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Solar urticaria may sometimes have a deleterious effect on normal daily life. Severe cases are characterized by a whealing reaction after minimal sun exposure, even on regularly exposed skin. Antihistamines can provide some symptom relief in many patients, but high doses are required. If antihistamines are ineffective, PUVA therapy is indicated. Pre-PUVA UVA desensitization is often necessary. However, exposure to UVA alone has to be repeated every 24 to 48 hours to maintain the refractory state. The advantage of PUVA therapy is a more long lasting protection allowing weekly maintenance sessions.
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Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial conducted during the 1999 spring SAR season at 19 centers in the US. Following a 1-week placebo run-in period, qualified patients were randomized to cetirizine 10 mg, or placebo once daily for a 2-week treatment period. Change in Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) and Total Symptom Severity Complex (TSSC) scores from baseline were the primary outcomes of interest.
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This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study enrolled adults aged 18 to 65 years with SAR symptoms in the spring in the US. After a single-blind placebo run-in period, subjects received levocetirizine 5 mg or placebo once daily over 14 days. ClinicalTrials.gov registry no.: NCT00621959.
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Japanese cedar pollinosis, a common disease with morbidity of approximately 20% in the Japanese population, is characterized by subjectively irritating symptoms during an annual 3-month period.
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The crude aqueous extracts showed the possibilities to present caffeine and cetirizine or its derivatives like molecules. On the other hand, the crude methanolic extract may contain Loratadine or its derivatives like molecules. Both type of extracts showed hemagglutination inhibition activities in all types of human blood samples tested. However, they showed stronger binding with AB+ blood group than those of A+ and B+ blood.
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The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of azelastine nasal spray administered at the recommended dosage of 2 sprays per nostril twice daily with those of cetirizine in the treatment of moderate to severe SAR.
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Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) might be refractory to standard therapies. For the patients with severe unremitting CIU who have failed to benefit from conventional therapy with antihistamines, other effective and safe therapeutic modalities are required.
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Levocetirizine and desloratadine are mostly used as H1-antihistamines in the treatment of allergic disease in 5 and 10 mg doses.
All treatments yielded significant reductions of histamine-induced wheal in comparison to placebo (P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance revealed significant differences between treatments (P < 0.05). Ebastine had a significantly greater antihistaminic effect than did cetirizine or loratadine, except at 4 hours after a single dose versus cetirizine. Further, the effect of cetirizine was similar with single or multiple doses after both 4 and 24 hours, whereas the effect of ebastine showed significant increases in wheal reduction with multiple doses (P < 0.05). No serious adverse events or withdrawals occurred during the study.
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Eosinophilic cystitis is an inflammatory condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of whole layers of the bladder wall. The condition occurs more commonly in adults. We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis mimicking a bladder tumor in a 5-year-old boy with symptoms of dysuria and urinary incontinence. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and he underwent clinical treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and antihistamine (cetirizine). The symptoms fully resolved in follow up, which is continuing. Although very rare, eosinophilic cystitis should be considered in cases of dysuria and increased bladder wall thickness but no identified urinary tract infection.
The aim of this case report was to describe the use of anagrelide in a patient with ET and renal impairment.
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The histaminergic neurotransmitter system is currently under investigation as a target for drug treatment of cognitive deficits in clinical disorders. The therapeutic potential of new drugs may initially be screened using a model of histaminergic dysfunction, for example, as associated with the use of centrally active antihistamines. Of the selective second generation antihistamines, cetirizine has been found to have central nervous system effects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cetirizine can be used as a tool to model cognitive deficits associated with histaminergic hypofunction.
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To date, no adequate data are available on direct comparison of the efficacy of levocetirizine, a recently approved histamine1-antihistamine, with that of a leukotriene antagonist in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) symptoms.
