the dose, glutamate in the CeA has a descending facilitatory or inhibitory effect on neuropathic pain hypersensitivity. Serotoninergic raphe neurons are involved in mediating both of these effects. Spinally, the 5-HT3 receptor contributes to the increase and the 5-HT1A receptor to the decrease of neuropathic hypersensitivity induced by amygdaloid glutamate.

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zofran generic dosage 2017-02-05

Symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder are commonly observed in elderly persons and especially in those suffering from dementia. In the demented elderly, these symptoms are often defined as agitation. Approximately 60% of demented persons will present with symptoms of agitation at some point during the course of their illness. The presence of agitation has devastating consequences for the patient and the caregiver. This paper reviews some of the existing buy zofran literature with regard to the etiology and treatment of agitation in the demented elderly. Agitated behaviors are generally divided in three categories (verbal agitation physically nonaggressive agitation, and aggressive agitation). It is suggested that each category may have a different etiology and treatment; verbal agitation is often related to underlying medical conditions, physically nonaggressive behavior responds to behavioral treatment, and aggressive agitation is more likely to respond to a combination of behavioral and pharmacologic treatment.

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Ondansetron (GR 38032F) is a highly selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, one of a new class of compounds which may have several therapeutic applications. Animal and clinical studies show that ondansetron reduces the 24-hour incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting induced by cytotoxic drugs, including cisplatin, and by single exposure, high dose radiation. Ondansetron is more effective than high dose metoclopramide in the 24 hours following chemotherapy, and preliminary clinical evidence suggests that it is equally effective in the following 4 days. It is also more effective than the 'moderate' doses of metoclopramide used to suppress emesis following radiotherapy. The antiemetic efficacy of ondansetron is enhanced by dexamethasone in cisplatin-treated patients. Importantly, extrapyramidal effects have not been reported with ondansetron. Further comparisons are required with standard combination antiemetic therapy to complement the data presently available. Thus, ondansetron is a promising new agent buy zofran for prophylaxis against nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It may be particularly useful in young and elderly patients who are more susceptible to extrapyramidal symptoms induced by high dose metoclopramide. With its improved tolerability and clinical response profiles, ondansetron represents an important advance in a difficult area of therapeutics.

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In this study, drug inhibition and saturation experiments on the binding of the highly selective 5-HT4 antagonist [3H]GR 113808 were performed in human brain membranes so as to better characterize this binding site. Drug competition studies were carried out by incubating 0.2 nM [3H]GR 113808 in the presence of increasing concentrations of six different drugs, i.e. 5-HT, 5-CT, ondansetron, tropisetron, BIMU 1 and BIMU 8 (mixed 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 agonists). The binding displaced by 5-HT showed a drug inhibition constant (Ki) value of 197nM. The use of 5-CT or ondansetron also showed the existence of single-site models albeit with Ki values in the micromolar range (11,5 microM). Tropisetron, BIMU 1 and BIMU 8 displaced bound [3H]GR 113808 according to a two-site binding model, with the high affinity component in the nanomolar range and the low affinity site in the micro or milimolar range. Saturation buy zofran experiments revealed high binding densities in basal ganglia (187 fmol/mg in putamen, and 149 fmol/mg in caudate nucleus), while lower densities were observed in cortical regions (49 fmol/mg in temporal cortex, 45 fmol/mg in parietal cortex and 71 fmol/mg in cingulate cortex). The apparent affinity (Kd) was similar in the brain regions studied, ranging from 0.13 to 0.34 nmol/l. Despite the enrichment of 5-HT receptors in human brain, their functional correlate in brain diseases remains to be clarified.

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The antiemetic effects of orally administered Y-25130, a potent and selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, were compared with those of ondansetron, granisetron, metoclopramide and domperidone. Y-25130 (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) dose-dependently prolonged the latency to the first vomiting and decreased the number of vomitings induced by cisplatin in dogs. The antiemetic effect of Y-25130 against cisplatin-induced vomiting was more potent than that of metoclopramide and ondansetron, but it showed little difference from that of granisetron. The emesis induced by the combined treatment of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide was also inhibited by Y-25130 (0.1-1 mg/kg) in ferrets. The antiemetic effect of Y-25130 was more potent than that of metoclopramide, almost the same as that of granisetron and less potent than that of ondansetron. Because of a notable difference of potency ranking between Y-25130 and ondansetron in these two tests, a third test was performed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Y-25130 in ferrets on cisplatin-induced emesis in comparison with that of ondansetron. The antiemetic effect of Y-25130 on cisplatin-induced emesis in ferrets was very similar to that of ondansetron. Domperidone did not inhibit these cytotoxic agents-induced emeses. These results suggest that Y-25130 is an buy zofran orally active antiemetic compound against cisplatin and doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide-induced emeses; and its the antiemetic potency is similar to those of granisetron and ondansetron, but superior to those of metoclopramide and domperidone.

