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Results document positive clinical outcomes of the selected nutriceutical associated with conventional protocols in the management of relapsing mucocutaneous human papillomavirus and herpes infections.
Province of Quebec with a population of 6,895,960 people.
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Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis can cause transient immune deficiency which may predispose to reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the immunocompetent host. We report the case of a 15-year-old male who presented with severe odynophagia and herpes labialis during the course of Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis that had been diagnosed ten days before. Esophagoscopy revealed extensive ulcerations with distinct borders and whitish exudates at the mid and distal esophagus. Polymerase chain reaction detected HSV-1 DNA in the biopsy specimens. The patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir. The symptoms resolved rapidly within 3 days, in accordance with improved endoscopic findings.
Female workers at recreational facilities in northwestern Tanzania who were 16 to 35 years of age were interviewed and underwent serologic testing for HIV and HSV-2. We enrolled female workers who were HIV-seronegative and HSV-2-seropositive in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of suppressive treatment with acyclovir (400 mg twice daily). Participants attended mobile clinics every 3 months for a follow-up period of 12 to 30 months, depending on enrollment date. The primary outcome was the incidence of infection with HIV. We used a modified intention-to-treat analysis; data for participants who became pregnant were censored. Adherence to treatment was estimated by a tablet count at each visit.
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Patients following penetrating keratoplasty due to herpetic eye disease have been treated with MMF 1 g twice dialy and acyclovir 5 x 200 mg/day for one year. Primary efficacy variables have been the number of acute AR and recurrence of herpetic disease per patient and time. The number of adverse events has been documented for safety analysis.
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In 1983, varicella zoster virus (VZV) disease was first recognized in the context of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since that time, there have been many reports discussing the occurrence and clinical manifestations of hepes zoster in HIV-infected patients. We describe the development of prolonged herpes zoster in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) over the course of 104 days. Viral isolates at the three different clinical stages of the skin lesions were sensitive in vitro to acyclovir, and supposed to be a same strain by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. We also discuss an effective treatment for prolonged cases of zoster.
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Viral infections, especially cytomegalovirus (CMV), are a leading cause of early death and morbidity after heart transplantation. Several strategies have been used to minimize the risk, including universal prophylaxis with ganciclovir or valganciclovir and preemptive therapy. Lately, everolimus (EVE) efficacy studies have shown a protective effect against CMV infection.
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Herpes zoster (HZ) presents as a cutaneous vesicular eruption in the area innervated by the affected sensory nerve, usually associated with severe pain. Oral manifestations of HZ appear when the mandibular or maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve are affected.
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Excess inflammation in eyes with immune recovery vitritis syndrome may trigger a foreign body reaction that results in a delayed extrusion of primary ganciclovir implants. The site of ganciclovir implants in patients with immune recovery vitritis syndrome should be regularly inspected for eroding struts to prevent secondary endophthalmitis.
The neuroepithelial body (NEB) is a highly dynamic structure that responds to chronic airway injury through hyperplasia of associated pulmonary neuroendocrine (PNE) cells. Although NEB dysplasia is correlated with preneoplastic conditions and PNE cells are thought to serve as a precursor for development of small cell lung carcinoma, mechanisms regulating expansion of the PNE cell population are not well understood. Based on studies performed in animal models, it has been suggested that NEB-associated progenitor cells that are phenotypically distinct from PNE cells contribute to PNE cell hyperplasia. We have previously used a Clara cell-specific toxicant, naphthalene, to induce airway injury in mice and have demonstrated that naphthalene-resistant Clara cells, characterized by their expression of Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP), and PNE cells contribute to airway repair and associated hyperplasia of NEBs. This study was conducted to define the contribution of NEB-associated CCSP-expressing progenitor cells to PNE cell hyperplasia after Clara cell ablation. Transgenic (CCtk) mice were generated in which herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase was expressed within all CCSP-expressing cells of the conducting airway epithelium through the use of transcriptional regulatory elements from the mouse CCSP promoter. Chronic administration of ganciclovir (GCV) to CCtk transgenic mice resulted in selective ablation of CCSP-expressing cells within conducting airways. Proliferation and hyperplasia of PNE cells occurred in the absence of detectable proliferation among any other residual airway epithelial cell populations. These results demonstrate that PNE cells function as a self-renewing progenitor population and that NEB-associated Clara cells are not necessary for PNE cell hyperplasia.
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When compared with historical data on the ocular complications of smallpox vaccination, the incidence of ocular complications during the DoD Smallpox Vaccination program has been low. In addition, the severity of disease seems to be less than during other vaccination periods. These findings perhaps are the result of improved screening of vaccinees, prevaccination counseling, postvaccination wound care, and the suggested efficacy of trifluridine in the treatment of ocular vaccinia.
