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Zoloft (Sertraline)

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Zoloft is a medication that treats depression, including accompanying anxiety and prevents initial or chronic episodes of depression. Obsessive-compulsive disorders, panic disorders and and premenstrual dysphoric disorder can also be relieved by Zoloft the main component of which includes Sertraline that is responsible for serotonin reuptake inhibition.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Sertraline.


Zoloft is an anti-depressant that belongs to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Effect on serotonin receptors cause significant correction of mental state of patients with depression.

Zoloft shows high effeciency in improving mood, eliminating phobias, anxiety, decreasing unpleasant mental conditions and mental states associated with appetite loss.


Dosage for adults is 100 mg per day. Take with or without food.


If you overdose Zoloft and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Zoloft are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Zoloft if you are allergic to Zoloft components.

Consult your doctor first before taking in case you are pregnant.

Consult your doctor first before taking in case of hepatic impairment, volume depletion, hyponatremia, seizure disorder, hypomania or mania, glaucoma, angle-closure.

Avoid alcohol.

zoloft positive reviews

We undertook the parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Health Technology Assessment Study of the Use of Antidepressants for Depression in Dementia (HTA-SADD) trial in participants from old-age psychiatry services in nine centres in England. Participants were eligible if they had probable or possible Alzheimer's disease, depression (lasting ≥4 weeks), and a Cornell scale for depression in dementia (CSDD) score of 8 or more. Participants were ineligible if they were clinically critical (eg, suicide risk), contraindicated to study drugs, on antidepressants, in another trial, or had no carer. The clinical trials unit at King's College London (UK) randomly allocated participants with a computer-generated block randomisation sequence, stratified by centre, with varying block sizes, in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive sertraline (target dose 150 mg per day), mirtazapine (45 mg), or placebo (control group), all with standard care. The primary outcome was reduction in depression (CSDD score) at 13 weeks (outcomes to 39 weeks were also assessed), assessed with a mixed linear-regression model adjusted for baseline CSDD, time, and treatment centre. This study is registered, number ISRCTN88882979 and EudraCT 2006-000105-38.

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Sertraline appears to be the most cost-effective drug in the treatment of patients with GAD. However, this finding is based on limited evidence for sertraline (two published trials). Sertraline is not licensed for the treatment of GAD in the UK, but is commonly used by primary care practitioners for the treatment of depression and mixed depression and anxiety.

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Numerous studies have reported on pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response in depression. In contrast, little is known of response predictors in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a disorder with among the lowest proportion of responders to medication (40-60%). Our study is the largest investigation to date (N=184) of treatment response and side effects to antidepressants in OCD based on metabolizer status for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. We observed significantly more failed medication trials in CYP2D6 non-extensive compared with extensive metabolizers (P=0.007). CYP2D6 metabolizer status was associated with side effects to venlafaxine (P=0.022). There were nonsignificant trends for association of CYP2D6 metabolizer status with response to fluoxetine (P=0.056) and of CYP2C19 metabolizer status with response to sertraline (P=0.064). Our study is the first to indicate that CYP genes may have a role in antidepressant response in OCD. More research is required for a future clinical application of genetic testing, which could lead to improved treatment outcomes.

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Our results demonstrate that stimulus-induced response plasticity of VEPs can be induced in the human brain and is sharing properties with hebbian forms of synaptic plasticity. Major depression and antidepressant treatment of healthy control subjects differentially modulate amplitude and plasticity of evoked potentials. This study provides direct evidence in humans for a central role of synaptic plasticity in the pathophysiology of depression.

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Between 2000 and 2002, 40 subjects between 9 and 17 years old were randomized to receive GCBT (n = 20) or sertraline (n = 20). GCBT consisted of a manual-based 12-week cognitive-behavioral protocol adapted for groups, and treatment with sertraline involved medication intake for 12 weeks. Subjects were assessed before, during, and after treatment (at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after treatment conclusion). Primary outcome measure was the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were done.

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This article reviews new developments of pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OC spectrum disorders of the past five years. New developments primarily involved the ex-tension of evidence of efficacy of serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SRIs), the use of atypical antipsychotics in addition to SRIs for treatment refractory patients, the combination of pharmacotherapy with behavior therapy, and studies assessing predictors of response. Today, frontline pharmacological treatment of OCD still consists of drugs with potent serotonin reuptake inhibition proper-ties. In case of non-response, treatment options comprise adding another drug, increasing the dose, switching drugs, or changing the mode of delivery.