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Improvement in patient daily functioning and well-being resulting from disease-related symptom relief is increasingly viewed as a clinically relevant therapeutic outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQL) effects, safety and efficacy of cetirizine in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, and impact on self-reported work/school-related productivity and activity impairment (WPAI). This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Adult patients (n = 865) were randomized to daily treatment for 2 weeks with cetirizine or placebo. Patient disease-specific HRQL and WPAI were assessed at baseline and weeks 1 and 2 of treatment using the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) and Allergy-Specific Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI-AS) Instrument, respectively. Treatment with cetirizine resulted in greater (p < 0.001) improvement in overall RQLQ and individual domain scores (activities, sleep, non-nose/eye symptoms, practical problems, nasal symptoms, eye symptoms, emotional), as compared with placebo. Cetirizine therapy produced a 28.9% mean reduction in total symptom severity complex (TSSC) score versus 12.7% with placebo at study end. Work/school productivity and activity impairment were significantly (p < 0.001) decreased from baseline for cetirizine-treated patients compared with placebo. The incidence of treatment-related side effects was similar between groups. Cetirizine provides safe and effective symptomatic relief in adults with SAR while significantly improving HRQL and providing a positive impact on work/school-related productivity and activity impairment. These results provide a more comprehensive assessment of cetirizine, indicating that its benefits extend beyond conventional measures of clinical outcome.
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One hundred patients aged 12-50 years (mean+/-SD 31.8+/-9.6) with a history of moderate to severe Parietaria pollen-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis were selected. A randomized, double-blind, double dummy, placebo (PLA)-controlled, parallel-group study design was used. Patients were treated FPANS 200 microg once daily (n=20) or with FPANS 200 microg once daily, plus CTZ (10 mg) in the morning (n=20), or with FPANS 200 microg once daily, plus MSK (10 mg) in the evening (n=20) or with CTZ (10 mg) in the morning plus MSK in the evening (n=20) or matched PLA (n=20). Assessment of efficacy was based on scores of daily nasal symptoms and on eosinophil counts and ECP in nasal lavage.
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Some second-generation antihistamines are associated with signal of torsadogenicity and largely used in most European countries. Although confirmation by analytical studies is required, regulators and clinicians should consider risk-minimisation activities. Also antihistamines without signal but with peculiar use in a few Countries (e.g., levocetirizine) or with increasing consumption (e.g., rupatadine) deserve careful surveillance.
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The pharmacokinetics of the H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine were studied from 0 to 48 h after a single oral intake of 10 mg in 10 elderly volunteers (60 to 90 years) and in 10 young healthy volunteers (21 to 29 years). In young healthy volunteers about 60% of an oral dose of cetirizine was excreted in the urine in unchanged form. Mean plasma concentrations were slightly higher in the elderly subjects. Cmax (362 ng/ml), Tmax (1.30 h), terminal half-life (11.8 h) and AUC infinity (4316 ng.h/ml) in the elderly subjects were somewhat higher than in the young subjects (Cmax: 337 ng/ml, Tmax: 1.12 h, terminal half-life: 10.6 h, AUC: 3721 ng.h/ml), but the difference was not significant. The mean cumulative urinary excretion at 32 h was significantly lower in the elderly subjects. It is concluded that the slight differences in pharmacokinetics of cetirizine between young and elderly subjects after single oral intake can be attributed to the decreased renal clearance in the elderly.
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Tobacco use and secondhand tobacco-smoke (SHS) exposure are major national and international health concerns. Pediatricians and other clinicians who care for children are uniquely positioned to assist patients and families with tobacco-use prevention and treatment. Understanding the nature and extent of tobacco use and SHS exposure is an essential first step toward the goal of eliminating tobacco use and its consequences in the pediatric population. The next steps include counseling patients and family members to avoid SHS exposures or cease tobacco use; advocacy for policies that protect children from SHS exposure; and elimination of tobacco use in the media, public places, and homes. Three overarching principles of this policy can be identified: (1) there is no safe way to use tobacco; (2) there is no safe level or duration of exposure to SHS; and (3) the financial and political power of individuals, organizations, and government should be used to support tobacco control. Pediatricians are advised not to smoke or use tobacco; to make their homes, cars, and workplaces tobacco free; to consider tobacco control when making personal and professional decisions; to support and advocate for comprehensive tobacco control; and to advise parents and patients not to start using tobacco or to quit if they are already using tobacco. Prohibiting both tobacco advertising and the use of tobacco products in the media is recommended. Recommendations for eliminating SHS exposure and reducing tobacco use include attaining universal (1) smoke-free home, car, school, work, and play environments, both inside and outside, (2) treatment of tobacco use and dependence through employer, insurance, state, and federal supports, (3) implementation and enforcement of evidence-based tobacco-control measures in local, state, national, and international jurisdictions, and (4) financial and systems support for training in and research of effective ways to prevent and treat tobacco use and SHS exposure. Pediatricians, their staff and colleagues, and the American Academy of Pediatrics have key responsibilities in tobacco control to promote the health of children, adolescents, and young adults.