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Twenty-seven CMV seropositive adults due to receive a heart transplant were included in a single-center, randomized, double-blind study. Patients were randomized to receive either oral valacyclovir 2000 mg or oral acyclovir 200 mg four times daily starting within 3 days of heart transplant and continuing for 90 days. The primary outcome measure was time to development of CMV antigenemia assessed for 6 months after surgery. Other measures were time to asymptomatic CMV infection, symptomatic CMV infections, and end-organ CMV disease. Patients were monitored for other herpes infections, other opportunistic infections, and acute graft rejection. Safety was assessed by evaluating changes in hematology and clinical chemistry parameters and by the occurrence of adverse events.
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Retrospective chart review and laboratory-based experimental study.
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Implemented measures were effective to prevent secondary cases. Among healthy and immunocompromised children, prophylaxis with acyclovir was effective and well-tolerated.
Types of complications and reason for hospitalization, risk of complications and calculation of associated costs were studied.
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Reviewing records, treatment and course of zoster eruptions were registered in a cohort of 67 children with newly diagnosed ALL. Of these, 45 had had varicella at the time of diagnosis and 15 contracted varicella or were vaccinated during the course of therapy.
We discovered 232 cases of extravasation involving 37 agents (in order of frequency): phenytoin, parenteral nutrition, calcium gluconate, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, dopamine, dextrose solutions, epinephrine, sodium bicarbonate, nafcillin, propofol, norepinephrine, mannitol, arginine, promethazine, vancomycin, tetracycline, dobutamine, vasopressin, sodium thiopental, acyclovir, amphotericin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, gentamicin, metronidazole, oxacillin, penicillin, amiodarone, albumin, furosemide, lipids, lorazepam, immunoglobulin, morphine, and sodium valproate. Potential properties contributing to extravasation include the following: pH, osmolarity, diluent, vasoactive properties, and inactive ingredients. Antidotes and supportive care agents used in the management of these cases of extravasation include hyaluronidase, phentolamine, terbutaline, topical anesthetics (such as lidocaine and prilocaine cream), topical antimicrobials (such as silver sulfadiazine and chlorhexidine), topical debridement agents (collagenase ointment), topical steroids, and topical vasodilators (nitroglycerin).
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Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is rapidly evolving, with emerging new drugs. Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody recognizing CD52 antigen approved in the treatment of relapsing-refractory CLL. A frequent side effect is the immunosuppression and patients treated with alemtuzumab risk to develop fungal infections such as aspergillosis.
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We evaluated whether acyclovir suppression during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition reduces HIV-1 set point, increases CD4 cell counts, and selects reverse-transcriptase mutations among 76 HIV-1 seroconverters identified in a placebo-controlled trial of twice-daily acyclovir (400 mg) for the prevention of HIV acquisition in herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-seropositive persons (HIV Prevention Trials Network study 039). We found no significant difference in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P =.30) or CD4 cell counts (P =.85) between the acyclovir and placebo recipients. V75I and other mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase reported from in vitro acyclovir studies were not observed. In conclusion, acyclovir suppression during HIV-1 seroconversion and the subsequent 6 months does not affect HIV-1 set point.
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Some clinicians claim a spontaneous complete recovery of facial nerve function after Bell's palsy in more than 80% of patients. However, for elderly patients and patients with a severe paresis/paralysis this is not the case. The main cause of Bell's palsy is probably reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Recent literature supports treatment with corticosteroids and antiviral medication, inhibiting viral replication and reducing oedema in the bony canal of the facial nerve. Using this medication in the first days of the disease provides a further 15% of patients with a good outcome in addition to the ones that improve spontaneously. Therefore, prednisone and valacyclovir are recommended for all patients with Bell's palsy and severe dysfunction, i.e. House-Brackmann facial grading scale IV, V and VI.
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The survival of nude mice treated with the replication-defective adenoviral vector Ad.TK was enhanced when followed by GCV. In contrast, administration of GCV diminished the anti-tumor efficacy of the replication-competent HSV-tk expressing vectors. However, the intrinsic oncolytic effect of all replication-competent viruses was superior to that of Ad.TK+GCV. Furthermore, the oncolysis of the E1B 55-kDa-positive viruses was significantly greater than that of the E1B 55-kDa-deleted vector.