zofran dose infants 2016-07-18

Contractile responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and to a number of 5-HT-receptor agonists have been compared on the rat isolated caudal artery and stomach fundic strip. On the caudal artery, 5-HT was the most potent agonist tested. The 5-HT 1-like agonist, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), was less potent than 5-HT and produced a lower maximum response. 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and RU24969 (5-methoxy-3(1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)1Hindole) were inactive as agonists and 8-OH-DPAT was not an antagonist. Ketanserin, ICI 169,369 (2-(2-dimethylaminoethylthio)-3-phenylquinoline hydrochloride) and ICI 170,809 (2-(2-dimethylamino-2-methylpropylthio)-3- phenylquinoline hydrochloride) were competitive antagonists of 5-HT on this preparation, indicating that 5-HT is acting via 5-HT2 receptors. In contrast, all the agonists produced contractions of the fundic strip (rank order of potency, 5-HT = 5-CT > RU24969 > 8-OH-DPAT). The maximum response to RU24969 was significantly lower than the maximum responses to the other agonists. Ketanserin was only a weak antagonist of 5-HT in the fundic strip, demonstrating that 5-HT2 receptors were not involved, but ICI 169,369 and ICI 170,809 were non-surmountable antagonists of 5-HT responses, as were methysergide and methiothepin. Since buy zofran ICI 169,369 and ICI 170,809 are devoid of activity at 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors, then these two subtypes would not appear to be implicated, a view that was confirmed in the case of 5-HT3 receptors by experiments using ondansetron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

zofran 30 mg 2016-05-11

We performed a systematic review of published, randomized, controlled trials to determine the relative efficacy and safety of ondansetron, droperidol, and metoclopramide for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Ondansetron and droperidol were more effective than metoclopramide in buy zofran reducing postoperative vomiting. The overall risk of adverse effects did not differ.

zofran po dose 2017-09-29

The evidence suggests that the three most useful predictors of 5% or more dehydration are abnormal capillary refill, abnormal skin turgor, and abnormal respiratory pattern. Studies are conflicting on whether blood urea nitrogen (BUN) or BUN/creatinine ratio correlates with dehydration, but several studies found that low serum bicarbonate combined with certain clinical parameters predicts dehydration. In most studies, oral or nasogastric rehydration with an buy zofran oral rehydration solution was equally efficacious as intravenous (i.v.) rehydration. Many experts discourage the routine use of antiemetics in young children. However, children receiving ondensetron are less likely to vomit, have greater oral intake, and are less likely to be treated by intravenous rehydration. Mean length of Emergency Department (ED) stay is also less, and very few serious side effects have been reported.

zofran buy 2015-08-06

Neostigmine, used for reversal of neuromuscular block, has been implicated in the development of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). The use of mivacurium, which does not require neostigmine reversal due to its metabolism by plasma cholinesterase, has buy zofran made it possible to study the effect of neostigmine on PONV in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled manner.

zofran overdose 2015-05-20

To assess the hypothesis that ondansetron administration to children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) presenting for emergency department (ED) care with intercurrent illness and vomiting improves buy zofran clinical outcomes by reducing hospitalization rates (primary), length of ED stay, intravenous fluid (IVF) administration, and revisits (secondary outcomes).

zofran zydis dosage 2017-01-10

The effect of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, BRL 46470, has been studied on two electrophysiological models for 5-HT3 receptors: grease-gap recordings from rat isolated vagus nerve and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from mouse neuroblastoma-rat glioma NG108-15 cells. Its action on the rat vagus nerve was compared to that of four other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. On the rat vagus, BRL 46470 reduced the maximum depolarizing response to 5-HT in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 0.3-1.0 nM, but the EC50 for 5-HT was not appreciably affected. This action was similar to that of granisetron and ICS 205-930, but differed from that of GR38032F and (+)-tubocurarine which produced clear rightward shifts of the concentration-response curve to 5-HT. The 5-HT-induced fast inward current of voltage-clamped NG108-15 cells was also antagonized by 1 nM BRL 46470 in an insurmountable manner. buy zofran In contrast to (+)-tubocurarine, the action of BRL 46470 on the rat vagus nerve and NG108-15 cells did not readily reverse on washing with antagonist-free medium. It is concluded that BRL 46470 is a potent, insurmountable 5-HT3 receptor antagonist on the rat vagus and NG108-15 cells.