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Previous studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, citalopram and paroxetine, suppress rapid eye movement sleep, and increased nocturnal arousals. There has been no published report of the impact of sertraline on the sleep of depressed patients. This study examines such effects. Forty-seven patients with major depressive disorder, randomized to double-blind treatment with sertraline or placebo, completed sleep studies before and after 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy. Groups were compared using multivariate analyses of covariance and/or analyses of covariance to examine 4 empirically defined sets of sleep measures. Compared to the placebo-treated group, patients who received sertraline experienced an increase in delta wave sleep in the first sleep cycle and prolonged rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency. Although, sertraline therapy decreased the average number of REM periods (from 3.86 to 2.40), the activity of both REM period 1 and REM period 2 was significantly increased. Aside from an increase in sleep latency, sertraline therapy was not associated with a worsening of measures of sleep continuity. There was also no significant difference between the groups on a measure of subjective sleepiness. These findings are both similar and different from those observed in previous studies of other SSRIs. The increase in delta sleep ratio and consolidation of REM sleep may have some other clinical implications. However, the generalizability of these findings is limited because of a number of reasons. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of SSRIs in acute treatment of depressed patients with severe insomnia, and the relationship of acute changes and relapse prevention of recurrent depression.

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Background. Dementia is one of the most frequent disorders among elderly patients, reaching to epidemic proportions with an estimated 4.6 million new cases globally annually. Partially effective treatments are available for dementia. Aims & Objectives. We aim to study drugs used in dementia and find out frequency of types of Dementia. Method. This was an observational study conducted at rurally based tertiary care hospital. Prospective data was collected from outpatient department, while retrospective data was collected from medical records. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. Result. Total 125 prescriptions of patients diagnosed with dementia were analyzed. Alzheimer's dementia was most common (65.6%), followed by vascular dementia (21.6%), and frontotemporal dementia (10.4%), with the rarest being Lewy body dementia in (2.4%) cases. 60.57% of patients were males. Mini Mental Score Examination mean score was 15.93 ± 1.37. Frontal Battery Assessment mean score was 4.75 ± 1.01. Prescribed drugs were Donepezil (68.49%), Rivastigmine (13.63%), Donepezil + Memantine (6.43%) and Galantamine (12.83%), Quetiapine (38.46%), Lorazepam (23.07%), Clozapine (11.53%), Escitalopram (10.25%), Haloperidol (3.84%), Zolpidem, Sertraline, Olanzepine (2.56%), Nitrazepine, Lamotrigine, Fluoxetine, Tianeptine (1.28%), Folic acid, and Vitamin B12, respectively. Conclusion. Alzheimer's is the most common type of dementia while Donepezil was the most frequent drug.

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The in vitro antimicrobial activity of streptomycin, rifampicin, tetracycline, seven nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (acetyl-salicylic acid, piroxicam, indomethacin, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, sulindac, and diclofenac), and eight phenotiazine derivatives and antidepressant agents (clorpromazine, fluphenazine, amitryptiline, clomipramine, imipramine, maprotiline, sertraline, and diazepam) against 62 strains of Brucella spp. was tested. Diclofenac was the most active of the anti-inflammatory agents (MIC90 = 16 micrograms/ml). The activity of the phenotiazines and antidepressants was heterogeneous, with MIC90s ranging from 16 micrograms/ml for sertraline and 32 micrograms/ml for fluphenazine and clomipramine to > 512 micrograms/ml for diazepam. When the six most active anti-inflammatory agents and the six most active psychiatric drugs were tested at pH 5 and pH 4, the MICs remained unchanged except for those of fluphenazine; the MIC50 and MIC90 of this agent increased by one dilution.

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Randomised studies of antidepressants alone or in combination with another treatment, compared with placebo or a psychosocial intervention in non-depressed pregnant women or women who had given birth in the previous six weeks (i.e. women at risk of postnatal depression)

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Vulnerability to delirium was potentially caused by coadministration of methadone, which can inhibit the CYP2D6 isozyme.

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CYP2D6 poor metaboliser genotype and co-medication with inhibitors of CYP2D6 were associated with higher plasma concentrations than the drug-specific median plasma concentration when normalised to dose; plasma concentrations of CYP2C19 extensive metabolisers and smokers were significantly lower than the drug-specific median. Five of the six CYP2D6 poor metabolisers experienced side effects. Response was not associated with plasma concentrations above or below the lower limit of a presumed therapeutic range.