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The objective of this study was to synthesize and evaluate novel enzymatically stable dipeptide prodrugs for improved absorption of acyclovir. l-Valine-l-valine-acyclovir (LLACV), l-valine-d-valine-acyclovir (LDACV), d-valine-l-valine-acyclovir (DLACV) and d-valine-d-valine-acyclovir (DDACV) were successfully synthesized. The uptake and transport studies were conducted on a Caco-2 cell line. Buffer stability and metabolism of the prodrugs in Caco-2, rat intestine and liver homogenates were studied. Structure and purity of the all compounds were confirmed with LC-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Uptake and transport of [(3)H] glycylsarcosine was inhibited by all prodrugs except DDACV. DLACV and DDACV exhibited no measurable degradation in Caco-2 homogenate. Except DDACV other three prodrugs were hydrolyzed in rat intestine and liver homogenates. The order of permeability across Caco-2 was LDACV>LLACV>DDACV>DLACV. A linear correlation between the amount of prodrug transported and over all permeability of acyclovir was established. This study shows that the incorporation of one d-valine in a dipeptide did not abolish its affinity towards peptide transporters (PEPT). Moreover, it enhanced enzymatic stability of prodrug to a certain extent depending on the position in a dipeptide conjugate. This strategy improved both the cellular permeability and the amount of intact prodrug transported which would enable targeting the nutrient transporters at blood ocular barrier (BOB).
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This report shows that adherence to isolation precautions, exclusion of susceptible staff from attending the affected patient, education, pre-employment anti-VZV-IgG screening and vaccine coverage of staff could have prevented the occurrence of this outbreak.
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This review found support for the use of systemic acyclovir and valacyclovir for the prevention of RHL. However, the findings from this review should be interpreted with caution, because the methodologic assessment of the quality of the included studies showed an unclear risk of bias in five out of the ten included papers, and a high risk of bias in four studies.
Recent outbreaks of equine herpes virus type-1 infections have stimulated renewed interest in the use of effective antiherpetic drugs in horses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of valacyclovir (VCV), the prodrug of acyclovir (ACV), in horses. Six adult horses were used in a randomized cross-over design. Treatments consisted of 10 mg/kg ACV infused intravenously, 5 g (7.7-11.7 mg/kg) VCV delivered intragastrically (IG) and 15 g (22.7-34.1 mg/kg) VCV administered IG. Serum samples were obtained at predetermined times for acyclovir assay using high-performance liquid chromatography. Following the administration of 5 g VCV, the mean observed maximum serum ACV concentration (C(max)) was 1.45 +/- 0.38 (SD) microg/mL, at 0.74 +/- 0.43 h. At a dose of 15 g VCV, the mean C(max) was 5.26 +/- 2.82 microg/mL, at 1 +/- 0.27 h. The mean bioavailability of ACV from oral VCV was 60 +/- 12% after 5 g of VCV and 48 +/- 12% after 15 g VCV, and did not differ significantly between dose rates (P > 0.05). Superposition suggested that a loading dose of 27 mg/kg VCV every 8 h for 2 days, followed by a maintenance dose of 18 mg/kg every 12 h, will maintain effective serum ACV concentrations.
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Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) pneumonitis remains an often-fatal complication of VZV infection. Antiviral agents and supportive care are widely accepted therapies. Cautious use of corticosteroids in life-threatening VZV pneumonitis may be justified. Appropriate patient selection factors are as yet unidentified and the decision to commence corticosteroid therapy in this setting is clinical.
A 6-year-old boy who had been in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia for 2.5 years presented with seizures, hemiparesis, visual loss, and white- and gray-matter lesions on cranial magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy was established on the detection of JC virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction in brain tissue. The patient was administered several anticonvulsants, amantadine, acyclovir, and ganciclovir. He showed partial recovery. This case illustrates the possibility of long-term survival in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with normal immunologic parameters.
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From 2001 to 2010, 48 patients had SLE related PLE and their clinical characteristics were: age 40.8 ± 14.3 years, male-to-female ratio 1:8.6, mean symptom duration 4.3 ± 3.4 weeks, initial presentation and concomitant activity of SLE in 21(43.8%) and 37 (77.1%) patients, <20% patients developed gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, mean serum albumin level 24.4 ± 5 g/L. Thirty (62.5%) patients had diffuse non-erosive erythematous GI mucosa with chronic inflammatory cells in lamina propria. Protein leakage was at the small bowel in 15 (31.3%) patients, terminal ileum/caecum in 16 (33.3%) patients and ascending colon in 11 (22.9%) patients. Thirty (62.5%) patients responded initially well to a combination of prednisolone and azathioprine (AZA) and 33 (68.8%) patients were maintained well by the above therapy. Higher potent induction and maintenance therapy were required in patients with: proteinuria (p < 0.01), history of previous immunosuppressive therapy (p < 0.02) and requirement of higher potent induction therapy (p < 0.01). PLE as initial SLE presentation was associated with better prognosis. Four reversible adverse events were reported: one had AZA-induced pancreatitis, two developed AZA-induced hypoplastic anemia and one developed steroid psychosis. One patient developed shingles in the fourth month and responded to oral acyclovir. No thromboembolic events were reported and one patient died of SLE nephropathy.