zofran children dosage 2017-01-13

Metoclopramide 20 mg i.v. given at the end of laparoscopic cholecystectomy resulted in a similar incidence of PONV compared with buy zofran ondansetron 8 mg. The patients receiving metoclopramide had less pain than the patients receiving ondansetron.

zofran drug classification 2017-04-02

Compared to ondansetron alone, ondansetron plus betahistine was more effective buy zofran to prevent PONV and dizziness in high-risk patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery.

zofran generic name 2017-07-14

Patients with early-onset alcoholism who received ondansetron (1, 4, and 16 microg/kg twice per day) compared with those who were administered placebo, had Zantac Dosing Pediatrics fewer drinks per day (1.89, 1.56, and 1.87 vs 3.30; P =.03, P =.01, and P =.02, respectively) and drinks per drinking day (4.75, 4.28, and 5.18 vs 6.90; P =.03, P =.004, and P =.03, respectively). Ondansetron, 4 microg/kg twice per day, was superior to placebo in increasing percentage of days abstinent (70.10 vs 50.20; P =.02) and total days abstinent per study week (6.74 vs 5.92; P =.03). Among patients with early-onset alcoholism, there was a significant difference in the mean log CDT ratio between those who received ondansetron (1 and 4 microg/kg twice per day) compared with those who received the placebo (-0.17 and -0.19 vs 0.12; P =.03 and P =.01, respectively).

zofran 8mg dosage 2017-01-14

The underlying mechanisms for the analgesic action of paracetamol (PCT) are still under considerable debate. It has been recently proposed that PCT may act by modulating the Serotonin system. This Sinequan 50 Mg study was conducted to verify the influence of Serotonin modulating drugs (buspirone, ondansetron, and fluoxetine) on the analgesic effect of PCT.

zofran pediatric dose 2015-03-01

Strips of porcine urothelium and lamina propria were suspended in gassed Krebs-bicarbonate solution, and cumulative concentration-response curves for 5- Antabuse Type Drugs HT were generated in the absence and presence of 5-HT antagonists, Nω-nitro-l-arginine and indomethacin. Responses to α-methyl-5-HT were also examined.

zofran 1 mg 2015-11-04

Ondansetron, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, has already been reported to have a marked effect to alleviate or prevent nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, after its intravenous administration. The present study was planned to examine the usefulness of its tablet form, which was prepared for the convenient use in outpatients receiving chemotherapy. In order to make an objective evaluation of anti-emetic effect and safety of ondansetron 4 mg tablet, this study was conducted in double-blind comparison versus placebo in patients receiving cisplatin at a single dose of Lexapro Typical Dose 50mg/m2 or higher. Either 4 mg of ondansetron or placebo (lactose tablet) was administered orally once at 2 hrs prior to administration of cisplatin. If any satisfactory anti-emetic effects were not obtained, 4 mg of ondansetron injection was given once intravenously as a rescue medication. The inhibitory effect on nausea and vomiting was assessed in 4 grades as "excellent", "good", "fair" and "poor" based on severity of nausea and number of vomiting that occurred during the first 24hrs after administration of cisplatin. When rescue medication was conducted, the case was assessed as "poor". Ondansetron was significantly superior to placebo in inhibition of nausea and vomiting, in which efficacy rates (excellent+good) of ondansetron and placebo groups were 58.1% (25/43 cases) and 16.7% (7/42 cases), respectively. Number of cases requiring rescue medication with ondansetron injection was obviously greater in placebo group (31 cases) than that in ondansetron group (12 cases). In those patients given ondansetron injection as the rescue medication, satisfactory effects were obtained in 5 cases in ondansetron group and in 18 cases in placebo group. Although side effects including chest itching (ondansetron group), headache and dull headache (placebo group) were observed after the rescue medication with ondansetron injection, these symptoms were not severe and disappeared after 1-2 days. As mentioned above, ondansetron tablet was shown to possess excellent anti-emetic effect on nausea and emesis induced by high dose of cisplatin and to have no problem in safety. Hence ondansetron was proven to be clinically very useful anti-emetic.