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1. Little is known about drug metabolism in carnivores. Although the domestic cat (Felis catus) is an obligate carnivore and is the most common companion animal, usage and dosage of many drugs are determined according to information obtained from humans and dogs. We determined the complete cDNA sequence of CYP2B6 from the feline lung. 2. Feline CYP2B6 consists of 494 deduced amino acids, showing highest identity with the dog CYP2B ortholog, followed by those of horse, pig, primate and human. 3. Feline CYP2B6 transcripts were expressed predominantly in the lung and slightly in the small intestine but not in the liver without significant sex-dependent differences. Western blot analysis with an anti-human CYP2B6 antibody confirmed the presence of CYP2B protein in the lung but not in the liver. 4. Feline CYP2B6 proteins heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli metabolized several substrates specific to human CYP2B6, including 7-ethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl) coumarin (EFC). The metabolic activity was strongly inhibited by medetomidine and atipamezole, potent inhibitors of canine CYP2B11 (now officially CYP2B6) as well as by ticlopidine and sertraline, inhibitors selective to human CYP2B6. 5. The results suggest that feline CYP2B6 is a functional CYP2B ortholog that plays a role in the local defense mechanism in the cat respiratory system and intestine.

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Escitalopram (escitalopram oxalate; Cipralex(®), Lexapro(®)) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorder. This drug exerts a highly selective, potent, and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the human serotonin transport. By inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin into presynaptic nerve endings, this drug enhances the activity of serotonin in the central nervous system. Escitalopram also has allosteric activity. Moreover, the possibility of interacting with other drugs is considered low. This review covers randomized, controlled studies that enrolled adult patients with MDD to evaluate the efficacy of escitalopram based on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The results showed that escitalopram was superior to placebo, and nearly equal or superior to other SSRIs (eg, citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline) and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (eg, duloxetine, sustained-release venlafaxine). In addition, with long-term administration, escitalopram has shown a preventive effect on MDD relapse and recurrence. Escitalopram also showed favorable tolerability, and associated adverse events were generally mild and temporary. Discontinuation symptoms were milder with escitalopram than with paroxetine. In view of the patient acceptability of escitalopram, based on both a meta-analysis and a pooled analysis, this drug was more favorable than other new antidepressants. The findings indicate that escitalopram achieved high continuity in antidepressant drug therapy.

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We analyzed data from the ARTIST study, a randomized controlled trial with naturalistic follow-up conducted in 37 primary care clinics. Participants were 573 clinically depressed patients randomized to one of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants: fluoxetine, paroxetine, or sertraline. Depression as assessed by the Symptom Checklist-20 (SCL-20) was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included pain and health-related quality of life.

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We suggest that the SSRIs may act as "antiworry" agents and reduce irritability, neuroticism and dysfunctional attributions.

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Major depression with high levels of anxiety (anxious depression) is a common subtype of depression associated with greater psychosocial impairment and poorer response to antidepressant treatment. It is unclear whether in this population there are differences in efficacy or tolerability across selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. For this reason, using head-to-head acute treatment comparison, we compared efficacy and tolerability of fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine among depressed patients with high levels of anxiety.

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This study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of donepezil HCl and sertraline HCl when administered separately and in combination.

zoloft drug interactions

Overall, chromium treatment was associated with reduced mood symptoms and improved overall health satisfaction in most participants. In some cases, chromium alone was associated with marked clinical improvement; in others, chromium plus an antidepressant resulted in greater improvement than either chromium alone or an antidepressant alone.

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We studied reported withdrawal symptoms in a retrospective chart review of 352 patients treated in an outpatient clinic with the nonselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor clomipramine or with one of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, or sertraline. In 171 patients who were supervised during medication tapering and discontinuation, the most common symptoms were dizziness, lethargy, paresthesia, nausea, vivid dreams, irritability, and lowered mood. When patients with at least one qualitatively new symptom were defined as cases, these symptoms occurred significantly more frequently in patients who had been treated either with one of the shorter half-life SSRIs, fluvoxamine or paroxetine (17.2%), or with clomipramine (30.8%), than in patients taking one of the SSRIs with longer half-life metabolites, sertraline or fluoxetine (1.5%). The rate was not significantly different between the different shorter half-life treatments. Cases treated with fluvoxamine or paroxetine had received a significantly longer period of treatment (median 28 weeks) than noncases (16 weeks), but there were no significant associations with age or with diagnostic grouping. There was a trend toward an association with male sex. The majority of cases occurred despite slowly tapered withdrawal. Symptoms persisted for up to 21 days (mean = 11.8 days) after onset. These symptoms were relieved within 24 hours by restarting the medication, but were not relieved by benzodiazepines or by moclobemide. A role has been suggested for serotonin in coordinating sensory and autonomic function with motor activity. We suggest that this may lead to useful hypotheses about the pathophysiology of withdrawal symptoms from serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

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To investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of sertraline in overdose and the effect of single dose activated charcoal (SDAC).