All active treatments showed wheal suppression superior to placebo after 210 min for loratadine (P = 0.04); 90 min for fexofenadine (P = 0.009); and 60 min for cetirizine (P = 0.02), while flare suppression was significantly marked after 150 min (P = 0.0008) for loratadine; 90 min for fexofenadine (P = 0.0001), and 60 min for cetirizine (P = 0.006). All drugs except loratadine demonstrated a 95% suppression of wheal superior to the placebo (P = 0.001 for fexofenadine; P = 0.0001 for cetirizine). Only fexofenadine exhibited a 95% suppression of flare statistically superior to placebo (P = 0.02). Discrepancies among the effects of these 3 antihistamines were also detected.
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Antiallergic drugs have various actions against allergy-associated cells and molecules as well as antihistamic properties. We studied the effects of antiallergics on the serum levels of substance P. Patients with atopic dermatitis were treated with one of four oral H1-antagonists for 14 days, and the serum level of substance P was measured before and after treatment in parallel with several atopic severity markers. Olopatadine significantly decreased the substance P level. This is in accordance with its known downmodulatory effect on tachykinin release. In contrast, cetiridine and fexofenadine unexpectedly increased the substance P level. In patients administered cetiridine, the blood severity markers for atopic dermatitis, including lactate dehydrogenase, eosinophil number, and the soluble forms of IL-2R, E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were reduced after the treatment. Therefore, the elevation of SP was unrelated to the deterioration of atopic dermatitis but rather associated with improvement. Our study suggests that antiallergics can be divided into substance P-increasing and -decreasing types and raises the possibility that the increment of substance P by the former type is caused by the competitive occupation of substance P receptors.
To review the cutaneous adverse events related to EGFR inhibitors.
Ninety-eight patients were recruited from September 2012 to September 2013. Majority were male, Chinese with median age 4 years 7 months. A third of patients with CSU had a family history of acute urticaria. Ten point two percent had previously resolved CSU, 25.5% had associated angioedema, and 53.1% had a history of atopy. A total of 96.9% of patients achieved control of symptoms, of which 91.8% achieved control with cetirizine. Fifty percent of all the patients were controlled on step 2 or higher. Forty-seven point eight percent of those on step 2 or higher were between 2 to 6 years of age compared to 32.6% and 19.6% who were 6 years and older and lesser than 2 years of age respectively. Eighty percent of those with previously resolved CSU required an increase to step 2 and above to achieve chronic urticaria control.
In the randomized, double-masked, parallel-group Early Prevention of Asthma in Atopic Children Study, children with atopic dermatitis aged 12 to 24 months at enrollment received levocetirizine, 0.125 mg/kg, or matching placebo twice daily for 18 months. On a diary card, the child's caregiver recorded the days on which urticaria was observed. This was validated by the study investigator and entered into the electronic case report form, along with any additional relevant information.
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The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) voltage-gated K(+) channels are located in heart cell membranes and hold a unique selectivity filter (SF) amino acid sequence (SVGFG) as compared to other K(+) channels (TVGYG). The hERG provokes the acquired long QT syndrome (ALQTS) when blocked, as a side effect of drugs, leading to arrhythmia or heart failure. Its pore domain - including the SF - is believed to be a cardiotoxic drug target. In this study combining solution and solid-state NMR experiments we examine the structure and function of hERG's L(622)-K(638) segment which comprises the SF, as well as its role in the ALQTS using reported active drugs. We first show that the SF segment is unstructured in solution with and without K(+) ions in its surroundings, consistent with the expected flexibility required for the change between the different channel conductive states predicted by computational studies. We also show that the SF segment has the potential to perturb the membrane, but that the presence of K(+) ions cancels this interaction. The SF moiety appears to be a possible target for promethazine in the ALQTS mechanism, but not as much for bepridil, cetirizine, diphenhydramine and fluvoxamine. The membrane affinity of the SF is also affected by the presence of drugs which also perturb model DMPC-based membranes. These results thus suggest that the membrane could play a role in the ALQTS by promoting the access to transmembrane or intracellular targets on the hERG channel, or perturbing the lipid-protein synergy.