zofran 500 mg 2015-04-07

The study identified 32,124 children with migraine; 27,317 (85%) were discharged, and 5.5% had a return ED visit within 3 days. At the index visit, the most common medications included nonopioid analgesics (66%), dopamine antagonists (50%), diphenhydramine (33%), and ondansetron (21%). Triptans and opiate medications were administered infrequently (3% each). Children receiving metoclopramide had a 31% increased odds for an Plavix 75 Mg ED revisit within 3 days compared with prochlorperazine. Diphenhydramine with dopamine antagonists was associated with 27% increased odds of an ED revisit compared with dopamine antagonists alone. Children receiving ondansetron had similar revisit rates to those receiving dopamine antagonists.

zofran with alcohol 2016-04-06

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ondansetron on excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3) and to elucidate the roles of protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in the effect. EAAT3 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes following the injection of rat EAAT3 mRNAs. Using the two-electrode voltage clamping method, the inward currents Moduretic Tablet Kullananlar induced by L-glutamate were measured for 1 min in the presence and absence of ondansetron (1-1000 μM). Different concentrations of L-glutamate (3-300 μM) were used to determine the kinetic characteristics of EAAT3. To identify the involvement of PKC and PI3K in the effect, oocytes were exposed to a PKC activator and to PKC inhibitors and PI3K inhibitors, and L-glutamate-induced currents were recorded. Ondansetron decreased EAAT3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. In a kinetic study, ondansetron (10 μM for 3 min) reduced Vmax, but not Km compared with the control group. The PKC activator abolished the ondansetron-induced decrease in EAAT3 activity. The PKC inhibitors (staurosporine and chelerythrine) and ondansetron had not additive or synergistic effects on EAAT3 activity. The PI3K inhibitors (wortmannin and LY294002) decreased the EAAT3 response, although there were no differences among the groups comprising ondansetron, PI3K inhibitors, and PI3K inhibitors plus ondansetron. Our results demonstrate that ondansetron attenuates EAAT3 activity and this effect seems to be mediated by PKC and PI3K.

zofran maximum dose 2017-12-16

This randomized, double-blind study evaluated the relative efficacy of palonosetron (a new, selective 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 [5-HT(3)] receptor antagonist) and ondansetron in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing gynaecological laparoscopic surgery. Patients received either palonosetron 0.075 mg (n = 45) or ondansetron 8 mg (n = 45), intravenously, immediately before induction of general anaesthesia. The occurrence of nausea and vomiting and the severity of nausea according to a visual analogue scale were monitored immediately after the end of surgery and during the following 24 h. The incidence of PONV was significantly lower in the palonosetron group compared with the ondansetron group (42.2% vs 66.7%, respectively). There were no significant statistical differences in the visual analogue scale for nausea. In conclusion, palonosetron 0.075 mg was more effective than Cymbalta 6 Mg ondansetron 8 mg in preventing PONV.

zofran 16 mg 2016-12-21

The 5-HT3 receptor blocking properties of YM060, YM114 (KAE-393), granisetron and ondansetron were examined in the vagus nerve and cerebral cortex of rats. 5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT induced dose-dependent depolarizations of rat isolated vagus nerve with EC50 values of 2.53 (1.93-3.33) x 10(-6) and 4.03 (2.87-5.66) x 10(-6) M, respectively. YM060, YM114 and granisetron dose-dependently antagonized the depolarization of the rat vagus nerve induced by 5-HT, with decreases in the slope and maximal response at higher concentrations. Apparent pA2 values for these antagonists were Order Viagra 10.27 +/- 0.09, 10.12 +/- 0.16 and 9.44 +/- 0.40, respectively. Ondansetron produced a clear rightward shift of the concentration-response curve to 5-HT. The pA2 value was 8.63 (8.23-9.68). YM060 and YM114 at up to 10(-5) M produced no significant depression of the depolarizing responses to DMPP and GABA. YM060, YM114, granisetron and ondansetron displaced specific binding of [3H]GR65630 to rat cortical membranes with pKi values of 10.48 (10.41-10.57), 10.24 (10.18-10.28), 9.15 (9.02-9.28) and 8.70 (8.64-8.77), respectively. An excellent correlation (r = 0.97) was obtained between pA2 values in the vagus nerve and pKi values in the cerebral cortex. YM060, YM114, granisetron and ondansetron showed low affinities for 5-HT1A, 5-HT2 receptor, adrenergic alpha 1, alpha 2, dopamine D2, muscarinic M2, mu-opioid, benzodiazepine and histamine H1 receptors. These results support the possibility that the same type of 5-HT3 receptor occurs in rat vagus nerve and cerebral cortex.