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The major drug binding site of sodium channels is inaccessible from the extracellular side, drug molecules can only access it either from the membrane phase, or from the intracellular aqueous phase. For this reason, ligand-membrane interactions are as important determinants of inhibitor properties, as ligand-protein interactions. One-way to probe this is to modify the pH of the extracellular fluid, which alters the ratio of charged vs. uncharged forms of some compounds, thereby changing their interaction with the membrane. In this electrophysiology study we used three different pH values: 6.0, 7.3, and 8.6 to test the significance of the protonation-deprotonation equilibrium in drug access and affinity. We investigated drugs of several different indications: carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, lidocaine, bupivacaine, mexiletine, flecainide, ranolazine, riluzole, memantine, ritanserin, tolperisone, silperisone, ambroxol, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, clozapine, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, amitriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, maprotiline, nisoxetine, mianserin, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, nefazodone, and trazodone. We recorded the pH-dependence of potency, reversibility, as well as onset/offset kinetics. As expected, we observed a strong correlation between the acidic dissociation constant (pKa) of drugs and the pH-dependence of their potency. Unexpectedly, however, the pH-dependence of reversibility or kinetics showed diverse patterns, not simple correlation. Our data are best explained by a model where drug molecules can be trapped in at least two chemically different environments: A hydrophilic trap (which may be the aqueous cavity within the inner vestibule), which favors polar and less lipophilic compounds, and a lipophilic trap (which may be the membrane phase itself, and/or lipophilic binding sites on the channel). Rescue from the hydrophilic and lipophilic traps can be promoted by alkalic and acidic extracellular pH, respectively.

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zoloft overdose hallucinations 2017-01-12

Analyses involve a double-blind comparison of sertraline buy zoloft versus placebo (N=47) and a single-blind comparison between CBT versus a guided self-help group (GSG) (N=48), with primary efficacy endpoints being the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS(C)) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17).

alcohol zoloft interaction 2015-05-02

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are often prescribed in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), and act at synaptic terminals to buy zoloft increase monoamine neurotransmitters. We hypothesized that they act to increase blood pressure and attenuate reflex tachycardia, thereby improving symptoms. Acute hemodynamic profiles after SSRI administration in POTS patients have not previously been reported.

zoloft positive reviews 2017-09-26

Of 649 patients at baseline, 232 completed 52 weeks of the single-blind trial and met response criteria. Among the 223 patients in the double-blind phase of the study, sertraline buy zoloft had significantly greater efficacy than placebo on two of three primary outcomes: dropout due to relapse or insufficient clinical response (9% versus 24%, respectively) and acute exacerbation of symptoms (12% versus 35%). Sertraline resulted in improvement in quality of life during the initial 52-week trial and continued improvement, significantly superior to placebo, during the subsequent 28-week double-blind trial. Long-term treatment with sertraline was well tolerated. Over the entire study period, less than 20% of the patients stopped treatment because of adverse events.

zoloft alcohol 2016-04-20

Demographic, clinical and genetic variables buy zoloft were characterized to establish the appropriate maintenance dosages of warfarin.

zoloft 250 mg 2016-02-02

60 patients participated in the study. They were divided into 3 groups treated with pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy or both, respectively. The neuropsychological changes observed as a results of the application of these methods was assessed with the Vienna Test System (VTS). The patients recruited to the study were treated at the psychotherapeutic subdivision of a psychiatric ward. Inclusion in the study was restricted to individuals with a diagnosis of buy zoloft recurrent depressive disorder.

zoloft 20 mg 2015-11-03

Our study was retrospective and relied on self-report by volunteer patients buy zoloft who had been previously depressed. The study design cannot exclude the possibility that improvement reported on a number of measures may have been due to the amelioration of residual depression.

zoloft pill 2015-05-31

These results suggest that sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor may be a beneficial buy zoloft adjuvant drug during psychosis therapy.

zoloft dose pmdd 2015-06-30

The results of the current study confirm the efficacy of buy zoloft sertraline in the treatment of severe social anxiety disorder.

zoloft 75 mg 2017-02-15

Of the 245 patients treated, 194 completed the study; 70% reported Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale responses of "much improved" or "very much improved" between open-label baseline and final visit (previous randomized modafinil group: 74%; placebo group: 66%). When data were analyzed for four subsets of patients (former modafinil responders, placebo responders, modafinil nonresponders, and placebo nonresponders), improvements in scores on all outcome measures were at least twice as great among former modafinil and placebo nonresponders compared with responders. Most common adverse events were headache (18%), nausea (9%), and dizziness (7%); all were generally mild to moderate in severity buy zoloft .

zoloft overdose 2017-04-14

After 12 weeks of double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment, nine of buy zoloft the patients given sertraline and two of those given placebo were at least partial responders. Patients given sertraline had significantly greater mean declines from baseline in Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia scores; the bulk of antidepressant response occurred by the third week of treatment.

zoloft xanax alcohol 2015-10-29

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is buy zoloft a debilitating anxiety disorder that may develop after an individual has experienced or witnessed a severe traumatic event. It has been shown that the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) may be correlated with PTSD and that the TSPO ligand improved the behavioral deficits in a mouse model of PTSD. Midazolam, a ligand for TSPO and central benzodiazepine receptor (CBR), induces anxiolytic- and anti-depressant-like effects in animal models. The present study aimed to determine whether midazolam ameliorates PTSD behavior in rats as assessed by the single prolonged stress (SPS) model. The SPS rats received daily Sertraline (Ser) (15 mg/kg, i.p.) [corrected] and midazolam (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) [corrected] during the exposure to SPS and behavioral assessments, which included the open field (OF) test, the contextual fear paradigm (CFP), and the elevated plus-maze (EPM). The results showed that, like Ser (15 mg/kg, i.p.) [corrected], midazolam (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) [corrected] significantly reversed the behavioral deficiencies of the SPS rats, including PTSD-associated freezing and anxiety-like behavior but not the effects on spontaneous locomotor activity. In addition, the anti-PTSD effects of midazolam (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) [corrected] were antagonized by the TSPO antagonist PK11195 (3 mg/kg, i.p.), the CBR antagonist flumazenil (15 mg/kg, i.p.) [corrected] and the inhibitor of steroidogenic enzymes finasteride (30 mg/kg, i.p.) [corrected], which by themselves had no effect on PTSD-associated freezing and anxiety-like behavior. In summary, this study demonstrated that midazolam improves the behavioral deficits in the SPS model through dual TSPO and CBR and neurosteroidogenesis.

zoloft 70 mg 2017-08-21

Patients demonstrated similar baseline-to-endpoint improvement in HAM-D-17 and HAM-D-Anxiety/Somatization Factor scores. Patients also demonstrated similar change-over-time improvement in HAM-D-17 and HAM-D-Anxiety/Somatization Factor scores, except at week one where fluoxetine- and sertraline-treated patients had statistically significantly greater improvement than paroxetine-treated patients in the HAM-D-Anxiety/Somatization buy zoloft Factor score. There were no significant differences across treatments in percentages of patients with substantial emergence, any worsening, or improvement at endpoint in individual HAM-D Items 9 (agitation), 10 (psychic anxiety), and 11 (somatic anxiety). Overall, all treatments were well tolerated.

zoloft dosage elderly 2017-09-20

A new instrument, the Adolescent Depression Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (ADTSQ) was devised to measure the consumer satisfaction of depressed adolescents and their parents. The objectives of the paper were to present the psychometric properties of the ADTSQ and to investigate the relative consumer satisfaction with cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT) and a combined treatment of CBT and SRT (COMBINED) for the treatment of adolescent depression. buy zoloft In addition, participants were asked to rank their most preferred treatment from the following approaches: medication, individual counselling, group program and family therapy.

zoloft missed dose 2015-02-06

We conducted a retrospective review of consecutive patients who presented to the renal palliative care clinic in a single institution with pruritus refractory to antihistamines between April 2011 and September 2012. A total of 99 patients were screened during this period; 20 were eligible for this study. Sertraline was initiated at 25 mg daily orally for the first month, Tofranil Medication Information with dosage increment of 25 mg monthly according to clinical response up to a maximum of 200 mg daily as necessary. Patients were followed up every 2 to 4 weeks in the renal palliative care clinic.