zofran mg 2017-04-10

A case of accidental epidural injection of ondansetron in a parturient is reported. No neurologic sequela resulted from the mistaken epidural Duphaston Medicine Uses injection. Vigilance is essential for minimizing the risk of epidural injections.

zofran medicine pregnancy 2015-04-11

Antidepressants strongly inhibited ATP-mediated Ca2+ responses in P2X4 receptor-expressing 1321N1 cells, which are known to have no endogenous ATP receptors. Paroxetine exhibited the most powerful inhibition of calcium influx via rat and human P2X4 receptors, with IC50 values of 2.45 microM and 1.87 microM, respectively. Intrathecal administration of paroxetine produced a striking antiallodynic effect in an animal model of neuropathic pain. Co-administration of WAY100635, ketanserin or ondansetron with paroxetine induced no significant change in the antiallodynic effect of paroxetine. Furthermore, the antiallodynic effect of paroxetine was observed even in rats that had received intrathecal pretreatment with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, which dramatically depletes spinal 5-hydroxytryptamine.

zofran cost 2017-05-04

80 Anesthesiologists I-II adults were scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups to have either opioid-free anesthesia with dexmedetomidine, lidocaine, and propofol infusions (Group DL) or opioid-based anesthesia with remifentanil, and propofol infusions (Group RF). All patients received a standard multimodal analgesia regimen. A patient controlled analgesia device was set to deliver IV fentanyl for 6h after surgery. The primary outcome variable was postoperative fentanyl consumption.

zofran 8 mg 2017-04-17

Log dose-response curves were determined for the study groups and compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The 50%, 75%, and 95% effective doses (ED50, ED75, and ED95) were calculated from the equation describing the log dose-response. Maintenance infusion rates were determined, and the neostigmine-accelerated recovery index of 25% to 75% was measured for each group. The results were compared using ANOVA. There were no significant differences among the treatment groups with respect to maintenance infusion rate (7.8 +/- 1.8 micrograms/kg/min for Group 1, 7.7 +/- 2.5 micrograms/kg/min for Group 2, and 7.3 +/- 2.3 micrograms/kg/min for Group 3) or neostigmine-accelerated recovery interval of 25% to 75% (4.5 +/- 2.3 minutes, 4.4 +/- 3.1 minutes, 6.6 +/- 3.9 minutes in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively). The log dose-response data for Groups 1, 2, and 3 did not differ significantly (p = 0.068), and the calculated ED95 in each treatment group demonstrated no dose-related change (0.254 +/- 0.022, 0.279 +/- 0.033, and 0.240 +/- 0.022 for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively).

pediatric zofran dosage 2016-12-17

Rifampin is a potent inducer of cytochrome P-450 oxidative enzymes. A few examples of well-documented clinically significant interactions include interactions with warfarin, oral contraceptives, cyclosporine, glucocorticoids, ketoconazole or itraconazole, theophylline, quinidine sulfate, digitoxin or digoxin, verapamil hydrochloride, human immunodeficiency virus-related protease inhibitors, zidovudine, delavirdine mesylate, nifedipine, and midazolam. Recent reports have demonstrated clinically relevant interactions with numerous other drugs, such as buspirone hydrochloride, zolpidem tartrate, simvastatin, propafenone hydrochloride, tacrolimus, ondansetron hydrochloride, and opiates. Rifabutin reduces serum concentrations of antiretroviral agents, but less so than rifampin. To avoid a reduced therapeutic response, therapeutic failure, or toxic reactions when rifampin is added to or discontinued from medication regimens, clinicians need to be cognizant of these interactions. Enhanced knowledge of known interactions will continue to develop, including research on the induction of specific cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes and on the importance of the P-glycoprotein transport system. New rifampin and rifabutin interactions will be discovered with further investigations.

zofran drug class 2017-10-31

The prophylactic use of antiemetic drugs failed to reduce the incidence of POV in pediatric outpatient surgery with a low emetic potential; therefore, routine prophylaxis may be unnecessary.

zofran otc dose 2015-04-11

The analyses of the results showed a significantly lower incidence of PONV in treated patients (Groups A and B) than in the control group (Group C): postoperative nausea occurred in 12.5%, 27.5%, and 65% of patients in Groups A, B, and C, respectively, and was associated with vomiting in Group A in 2.5% Group B in 5%, and Group C in 55% of patients. Although the patients in Group A showed a lower incidence of PONV in comparison to those in Group B, the difference was not statistically significant.