medication zoloft 2017-05-07

Ambulatory HIV-seropositive women with DSM-IV depressive Detrol Rxlist Pill disorders were enrolled in an 8-week, open trial of fluoxetine (N = 21) or sertraline (N = 9) initiated at standard dosages. Outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale (CGI), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), physical function ratings, and CD4 count.

zoloft y alcohol 2016-07-14

While dysthymia is associated with elevated IL-1 beta production, the failure for the cytokine to normalize following symptom alleviation suggests that either the IL-1 beta may be a trait marker of the illness, or that more sustained treatment is necessary to reduce cytokine production. Given the neuroendocrine and central Coreg Max Dose neurochemical consequences of exogenously administered IL-1 beta, the possibility ought to be explored that increased IL-1 beta production may play a role in the pathophysiology of dysthymia.

zoloft increase dosage 2016-03-03

A considerable number of new drugs were introduced over the last few years. In this report we analyze to what extent they have come to be used in clinical practice and what Singulair 10 Mg changes in drug use have resulted from the availability of the new compounds. For this purpose, data on drug use in 1995 and 2001 assessed at two reference days per year and per hospital within the drug safety program AMSP were compared for 10 hospitals that had been participating in both years. Atypical neuroleptics (NL) were used in 59.9 % of patients on NLs in 2001 (16.7 % in 1995), most frequently olanzapine, risperidone, clozapine, and quetiapine, in this order. Thirty-nine percent of patients still received typical NLs in antipsychotic indication (77.1 % in 1995), and 30.8 % received typical hypnosedative NLs (38.1 % in 1995). SSRIs, other new ADs, and TCAs were used in similar rates in 2001, i. e., in 40.5 %, 37.9 %, and 34.8 % of AD patients, respectively (1995 : 24.2 %, 6.2 %, and 72.3 %, respectively). Mirtazapine was the most common AD in 2001, followed by citalopram, sertraline, and doxepin. Hypnotics were prescribed more frequently in 2001 (17.6 % vs. 11.7 %), mostly BZD agonists at that time, whereas overall anxiolytic use (in approximately 30 %) hardly changed over time. Mood stabilizers and anti-dementia drugs were given comparatively rarely, even in pertinent diagnoses. Polypharmacy was observed in about three-quarters of patients on psychotropic drugs, with a trend towards increasing use over time. Combinations of two NLs, of NL + AD, and of NLs + anxiolytic were most common in both years. Twenty percent of patients on atypical NLs received typical antipsychotic NLs additionally; typical hypnosedative NLs were used along with typical antipsychotics and atypical NLs in 20 % and 22 % of patients, respectively. TCAs and either SSRIs or other new ADs were still the most common AD combinations in 2001. Data were also analyzed according to the main diagnostic categories.

zoloft 60 mg 2015-03-16

Cyclosporine-drug interactions in adult transplant patients and the impact of age were studied. The medical records of transplant patients receiving cyclosporine therapy were identified. Data on patient demographics, cyclosporine dosages, dosage form, blood trough concentrations, clinical laboratory test values, and concurrent medications were collected. One-compartment models for oral and i.v. administration were used to fit cyclosporine concentration data to population pharmacokinetic and statistical models. Nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM) software was used. The influence of covariates, including but not limited to concomitant medications and age, on cyclosporine pharmacokinetics was evaluated. The records of 100 patients (36 women and 64 men) were reviewed. A mean +/- S.D. of 9 +/- 2 and 9 +/- 1 medications per day were consumed by patients < 60 and > or = 60 years old, respectively. Mean population pharmacokinetic values of 0.407 L/hr/kg for clearance, 4.0 L/kg for volume of distribution, 31% for bioavailability, and 10.6 hours for half-life were determined on the basis of 569 blood cyclosporine levels. Twelve medications (sertraline, losartan, valsartan, quinine, atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, alendronate, digoxin, acyclovir, and oxycodone) with previously unconfirmed pharmacokinetic interactions with cyclosporine were identified as interacting. There was no correlation between age and interactions. Patients taking cyclosporine were at risk for pharmacokinetic drug interactions Duphaston Online Usa when cyclosporine was used in combination with sertraline, losartan, valsartan, quinine, atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, alendronate, digoxin, acyclovir, and oxycodone. Transplant patients 60-75 years of age had cyclosporine-drug interactions similar to those in younger patients.

zoloft tablets 2017-08-12

Several recent investigations reported that the serotonin 2A receptor gene (HTR2A) was associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in major depressive disorder. There have also been two reported association analyses of HTR2A with SSRI response in Japanese MDD patients, but the results were rather inconsistent and both studies had the problem of small sample sizes. Therefore, we conducted a replication association study using a sample larger than those in the two original Japanese studies (265 MDD patients), and found that four SNPs, two functional SNPs (-A1438G: rs6311 and T102C: rs6313) and two SNPs (rs7997012 and rs1928040) in HTR2A, were associated with the therapeutic response to SSRIs. HTR2A was associated with the therapeutic response SSRIs in Japanese MDD patients in a haplotype Famvir Tab 250mg -wise analysis (P(all markers) = 0.0136), and a significant association between rs1928040 in HTR2A and SSRI response was detected in MDD (P(allele-wise analysis) = 0.0252). However, this significance disappeared after Bonferroni correction (P(allele-wise analysis) = 0.101). In conclusion, we suggest that HTR2A may play an important role in the pathophysiology of the therapeutic response to SSRIs in Japanese MDD patients. However, it will be important to replicate and confirm these findings in other independent studies using large samples.

zoloft online 2017-04-27

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the comparative efficacy and tolerability of sertraline and fluoxetine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for OCD, with a Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive (Y-BOCS) total score >or= 17, an NIMH Global Obsessive-Compulsive (NIMH-OC) scale score >or= 7, and a CGI-Severity score >or= 4 were randomized to 24 weeks of double-blind treatment with sertraline (N = 77) or fluoxetine (N = 73). Primary efficacy measures consisted of the Y-BOCS, the NIMH-OC scale, and the CGI-Severity (CGI-S) and Improvement (CGI-I) scales. Equivalent and significant (p < 0.001) improvement was found at week 24 in Y-BOCS and NIMH-OC scale scores for sertraline and fluoxetine. After 12 weeks, 49.2% of patients on sertraline were rated on the CGI-S scale as being mildly ill or not ill compared to 24.6% on fluoxetine (p < 0.01). A Cox analysis found patients on sertraline to have a statistically nonsignificant 42% greater likelihood of achieving a response by week 12 (CGI-I, much or very much improved; 95% CI, 0.85, 2.38; p = 0.18). Sertraline treatment also resulted in a higher proportion of remissions than fluoxetine (defined as a CGI-I Tegretol Overdose Treatment likelihood of remission as well as an earlier improvement on some but not all efficacy measures

zoloft brand name 2015-02-12

Published case reports of glucose dysregulation associated with antidepressants were accessed through PubMed (Medline), PsycINFO, and Web of Science (WOS) between January 1, 1970 and April 30, 2010. The following key words were used: antidepressant agents, glucose dysregulation, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Case reports were excluded if glucose dysregulation occurred after a drug overdose/improper dosing or after the patient was prescribed drugs known to cause glucose disturbances in addition to antidepressant agents.

zoloft generic 2015-08-27

Recognizing akathisia is important because it can be very bothersome and may cause suicidal ideations. Akathisia can be recognized by examining symptoms, looking at predisposing factors, and using the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS). Predisposing factors include use of multiple akathisia-inducing drugs, recent increases in SSRI dose, previous development of akathisia, baseline psychiatric disorders, and brain trauma. Treatment options include the addition of a centrally acting beta-blocker, a benzodiazepine, or an anticholinergic agent.

zoloft 50mg medication 2017-07-22

Maintenance treatment for depression should be considered as a chronic disease management programme. Several studies have reported that sertraline (SRT) can be useful in preventing relapses and recurrent episodes of major depression.Twenty-three outpatients, 14 males and 9 females, affected by major depressive disorder, recurrent (DSM-IV criteria) were included. The patients were prescribed 25-150 mg of SRT for 12 months and were evaluated at baseline (T(0)), after 15 days (T(0.5)), 30 days (T(1)), 6 months (T(6)) and 12 months (T(12)) by using the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), Hamilton rating scale for anxiety (HRS-A) and Hamilton rating scale for depression (HRS-D). Plasma samples for SRT level determination were collected at T(0.5), T(1), T(6) and T(12). There was a positive relationship between SRT oral dose and drug plasma levels. Lower plasma levels, 25-50 ng/ml, were adequate for clinical maintenance treatment. Our data suggest that SRT seems to be effective and well tolerated at low dosages both in the acute and maintenance treatment of recurrent depression. Monitoring the SRT plasma level, even though not strictly necessary from a clinical point of view, can be useful in optimizing treatment.

pediatric zoloft dose 2016-08-12

Serotonin transporter (SERT) is the main target for widely used antidepressant agents. Several of these drugs, including imipramine, citalopram, sertraline, and fluoxetine (Prozac), bound more avidly to SERT in the presence of Cl(-). In contrast, Cl(-) did not enhance cocaine or paroxetine binding. A Cl(-) binding site recently identified in SERT, and shown to be important for Cl(-) dependent transport, was also critical for the Cl(-) dependence of antidepressant affinity. Mutation of the residues contributing to this site eliminated the Cl(-)-mediated affinity increase for imipramine and fluoxetine. Analysis of ligand docking to a single state of SERT indicated only small differences in the energy of interaction between bound ligands and Cl(-). These differences in interaction energy cannot account for the affinity differences observed for Cl(-) dependence. However, fluoxetine binding led to a conformational change, detected by cysteine accessibility experiments, that was qualitatively different from that induced by cocaine or other ligands. Given the known Cl(-) requirement for serotonin-induced conformational changes, we propose that Cl(-) binding facilitates conformational changes required for optimal binding of fluoxetine and other antidepressant drugs.

zoloft lethal dose 2016-09-24

In the past 15 years, antidepressant use in adults has increased, mainly due to a rise in SSRI-use. The question is if this is true for older adults as well.

zoloft maximum dosage 2016-02-06

SSRIs were associated with a modest but statistically significant increase in the QTc interval, although to a lesser extent than TCAs; this finding was not limited to any single study. Citalopram was associated with more QTc prolongation than most other SSRIs.

zoloft generic dosage 2017-12-02

Caregiver depression and burden affect their rating of AD patients' mood, but the majority of variance is due to patient characteristics.

zoloft mg 2016-08-19

Due to these limitations, more specific assessment tools for depressive symptoms in schizophrenia are required. Two specific scales for assessing depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients have been constructed and validated. The Calgary Depression Scale (CDS) is a nine item scale, each item scored from 0 to 3. This scale was derived from the HDRS and the Present State Examination. Factor analysis showed that the CDS is unidimensional, has high internal consistency, and significant strong correlation with scores on the HDRS, Beck and BPRS depression scales. The CDS has been validated in different languages (Brazilian, Danish, French...). It has been shown that there is no overlap between negative or extrapyramidal and depressive symptoms assessed by the PDS in schizophrenic patients. The Psychotic Depression Scale (PDS) is a 32 item scale derived from the HDRS, PANSS, CPRS and AMDP, each item being rated from 0 to 7. A principal component analysis of the PDS items using a Varimax rotation disclosed 8 orthogonal components that account for 71% of the variance. These components involved the following dimensions : depressive mood, inhibition, vegetative signs, paranoid signs, strangeness of thought, inverse vegetative signs, guilt feelings and cognitive signs. The analysis revealed that the 'depressive mood' factor of the PDS was correlated with the 'depressive' factor and was slightly correlated with the cognitive factor of the PANSS. This first factor was not correlated with either the "negative" factor of the PANSS, or the Positive or Excitement factor of the PANSS. Hence, this PDS, factor distinguished depressive signs from negative symptoms. Due to their metrologic properties, specific scales should be preferred. However, only one open trial (of an antipsychotic) and two double blind controlled trials (one comparison of 2 antipsychotics and one comparison of an cholinesterase inhibitor versus placebo) have been published using the CDS. Likewise, only one double blind controlled trial using the PDS (comparison of 2 antipsychotics) has been published. No study of the effect of antidepressants in depressed schizophrenic patients has been published, using either the CDS or the PDS assessment criteria.

zoloft 750 mg 2016-07-02

Reports of bupropion misuse have increased since it was first reported in 2002. The purpose of this study was to explore trends in bupropion prescribing suggestive of misuse or diversion in Ontario, Canada.

drug zoloft 2015-10-03

A total of 194 studies were found that were eligible for inclusion in our analysis. Of these, 177 focused on the treatment of MDD and 17 on the treatment of dysthymic disorder. We found that antidepressant therapy was significantly more effective than placebo in dysthymic disorder (risk ratio = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.49-2.04; P < .0001), while placebo response rates in dysthymic disorder trials were significantly lower compared to MDD trials (29.9% vs 37.9%, respectively; P = .042). Meta-regression suggested a statistically significant difference in the risk ratio of responding to antidepressants versus placebo when comparing studies either on dysthymic disorder or on MDD, suggesting a greater risk ratio for response in favor of antidepressant therapy versus placebo in patients with dysthymic disorder versus MDD (coefficient of -0.113; P = .007).